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1.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 704, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well-known that methylation changes occur as humans age, however, understanding how age-related changes in DNA methylation vary by sex is lacking. In this study, we characterize the effect of age on DNA methylation in a sex-specific manner and determine if these effects vary by genomic context. We used the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 K array and DNA derived from whole blood for 400 adult participants (189 males and 211 females) from Bangladesh to identify age-associated CpG sites and regions and characterize the location of these age-associated sites with respect to CpG islands (vs. shore, shelf, or open sea) and gene regions (vs. intergenic). We conducted a genome-wide search for age-associated CpG sites (among 423,604 sites) using a reference-free approach to adjust for cell type composition (the R package RefFreeEWAS) and performed an independent replication analysis of age-associated CpGs. RESULTS: The number of age-associated CpGs (p < 5 x 10- 8) were 986 among men and 3479 among women of which 2027(63.8%) and 572 (64.1%) replicated (using Bonferroni adjusted p < 1.2 × 10- 5). For both sexes, age-associated CpG sites were more likely to be hyper-methylated with increasing age (compared to hypo-methylated) and were enriched in CpG islands and promoter regions compared with other locations and all CpGs on the array. Although we observed strong correlation between chronological age and previously-developed epigenetic age models (r ≈ 0.8), among our top (based on lowest p-value) age-associated CpG sites only 12 for males and 44 for females are included in these prediction models, and the median chronological age compared to predicted age was 44 vs. 51.7 in males and 45 vs. 52.1 in females. CONCLUSIONS: Our results describe genome-wide features of age-related changes in DNA methylation. The observed associations between age and methylation were generally consistent for both sexes, although the associations tended to be stronger among women. Our population may have unique age-related methylation changes that are not captured in the established methylation-based age prediction model we used, which was developed to be non-tissue-specific.

3.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57011, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arsenic exposure affects [Formula: see text] people worldwide, including [Formula: see text] in Bangladesh. Arsenic exposure increases the risk of cancer and other chronic diseases, and one potential mechanism of arsenic toxicity is epigenetic dysregulation. OBJECTIVE: We assessed associations between arsenic exposure and genome-wide DNA methylation measured at baseline among 396 Bangladeshi adults participating in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) who were exposed by drinking naturally contaminated well water. METHODS: Methylation in whole blood DNA was measured at [Formula: see text] using the Illumina InfiniumMethylationEPIC (EPIC) array. To assess associations between arsenic exposure and CpG methylation, we used linear regression models adjusted for covariates and surrogate variables (SVs) (capturing unknown technical and biologic factors). We attempted replication and conducted a meta-analysis using an independent dataset of [Formula: see text] from 400 Bangladeshi individuals with arsenical skin lesions. RESULTS: We identified 34 CpGs associated with [Formula: see text] creatinine-adjusted urinary arsenic [[Formula: see text]]. Sixteen of these CpGs annotated to the [Formula: see text] array, and 10 associations were replicated ([Formula: see text]). The top two CpGs annotated upstream of the ABR gene (cg01912040, cg10003262 ). All urinary arsenic-associated CpGs were also associated with arsenic concentration measured in drinking water ([Formula: see text]). Meta-analysis ([Formula: see text] samples) identified 221 urinary arsenic-associated CpGs ([Formula: see text]). The arsenic-associated CpGs from the meta-analysis were enriched in non-CpG islands and shores ([Formula: see text]) and depleted in promoter regions ([Formula: see text]). Among the arsenic-associated CpGs ([Formula: see text]), we observed significant enrichment of genes annotating to the reactive oxygen species pathway, inflammatory response, and tumor necrosis factor [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) signaling via nuclear factor kappa-B ([Formula: see text]) hallmarks ([Formula: see text]). CONCLUSIONS: The novel and replicable associations between arsenic exposure and DNA methylation at specific CpGs observed in this work suggest that epigenetic alterations should be further investigated as potential mediators in arsenic toxicity and as biomarkers of exposure and effect in exposed populations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3849.

4.
PLoS Genet ; 15(3): e1007984, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893314

RESUMO

Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a carcinogen, and exposure to iAs via food and water is a global public health problem. iAs-contaminated drinking water alone affects >100 million people worldwide, including ~50 million in Bangladesh. Once absorbed into the blood stream, most iAs is converted to mono-methylated (MMA) and then di-methylated (DMA) forms, facilitating excretion in urine. Arsenic metabolism efficiency varies among individuals, in part due to genetic variation near AS3MT (arsenite methyltransferase; 10q24.32). To identify additional arsenic metabolism loci, we measured protein-coding variants across the human exome for 1,660 Bangladeshi individuals participating in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Among the 19,992 coding variants analyzed exome-wide, the minor allele (A) of rs61735836 (p.Val101Met) in exon 3 of FTCD (formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase) was associated with increased urinary iAs% (P = 8x10-13), increased MMA% (P = 2x10-16) and decreased DMA% (P = 6x10-23). Among 2,401 individuals with arsenic-induced skin lesions (an indicator of arsenic toxicity and cancer risk) and 2,472 controls, carrying the low-efficiency A allele (frequency = 7%) was associated with increased skin lesion risk (odds ratio = 1.35; P = 1x10-5). rs61735836 is in weak linkage disequilibrium with all nearby variants. The high-efficiency/major allele (G/Valine) is human-specific and eliminates a start codon at the first 5´-proximal Kozak sequence in FTCD, suggesting selection against an alternative translation start site. FTCD is critical for catabolism of histidine, a process that generates one-carbon units that can enter the one-carbon/folate cycle, which provides methyl groups for arsenic metabolism. In our study population, FTCD and AS3MT SNPs together explain ~10% of the variation in DMA% and support a causal effect of arsenic metabolism efficiency on arsenic toxicity (i.e., skin lesions). In summary, this work identifies a coding variant in FTCD associated with arsenic metabolism efficiency, providing new evidence supporting the established link between one-carbon/folate metabolism and arsenic toxicity.


Assuntos
Amônia-Liases/genética , Arsênico/toxicidade , Glutamato Formimidoiltransferase/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Amônia-Liases/fisiologia , Arsênico/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Arsênico , Bangladesh , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Frequência do Gene/genética , Glutamato Formimidoiltransferase/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Metilação , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente , Dermatopatias/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água
5.
Hum Genet ; 138(1): 49-60, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536049

RESUMO

Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a heritable trait with two potential sources of heritability (h2): inherited variation in non-telomeric regions (e.g., SNPs that influence telomere maintenance) and variability in the lengths of telomeres in gametes that produce offspring zygotes (i.e., "direct" inheritance). Prior studies of LTL h2 have not attempted to disentangle these two sources. Here, we use a novel approach for detecting the direct inheritance of telomeres by studying the association between identity-by-descent (IBD) sharing at chromosome ends and phenotypic similarity in LTL. We measured genome-wide SNPs and LTL for a sample of 5069 Bangladeshi adults with substantial relatedness. For each of the 6318 relative pairs identified, we used SNPs near the telomeres to estimate the number of chromosome ends shared IBD, a proxy for the number of telomeres shared IBD (Tshared). We then estimated the association between Tshared and the squared pairwise difference in LTL ((ΔLTL)2) within various classes of relatives (siblings, avuncular, cousins, and distant), adjusting for overall genetic relatedness (ϕ). The association between Tshared and (ΔLTL)2 was inverse among all relative pair types. In a meta-analysis including all relative pairs (ϕ > 0.05), the association between Tshared and (ΔLTL)2 (P = 0.01) was stronger than the association between ϕ and (ΔLTL)2 (P = 0.43). Our results provide strong evidence that telomere length (TL) in parental germ cells impacts TL in offspring cells and contributes to LTL h2 despite telomere "reprogramming" during embryonic development. Applying our method to larger studies will enable robust estimation of LTL h2 attributable to direct transmission of telomeres.


Assuntos
Leucócitos/metabolismo , Leucócitos/patologia , Pais , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Homeostase do Telômero , Telômero/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Cancer Res ; 78(21): 6134-6145, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181178

RESUMO

Progress in prostate cancer racial disparity research has been hampered by a lack of appropriate research tools and better understanding of the tumor biology. Recent gene expression studies suggest that the tumor microenvironment (TME) may contribute to racially disparate clinical outcomes in prostate cancer. Analysis of the prostate TME has shown increased reactive stroma associated with chronic inflammatory infiltrates in African-American (AA) compared with European-American (EA) patients with prostate cancer. To better understand stromal drivers of changes in TME, we isolated prostate fibroblasts (PrF) from AA (PrF-AA) and EA (PrF-EA) prostate cancer tissues and studied their functional characteristics. PrF-AA showed increased growth response to androgens FGF2 and platelet-derived growth factor. Compared with PrF-EA, conditioned media from PrF-AA significantly enhanced the proliferation and motility of prostate cancer cell lines. Expression of markers associated with myofibroblast activation (αSMA, vimentin, and tenascin-C) was elevated in PrF-AA In vivo tumorigenicity of an AA patient-derived prostatic epithelial cell line E006AA was significantly increased in the presence of PrF-AA compared with PrF-EA, and RNA-seq data and cytokine array analysis identified a panel of potential proinflammatory paracrine mediators (BDNF, CHI3L1, DPPIV, FGF7, IL18BP, IL6, and VEGF) to be enriched in PrF-AA E006AA cell lines showed increased responsiveness to BDNF ligand compared with EA-derived LNCaP and C4-2B cells. Addition of a TrkB-specific antagonist significantly reduced the protumorigenic effects induced by PrF-AA compared with PrF-EA These findings suggest that fibroblasts in the TME of AA patients may contribute to the health disparity observed in the incidence and progression of prostate cancer tumors.Significance: These findings suggest that stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment of African-American men promote progression of prostate cancer by increasing levels of a specific set of pro-inflammatory molecules compared with European-American men.Graphical Abstract: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/78/21/6134/F1.large.jpg Cancer Res; 78(21); 6134-45. ©2018 AACR.

7.
Curr Epidemiol Rep ; 5(2): 184-196, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30034993

RESUMO

Purpose of review: In this paper, we summarize prior studies that have used Mendelian Randomization (MR) methods to study the effects of exposures, lifestyle factors, physical traits, and/or biomarkers on cancer risk in humans. Many such risk factors have been associated with cancer risk in observational studies, and the MR approach can be used to provide evidence as to whether these associations represent causal relationships. MR methods require a risk factor of interest to have known genetic determinants that can be used as proxies for the risk factor (i.e., "instrumental variables" or IVs), and these can be used to obtain an effect estimate that, under certain assumptions, is not prone to bias caused by unobserved confounding or reverse causality. This review seeks to describe how MR studies have contributed to our understanding of cancer causation. Recent findings: We searched the published literature and identified 76 MR studies of cancer risk published prior to October 31, 2017. Risk factors commonly studied included alcohol consumption, Vitamin D, anthropometric traits, telomere length, lipid traits, glycemic traits, and markers of inflammation. Risk factors showing compelling evidence of a causal association with risk for at least one cancer type include alcohol consumption (for head/neck and colorectal), adult body mass index (increases risk for multiple cancers, but decreases risk for breast), height (increases risk for breast, colorectal, and lung; decreases risk for esophageal), telomere length (increases risk for lung adenocarcinoma, melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, glioma, B-cell lymphoma subtypes, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and neuroblastoma), and hormonal factors (affects risk for sex-steroid sensitive cancers). Summary: This review highlights alcohol consumption, body mass index, height, telomere length, and the hormonal exposures as factors likely to contribute to cancer causation. This review also highlights the need to study specific cancer types, ideally subtypes, as the effects of risk factors can be heterogeneous across cancer types. As consortia-based genome-wide association studies increase in sample size and analytical methods for MR continue to become more sophisticated, MR will become an increasingly powerful tool for understanding cancer causation.

8.
Environ Res ; 164: 346-355, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29567420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic arsenic exposure is associated with increased risk for arsenical skin lesions, cancer, and other adverse health outcomes. One potential mechanism of arsenic toxicity is telomere dysfunction. However, prior epidemiological studies of arsenic exposure, telomere length (TL), and skin lesion are small and cross-sectional. We investigated the associations between arsenic exposure and TL and between baseline TL and incident skin lesion risk among individuals participating in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh (2000-2009). METHODS: Quantitative PCR was used to measure the average TL of peripheral blood DNA collected at baseline. The association between baseline arsenic exposure (well water and urine) and TL was estimated in a randomly-selected subcohort (n = 1469). A nested case-control study (466 cases and 464 age- and sex-matched controls) was used to estimate the association between baseline TL and incident skin lesion risk (diagnosed < 8 years after baseline). RESULTS: No association was observed between arsenic exposure (water or urine) and TL. Among incident skin lesion cases and matched controls, we observed higher skin lesion risk among individuals with shorter TL (Ptrend = 1.5 × 10-5) with odds ratios of 2.60, 1.59, and 1.10 for the first (shortest), second, and third TL quartiles compared to the fourth (longest). CONCLUSIONS: Arsenic exposure was not associated with TL among Bangladeshi adults, suggesting that leukocyte TL may not reflect a primary mode of action for arsenic's toxicity. However, short TL was associated with increased skin lesion risk, and may be a biomarker of arsenic susceptibility modifying arsenic's effect on skin lesion risk.

9.
Am J Hum Biol ; 30(4): e23118, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29527774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Relative telomere length (RTL) is a potential biomarker of aging and risk for chronic disease. Previously, we developed a probe-based RTL assay on Luminex platform, where probes for Telomere (T) and reference gene (R) for a given DNA sample were tested in a single well. Here, we describe a method of pooling multiple samples in one well to increase the throughput and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: We used four different microbeads for the same T-probe and four different microbeads for the same R-probe. Each pair of probe sets were hybridized to DNA in separate plates and then pooled in a single plate for all the subsequent steps. We used DNA samples from 60 independent individuals and repeated in multiple batches to test the precision. RESULTS: The precision was good to excellent with Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.908 (95% CI 0.856-0.942). More than 67% of the variation in the RTL could be explained by sample-to-sample variation; less than 0.1% variation was due to batch-to-batch variation and 0.3% variation was explained by bead-to-bead variation. We increased the throughput of RTL Luminex assay from 60 to 240 samples per run. The new assay was validated against the original Luminex assay without pooling (r = 0.79, P = 1.44 × 10-15 ). In an independent set of samples (n = 550), the new assay showed a negative correlation of RTL with age (r = -0.41), a result providing external validation for the method. CONCLUSION: We describe a novel high throughput pooled-sample multiplex Luminex assay for RTL with good to excellent precision suitable for large-scale studies.

10.
Mamm Genome ; 29(1-2): 101-111, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453499

RESUMO

Identifying gene-environment interactions is a central challenge in the quest to understand susceptibility to complex, multi-factorial diseases. Developing an understanding of how inter-individual variability in inherited genetic variation alters the effects of environmental exposures will enhance our knowledge of disease mechanisms and improve our ability to predict disease and target interventions to high-risk sub-populations. Limited progress has been made identifying gene-environment interactions in the epidemiological setting using existing statistical approaches for genome-wide searches for interaction. In this paper, we describe a novel two-step approach using omics data to conduct genome-wide searches for gene-environment interactions. Using existing genome-wide SNP data from a large Bangladeshi cohort study specifically designed to assess the effect of arsenic exposure on health, we evaluated gene-arsenic interactions by first conducting genome-wide searches for SNPs that modify the effect of arsenic on molecular phenotypes (gene expression and DNA methylation features). Using this set of SNPs showing evidence of interaction with arsenic in relation to molecular phenotypes, we then tested SNP-arsenic interactions in relation to skin lesions, a hallmark characteristic of arsenic toxicity. With the emergence of additional omics data in the epidemiologic setting, our approach may have the potential to boost power for genome-wide interaction research, enabling the identification of interactions that will enhance our understanding of disease etiology and our ability to develop interventions targeted at susceptible sub-populations.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Arsênico/genética , Arsênico/toxicidade , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Animais , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epistasia Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
11.
Genet Epidemiol ; 42(5): 434-446, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29430690

RESUMO

There is a growing recognition that gene-environment interaction (G × E) plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of complex diseases. Despite a wealth of genetic data on various complex diseases/traits generated from association and sequencing studies, detecting G × E via genome-wide analysis remains challenging due to power issues. In genome-wide G × E studies, a common strategy to improve power is to first conduct a filtering test and retain only the genetic variants that pass the filtering step for subsequent G × E analyses. Two-stage, multistage, and unified tests have been proposed to jointly consider the filtering statistics in G × E tests. However, such G × E tests based on data from a single study may still be underpowered. Meanwhile, large-scale consortia have been formed to borrow strength across studies and populations. In this work, motivated by existing single-study G × E tests with filtering and the needs for meta-analysis G × E approaches based on consortia data, we propose a meta-analysis framework for detecting gene-based G × E effects, and introduce meta-analysis-based filtering statistics in the gene-level G × E tests. Simulations demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method-the ofGEM test. We apply the proposed tests to existing data from two breast cancer consortia to identify the genes harboring genetic variants with age-dependent penetrance (i.e., gene-age interaction effects). We develop an R software package ofGEM for the proposed meta-analysis tests.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Fatores Etários , Idade de Início , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Penetrância , Fatores de Risco
12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 804, 2018 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476079

RESUMO

Inherited genetic variation affects local gene expression and DNA methylation in humans. Most expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTLs) occur at the same genomic location as a methylation QTL (cis-meQTL), suggesting a common causal variant and shared mechanism. Using DNA and RNA from peripheral blood of Bangladeshi individuals, here we use co-localization methods to identify eQTL-meQTL pairs likely to share a causal variant. We use partial correlation and mediation analyses to identify >400 of these pairs showing evidence of a causal relationship between expression and methylation (i.e., shared mechanism) with many additional pairs we are underpowered to detect. These co-localized pairs are enriched for SNPs showing opposite associations with expression and methylation, although many SNPs affect multiple CpGs in opposite directions. This work demonstrates the pervasiveness of co-regulated expression and methylation in the human genome. Applying this approach to other types of molecular QTLs can enhance our understanding of regulatory mechanisms.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Variação Genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adulto , Bangladesh , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Med Genet ; 55(1): 64-71, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29151059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leucocyte telomere length (TL) is a potential biomarker of ageing and risk for age-related disease. Leucocyte TL is heritable and shows substantial differences by race/ethnicity. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) report ~10 loci harbouring SNPs associated with leucocyte TL, but these studies focus primarily on populations of European ancestry. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to enhance our understanding of genetic determinants of TL across populations. METHODS: We performed a GWAS of TL using data on 5075 Bangladeshi adults. We measured TL using one of two technologies (qPCR or a Luminex-based method) and used standardised variables as TL phenotypes. RESULTS: Our results replicate previously reported associations in the TERC and TERT regions (P=2.2×10-8 and P=6.4×10-6, respectively). We observed a novel association signal in the RTEL1 gene (intronic SNP rs2297439; P=2.82×10-7) that is independent of previously reported TL-associated SNPs in this region. The minor allele for rs2297439 is common in South Asian populations (≥0.25) but at lower frequencies in other populations (eg, 0.07 in Northern Europeans). Among the eight other previously reported association signals, all were directionally consistent with our study, but only rs8105767 (ZNF208) was nominally significant (P=0.003). SNP-based heritability estimates were as high as 44% when analysing close relatives but much lower when analysing distant relatives only. CONCLUSIONS: In this first GWAS of TL in a South Asian population, we replicate some, but not all, of the loci reported in prior GWAS of individuals of European ancestry, and we identify a novel second association signal at the RTEL1 locus.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Telômero/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
14.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2018 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597039

RESUMO

Background: Observational studies have suggested an association between circulating vitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] and risk of breast and prostate cancer, which was not supported by a recent Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis comprising 15 748 breast and 22 898 prostate-cancer cases. Demonstrating causality has proven challenging and one common limitation of MR studies is insufficient power. Methods: We aimed to determine whether circulating concentrations of vitamin D are causally associated with the risk of breast and prostate cancer, by using summary-level data from the largest ever genome-wide association studies conducted on vitamin D (N = 73 699), breast cancer (Ncase = 122 977) and prostate cancer (Ncase = 79 148). We constructed a stronger instrument using six common genetic variants (compared with the previous four variants) and applied several two-sample MR methods. Results: We found no evidence to support a causal association between 25(OH)D and risk of breast cancer [OR per 25 nmol/L increase, 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 0.97-1.08), P = 0.47], oestrogen receptor (ER)+ [1.00 (0.94-1.07), P = 0.99] or ER- [1.02 (0.90-1.16), P = 0.75] subsets, prostate cancer [1.00 (0.93-1.07), P = 0.99] or the advanced subtype [1.02 (0.90-1.16), P = 0.72] using the inverse-variance-weighted method. Sensitivity analyses did not reveal any sign of directional pleiotropy. Conclusions: Despite its almost five-fold augmented sample size and substantially improved statistical power, our MR analysis does not support a causal effect of circulating 25(OH)D concentrations on breast- or prostate-cancer risk. However, we can still not exclude a modest or non-linear effect of vitamin D. Future studies may be designed to understand the effect of vitamin D in subpopulations with a profound deficiency.

15.
BMJ ; 359: j4761, 2017 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089348

RESUMO

Objective To determine if circulating concentrations of vitamin D are causally associated with risk of cancer.Design Mendelian randomisation study.Setting Large genetic epidemiology networks (the Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology (GAME-ON), the Genetic and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), and the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortiums, and the MR-Base platform).Participants 70 563 cases of cancer (22 898 prostate cancer, 15 748 breast cancer, 12 537 lung cancer, 11 488 colorectal cancer, 4369 ovarian cancer, 1896 pancreatic cancer, and 1627 neuroblastoma) and 84 418 controls.Exposures Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2282679, rs10741657, rs12785878 and rs6013897) associated with vitamin D were used to define a multi-polymorphism score for circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations.Main outcomes measures The primary outcomes were the risk of incident colorectal, breast, prostate, ovarian, lung, and pancreatic cancer and neuroblastoma, which was evaluated with an inverse variance weighted average of the associations with specific polymorphisms and a likelihood based approach. Secondary outcomes based on cancer subtypes by sex, anatomic location, stage, and histology were also examined.Results There was little evidence that the multi-polymorphism score of 25(OH)D was associated with risk of any of the seven cancers or their subtypes. Specifically, the odds ratios per 25 nmol/L increase in genetically determined 25(OH)D concentrations were 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.76 to 1.10) for colorectal cancer, 1.05 (0.89 to 1.24) for breast cancer, 0.89 (0.77 to 1.02) for prostate cancer, and 1.03 (0.87 to 1.23) for lung cancer. The results were consistent with the two different analytical approaches, and the study was powered to detect relative effect sizes of moderate magnitude (for example, 1.20-1.50 per 25 nmol/L decrease in 25(OH)D for most primary cancer outcomes. The Mendelian randomisation assumptions did not seem to be violated.Conclusions There is little evidence for a linear causal association between circulating vitamin D concentration and risk of various types of cancer, though the existence of causal clinically relevant effects of low magnitude cannot be ruled out. These results, in combination with previous literature, provide evidence that population-wide screening for vitamin D deficiency and subsequent widespread vitamin D supplementation should not currently be recommended as a strategy for primary cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neuroblastoma/sangue , Neuroblastoma/epidemiologia , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Medição de Risco/métodos , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética
16.
Am J Epidemiol ; 186(7): 778-786, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28978190

RESUMO

Genetic and environmental factors are both known to contribute to susceptibility to complex diseases. Therefore, the study of gene-environment interaction (G×E) has been a focus of research for several years. In this article, select examples of G×E from the literature are described to highlight different approaches and underlying principles related to the success of these studies. These examples can be broadly categorized as studies of single metabolism genes, genes in complex metabolism pathways, ranges of exposure levels, functional approaches and model systems, and pharmacogenomics. Some studies illustrated the success of studying exposure metabolism for which candidate genes can be identified. Moreover, some G×E successes depended on the availability of high-quality exposure assessment and longitudinal measures, study populations with a wide range of exposure levels, and the inclusion of ethnically and geographically diverse populations. In several examples, large population sizes were required to detect G×Es. Other examples illustrated the impact of accurately defining scale of the interactions (i.e., additive or multiplicative). Last, model systems and functional approaches provided insights into G×E in several examples. Future studies may benefit from these lessons learned.


Assuntos
Doença/etiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Pesquisa Biomédica , Doença/genética , Exposição Ambiental , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos
17.
Am J Epidemiol ; 186(7): 771-777, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28978191

RESUMO

A growing knowledge base of genetic and environmental information has greatly enabled the study of disease risk factors. However, the computational complexity and statistical burden of testing all variants by all environments has required novel study designs and hypothesis-driven approaches. We discuss how incorporating biological knowledge from model organisms, functional genomics, and integrative approaches can empower the discovery of novel gene-environment interactions and discuss specific methodological considerations with each approach. We consider specific examples where the application of these approaches has uncovered effects of gene-environment interactions relevant to drug response and immunity, and we highlight how such improvements enable a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of disease and the realization of precision medicine.


Assuntos
Doença/etiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Animais , Doença/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Análise de Sequência de RNA
18.
Genome Res ; 27(11): 1859-1871, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021290

RESUMO

The impact of inherited genetic variation on gene expression in humans is well-established. The majority of known expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) impact expression of local genes (cis-eQTLs). More research is needed to identify effects of genetic variation on distant genes (trans-eQTLs) and understand their biological mechanisms. One common trans-eQTLs mechanism is "mediation" by a local (cis) transcript. Thus, mediation analysis can be applied to genome-wide SNP and expression data in order to identify transcripts that are "cis-mediators" of trans-eQTLs, including those "cis-hubs" involved in regulation of many trans-genes. Identifying such mediators helps us understand regulatory networks and suggests biological mechanisms underlying trans-eQTLs, both of which are relevant for understanding susceptibility to complex diseases. The multitissue expression data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) program provides a unique opportunity to study cis-mediation across human tissue types. However, the presence of complex hidden confounding effects in biological systems can make mediation analyses challenging and prone to confounding bias, particularly when conducted among diverse samples. To address this problem, we propose a new method: Genomic Mediation analysis with Adaptive Confounding adjustment (GMAC). It enables the search of a very large pool of variables, and adaptively selects potential confounding variables for each mediation test. Analyses of simulated data and GTEx data demonstrate that the adaptive selection of confounders by GMAC improves the power and precision of mediation analysis. Application of GMAC to GTEx data provides new insights into the observed patterns of cis-hubs and trans-eQTL regulation across tissue types.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Distribuição Tecidual
19.
PLoS Genet ; 13(9): e1006727, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28957356

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 90 susceptibility loci for breast cancer, but the underlying biology of those associations needs to be further elucidated. More genetic factors for breast cancer are yet to be identified but sample size constraints preclude the identification of individual genetic variants with weak effects using traditional GWAS methods. To address this challenge, we utilized a gene-level expression-based method, implemented in the MetaXcan software, to predict gene expression levels for 11,536 genes using expression quantitative trait loci and examine the genetically-predicted expression of specific genes for association with overall breast cancer risk and estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer risk. Using GWAS datasets from a Challenge launched by National Cancer Institute, we identified TP53INP2 (tumor protein p53-inducible nuclear protein 2) at 20q11.22 to be significantly associated with ER-negative breast cancer (Z = -5.013, p = 5.35×10-7, Bonferroni threshold = 4.33×10-6). The association was consistent across four GWAS datasets, representing European, African and Asian ancestry populations. There are 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) included in the prediction of TP53INP2 expression and five of them were associated with estrogen-receptor negative breast cancer, although none of the SNP-level associations reached genome-wide significance. We conducted a replication study using a dataset outside of the Challenge, and found the association between TP53INP2 and ER-negative breast cancer was significant (p = 5.07x10-3). Expression of HP (16q22.2) showed a suggestive association with ER-negative breast cancer in the discovery phase (Z = 4.30, p = 1.70x10-5) although the association was not significant after Bonferroni adjustment. Of the 249 genes that are 250 kb within known breast cancer susceptibility loci identified from previous GWAS, 20 genes (8.0%) were statistically significant associated with ER-negative breast cancer (p<0.05), compared to 582 (5.2%) of 11,287 genes that are not close to previous GWAS loci. This study demonstrated that expression-based gene mapping is a promising approach for identifying cancer susceptibility genes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Haptoglobinas/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 9(6): 1537-1551, 2017 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28630379

RESUMO

Telomeres are tandem repeat sequences at the end of chromosomes that bind proteins to protect chromosome ends. Telomeres shorten with age, and shorter leukocyte telomere length (TL) has been associated with overall mortality in numerous studies. However, this association has not been tested in populations outside of Europe and the U.S. We assessed the association between TL and subsequent mortality using data on 744 mortality cases and 761 age-/sex-matched controls sampled from >27,000 participants from three longitudinal Bangladeshi cohorts: Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), HEALS Expansion (HEALS-E), and Bangladesh Vitamin E and Selenium Trial (BEST). We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for the association between a standardized TL variable and overall mortality, as well as mortality from chronic diseases, respiratory diseases, circulatory diseases, and cancer. In HEALS and BEST, we observed an association between shorter TL and increased overall mortality (P=0.03 and P=0.03), mortality from chronic disease (P=0.01 and P=0.03) and mortality from circulatory disease (P=0.03 and P=0.04). Results from pooled analyses of all cohorts were consistent with HEALS and BEST. This is the first study demonstrating an association between short TL and increased mortality in a population of non-European ancestry.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Mortalidade , Homeostase do Telômero , Adulto , Bangladesh , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
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