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1.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 170: 103579, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007699

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have led to a significant change in the treatment of urological tumors where several agents are currently approved. Yet, most patients discontinue treatment due to disease progression or after the onset of severe immune-related adverse events (IRAEs). Following promising results in melanoma patients, retreatment with an ICI is receiving increasing attention as an attractive option for selected patients. We performed a literature review focusing on the feasibility, safety, timing and activity of ICI rechallenge in genitourinary cancers where very little information is available. We classified the different ICI retreatment strategies into three main clinical scenarios: retreatment after terminating a prior course of ICI while still on response; retreatment after interruption due to IRAEs; retreatment after progression while on ICI therapy. The pros and cons of these options in the field of urological tumors are then discussed, and critical suggestions proffered for the design of future clinical trials.

2.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; : 103568, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the choice of second line, standard vs high dose chemotherapy, (SDCT, HDCT) for patients with relapsed germ cell tumors (GCTs) comes mainly from retrospective studies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: relevant literature was reviewed, considering as endpoints both survival and long term quality of life (QoL). Patients with metastatic GCT progressing after first-line treatment at our Institution were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: HDCT seems to achieve a higher rate of long-term remissions. QoL data for this group of patients are lacking. Our experience on 29 patients was in line with these results. Two-year OS for the 18 patients treated with one or two HDCT/PBSCT procedures was 47.5%, while 2-year PFS was 44%. For the 11 receiving SDCT 2-year OS was 36.4%, and 2-year PFS was 32.7%. CONCLUSIONS: HDCT/PBSCT confirmed to be effective in treating patients with relapsed GCT, but prospective studies are needed.

3.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211019642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046089

RESUMO

Background: Despite the survival advantage, not all metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients achieve a long-term benefit from immunotherapy. Moreover, the identification of prognostic biomarkers is still an unmet clinical need. Methods: This multicenter retrospective study investigated the prognostic role of peripheral-blood inflammatory indices and clinical factors to develop a novel prognostic score in mRCC patients receiving at least second-line nivolumab. The complete blood count before the first cycle of therapy was assessed by calculating neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic inflammation index (SII), and systemic inflammation response index (SIRI). Clinical factors included pre-treatment International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) score, line of therapy, and metastatic sites. Results: From October 2015 to November 2019, 571 mRCC patients received nivolumab as second- and further-line treatment in 69% and 31% of cases. In univariable and multivariable analyses all inflammatory indices, IMDC score, and bone metastases significantly correlated with overall survival (OS). The multivariable model with NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had the highest c-index (0.697) and was chosen for the developing of the score (Schneeweiss scoring system). After internal validation (bootstrap re-sampling), the final index (Meet-URO score) composed by NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had a c-index of 0.691. It identified five categories with distinctive OSs: group 1 (median OS - mOS = not reached), group 2 (mOS = 43.9 months), group 3 (mOS = 22.4 months), group 4 (mOS = 10.3 months), and group 5 (mOS = 3.2 months). Moreover, the Meet-URO score allowed for a fine risk-stratification across all three IMDC groups. Conclusion: The Meet-URO score allowed for the accurate stratification of pretreated mRCC patients receiving nivolumab and is easily applicable for clinical practice at no additional cost. Future steps include its external validation, the assessment of its predictivity, and its application to first-line combinations.

4.
Front Oncol ; 11: 626104, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796462

RESUMO

Androgen Receptor-Targeted Agents (ARTA) have dramatically changed the therapeutic landscape of metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC), but 20-40% of these patients progress early after start of ARTA treatment. The present study investigated the potential utility of plasma cell-free microRNAs (cfmiRNAs) as prognostic markers by analyzing a prospective cohort of 31 mCRCP patients treated with abiraterone (N = 10) or enzalutamide (N = 21). Additional potential prognostic factors were extracted from clinical records and outcome was evaluated as overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). cfmiRNAs were measured in plasma samples using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Linear correlation among clinical factors and cfmiRNAs was assessed using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The association with survival was studied using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Continuous variables were dichotomized with the cut points corresponding to the most significant relation with the outcome. Univariate analysis indicated that plasma levels of miR-21-5p, miR-141-3p and miR-223-3p, time to development of castration-resistance (tCRPC), and blood hemoglobin (Hb) levels strongly correlated with both PFS and OS. Multivariate analysis revealed that low plasma levels of miR-21, shorter tCRPC, and lower Hb values were independent factors predicting reduced PFS and OS. These findings suggest that the integrated analysis of cfmiRNAs, tCRPC, and Hb may provide a promising, non-invasive tool for the prognostic stratification of mCRPC patients treated with ARTA.

5.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 12(2): 290-297, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is poor data on the prognostic role of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) in older patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with first line Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of mRCC patients older than 70 years treated at our Institute with first-line Sunitinib or Pazopanib for at least 6 months. Every patient received a CGA at baseline and was identified as fit, vulnerable or frail according to Balducci's Criteria. We then assessed the impact of CGA category on survival, disease control and tolerability of TKIs. RESULTS: We identified 86 eligible patients. Median age: 74.5 years, 56% males; 45.4% were fit, 37.2% vulnerable and 17.4% frail at CGA. There were no significant differences in the rate of Grade (G)1-2 and G3-4 toxicities, dose reduction rates, PFS and OS between Sunitinib and Pazopanib. Fit, vulnerable and frail patients achieved significantly different median PFS (18.9 vs 11.2 vs 5.1 months; p < 0.001) and OS (35.5 vs 14.6 vs 10.9 months; p < 0.001). Patients categorized as fit had higher chance of receiving a second-line treatment (66.6% vs 28.9% in vulnerable/frail; p = 0.002). The incidence of G3/4 events was significantly lower in the fit subgroup (19% vs 45% in vulnerable/frail; p = 0.0025). CONCLUSIONS: In our retrospective single-center experience, CGA could accurately discriminate patients with higher risk of experiencing G3/4 toxicities, shorter PFS, and lower chance of receiving a second line treatment. CGA strongly impacted on OS, independently from International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) classification.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Indazóis , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Prognóstico , Pirimidinas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sulfonamidas , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Anticancer Drugs ; 32(2): 222-225, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868643

RESUMO

In the past few years, the immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) nivolumab has become standard of care in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) progressing after antiangiogenic agents. To date, neither expression of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) nor any other biomarker can be used to predict responses to ICIs, although intermediate-poor International Metastatic Database of Renal Carcinoma (IMDC) risk patients and those with sarcomatoid tumors appear to achieve superior benefit from immunotherapy. Paradoxically, ICIs may sometimes increase the speed of tumor growth. This rare phenomenon, called hyperprogression, has first been described in patients with melanoma and lung cancer treated with ICIs and is associated with poor survival. Here, we present the case of a patient affected by an intermediate IMDC risk mRCC with diffuse sarcomatoid features who achieved long disease control with first-line sunitinib and then started a second-line treatment with nivolumab. Unexpectedly, he experienced a dramatic acceleration of tumor growth and died soon after the third infusion of nivolumab. Then, we review the frequency of hyperprogression in mRCC and discuss the biological peculiarity of sarcomatoid RCC in terms of different responses to ICIs and antiangiogenic agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considerable numbers of patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) develop bone metastases (BoM). Their impact on the efficacy of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is not yet investigated. METHODS: Between July 2014 and August 2020 data on pts treated with single-agent ICIs after failure of at least 1 previous line of chemotherapy for advanced disease, were retrospectively collected across 14 Italian centers. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analysis was performed evaluating potential prognostic factors for OS and PFS. Each factor was evaluated in univariable (UVA) and multivariable analysis (MVA). RESULTS: A total of 208 evaluable patients treated with ICIs were identified, including 122 (59%) without BoM (BoM-) and 86 (41%) with bone metastases (BoM+). After a median follow-up of 22.3 months, BoM+ patients showed shorter OS (median 3.9 vs 7.8 months, HR 1.59 [95%CI, 1.15-2.20], P = .005) and shorter PFS (median 2.0 vs 2.6 months, HR 1.76 [95%CI, 1.31-2.37], P < .001). Probability of being alive was 62% vs 40% after 6 months, 38% vs 23% after 1 year and 24% vs 13% after 2 years, in BoM- and BoM+ respectively. Within each Bellmunt score, OS and PFS of BoM+ patients were shorter. Both presence of BoM and higher Bellmunt risk score were significantly associated with shorter OS and PFS in UVA and MVA. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with single-agent ICIs for BoM+ mUC have a dismal prognosis compared to BoM-. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism behind these outcomes.

8.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 23(4): 654-660, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer-related pain, usually associated with bone metastases, is a frequent and debilitating morbidity in patients with prostate cancer. To date there are only limited data regarding the prognostic role of pain in men with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC). The objective of our analysis was to assess if the presence of pain can be considered an independent prognostic factor in mCSPC patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with mCSPC referring to six oncology centers in Italy. Clinical and pathological features were recorded. Patients were considered to have pain if this was reported within the patient's file or in case of a chronic analgesic therapy was found among the concomitant medications. Survivals were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and compared across groups using the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazard models, stratified according to the baseline characteristics, were used to estimate hazard ratios for overall survival (OS). All the variables were significant if p < 0.05. RESULTS: Data about pain were available for 365 cases and pain was present in 34.8% of patients. Pain was mainly associated with high value of prostate-specific antigen, metastatic bone extension regardless of the site, and lymph node involvement. mCSPC patients with pain had in most of the cases high-volume or Hr disease, and significant shorter OS (27.0 vs. 58.2 months, p < 0.001) and PFS (10.1 vs. 17.4 months, p < 0.001) compared to those without pain. The negative impact of pain on OS remained significant even if adjusted for CHAARTED or LATITUDE classification, and other significant baseline prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis supports the poor prognostic role of cancer-related pain in the setting of mCSPC patients. A prospective validation is required.


Assuntos
Dor do Câncer/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/epidemiologia , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/sangue , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ósseas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Dor do Câncer/diagnóstico , Dor do Câncer/mortalidade , Dor do Câncer/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 143: 46-55, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is a common malignancy with a high mortality rate when metastatic. Traditionally, systemic therapy consisted in platinum-based regimens as first-line, with Taxanes or Vinflunine as further lines. Recently, checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) immunotherapy has emerged as a new therapeutic option. METHODS: We searched in Medline, Pubmed and ClinicalTrial.gov databases for the relevant literature, reviewing the results of published trials and the design of ongoing studies involving CPIs in UC. RESULT: Strong evidence supports the use of CPIs after failure of Cisplatin-based chemotherapy, although no predictive parameter is available so far. Expression of Programmed-Death-1-Ligand has given conflicting results, and is currently indicated only for the selection of Cisplatin-ineligible patients who should receive CPIs. CONCLUSION: The therapeutic landscape of UC is rapidly changing due to the availability of CPIs. Neoadjuvant trials with CPIs and trials combining two CPIs are promising and will further expand the use of immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Urológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/patologia
10.
Front Oncol ; 9: 553, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338321

RESUMO

Soft tissue sarcomas are rare neoplasms, with a high mortality rate. Few drugs are available for the treatment of patients affected by metastatic sarcomas, who still have a 5-years survival rate lower than 20%. However, some of the more recent therapies can obtain long lasting responses in a portion of patients, such as Trabectedin. We analyzed four such cases treated at our Institute after progression to an anthracycline based regimen. In each case a therapeutic pause was proposed after at least 6 months of therapy with Trabectedin and in three out of four patients a re-challenge was proposed at progression, achieving again disease control or response. In two cases oligo-progressive sites were treated with localized therapies as stereotactic radiotherapy, delaying the systemic treatment re-start. In this article the reports of the patients involved are presented with a concise review of the relevant literature. Our findings support the favorable safety profile of Trabectedin and the feasibility of drug holidays, which should be at least discussed with the patient.

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