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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257553, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: California Proposition 56 increased cigarette excise tax by $2 per pack with equivalent increases on non-cigarette tobacco products. We estimated the changes in cigarette price, cigarette use, and non-cigarette use following the implementation of Proposition 56 in California in 2017. METHODS: Seven waves of Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) 2011-2019 data were used to obtain state-level aggregate self-reported outcomes, including cigarette price per pack, current and daily cigarette use, cigarette consumption per day, and current and daily use of non-cigarette tobacco products (hookah, pipe, cigar, and smokeless tobacco). A modified version of a synthetic control method was used to create a "synthetic" California that best resembled pre-policy sociodemographic characteristics and outcome trends in California while correcting time-invariant pre-policy differences. Various sensitivity analyses were also conducted. RESULTS: The implementation of Proposition 56 was associated with an increase in self-reported cigarette price per pack in California ($1.844, 95%CI: $0.153, $3.534; p = 0.032). No evidence suggested that Proposition 56 was associated with the changes in the prevalence of current or daily cigarette use, cigarette consumption per day, or the prevalence of current or daily use of non-cigarette tobacco products. CONCLUSION: Most of the cigarette tax increase following Proposition 56 in California was passed on to consumers. There is a lack of evidence that the implementation of Proposition 56 was associated with the changes in the use of cigarettes and other tobacco products such as hookah, pipe, cigar, and smokeless tobacco.

2.
Tob Control ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511408

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify whether three types of cigarette pack designs, including three versions of graphic warning label (GWL) plain packs, one GWL absent and branding absent pack (blank) and the smoker's own GWL absent and branding present pack (US), elicit different valence, type and levels of affect. DESIGN: US daily smokers (n=324) were asked to handle each of the five pack types and 'think aloud' their reactions. To avoid a muted familiarity response, exposure to their own US pack followed exposure to at least one GWL plain pack. Reactions were scored on a reactivity scale (-3 to +3) and the text was coded for speech polarity (-1 to +1) and emotive word frequency. RESULTS: Reactivity scores had excellent inter-rater reliability (agreement ≥86%; intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.89) and were correlated with speech polarity (r=0.21-0.37, p<0.001). When considering their US pack, approximately two-thirds of smokers had a low (31.5%) to medium (34.6%) positive response (reactivity=1.29; polarity=0.14) with expressed feelings of joy and trust. Blank packaging prompted a largely (65.4%) neutral response (reactivity=0.03; polarity=0.00). The gangrenous foot GWL provoked mostly medium (46.9%) to high (48.1%) negative responses (reactivity=-2.44; polarity=-0.20), followed by neonatal baby (reactivity=-1.85; polarity=-0.10) and throat cancer (reactivity=-1.76; polarity=-0.08) warnings. GWLs varied in their elicitation of disgust, anger, fear and sadness. CONCLUSION: Initial reactions to GWL packs, a blank pack, and smokers' current US pack reflected negative, neutral, and positive affect, respectively. Different versions of the GWL pack elicited different levels and types of immediate negative affect.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574610

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to validate the seven-item wheezing module from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) in the nationally representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study. Adult participants with complete Wave 2-3 data were selected, including those with asthma but excluding those with COPD and other respiratory diseases (n = 16,295). We created a nine-point respiratory symptom index from the ISAAC questions, assessed the reliability of the index, and examined associations with self-reported asthma diagnosis. Threshold values were assessed for association with functional outcomes. The weighted prevalence for one or more respiratory symptom was 18.0% (SE = 0.5) for adults without asthma, 70.1% (SE = 1.3) for those with lifetime asthma, 75.7% (SE = 3.7) for adults with past-year asthma not on medications, and 92.6% (SE = 1.6) for those on medications. Cronbach's alpha for the respiratory symptom index was 0.86. Index scores of ≥2 or ≥3 yielded functionally important respiratory symptom prevalence of 7-10%, adequate sensitivity and specificity for identifying asthma, and consistent independent associations with all functional outcomes and tobacco use variables. Respiratory symptom index scores of ≥2 or ≥3 are indicative of functionally important respiratory symptoms and could be used to assess the relationship between tobacco use and respiratory health.

4.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-16, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383614

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recent evidence supports the benefit of intensive aphasia intervention programs for people with chronic aphasia, yet it is unclear if all participants can expect positive outcomes and for how long therapeutic gains last. METHODS: We systematically searched for studies investigating intensive interventions in chronic aphasia. To explore individual response rates and maintenance of therapeutic gains we carried out meta-synthesis by calculating and analysing the Standard Error of Measurement and Minimal Detectable Change metrics of six common outcome measures. RESULTS: Forty-four studies comprising 24 experimental (13 group, 11 single-subject) and 20 non-experimental studies met our inclusion criteria (n = 670). Whereas most group studies reported statistically significant post-therapy improvement and maintenance, analysis of individual participant data (IPD, n = 393) from these studies revealed that only about a third of participants were classified as "immediate responders," of which more than a third had lost their initial immediate gains at follow-up. This pattern did not change when IPD from single-subject studies (n = 49) was added to the analysis. Thus, only 22% of all IPD receiving an intensive intervention improved significantly and maintained their therapy gains. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive aphasia therapy is effective when measured at the group-level, but many individuals do not respond significantly to the intervention, and even fewer individuals preserve their initial gains. Group study results do not allow prediction of an individual's response to the intervention. Future research should elucidate which factors mediate positive treatment response and maintenance for an individual.Implications for rehabilitationOnly a small proportion (about one fifth in this review) of intensive aphasia treatment program participants respond and maintain their therapy gains, a fact that is obscured by traditional p-value group analysis.A simple clinical decision-making method is presented for evaluating individual therapy gains and their maintenance.For some immediate treatment responders (about one third in this review), gains from intensive therapy programs are unlikely to be maintained in the long-term without additional, ongoing practice.Clinicians should consider the possibility of individual clients losing some of their therapy gains and take proactive steps to support long-term maintenance.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371931

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of acid-producing diets and depressive symptoms with physical health among breast cancer survivors. We studied a cohort of 2944 early stage breast cancer survivors who provided dietary, physical health, demographic, and lifestyle information at baseline, year 1, and year 4. We assessed the intakes of acid-producing diets via two commonly used dietary acid load scores: potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP). Physical health was measured using the Rand 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), consisting of physical functioning, role limitation due to physical function, bodily pain, general health, and overall physical health subscales. Increased dietary acid load and depression were each independently and significantly associated with reduced physical health subscales and overall physical health. Further, dietary acid load and depression were jointly associated with worse physical health. For instance, depressed women with dietary acid load higher than median reported 2.75 times the risk (odds ratio = 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 2.18-3.47) of reduced physical function and 3.10 times the risk of poor physical health (odds ratio = 3.10; 95% confidence interval: 2.53-3.80) compared to non-depressed women with dietary acid load lower than median. Our results highlight the need of controlling acid-producing diets and the access of mental care for breast cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Ácidos/efeitos adversos , Afeto , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Depressão/complicações , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Saúde Mental , Ácidos/metabolismo , Adulto , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2121387, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347057

RESUMO

Importance: The US Food and Drug Administration's implementation of graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packs is under challenge in US courts. Objective: To determine whether GWLs can affect US smokers' perceptions about their cigarettes or health consequences and changes in smoking behavior. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study was a randomized clinical trial of the effect of a 3-month, real-world experience of cigarettes with GWL packaging. Community recruitment was done from September 2016 through December 2019 of daily smokers from San Diego, California, aged 21 to 65 years, who were not ready to quit. Participants were randomized to purchase and receive cigarettes in 1 of 3 pack designs: GWL, blank, or standard US pack. Data analysis was performed from July 2020 to February 2021. Interventions: The study manufactured GWL cigarette packs (3 versions with Australian-licensed images) and packs devoid of marketing. For 3 months, participants purchased GWL, blank, or standard US pack cigarettes that were delivered to their home. Main Outcomes and Measures: Smoking-related cognitions and behavior were queried by daily and weekly interactive text messages. Smoking behavior was self-reported before and after the intervention by 96% of randomized participants and was biochemically validated on a subsample. Results: The study sample included 357 participants (195 women [54.6%]; mean [SD] age, 39.5 [11.9] years); 116 were randomized to the standard US pack group, 118 were randomized to the GWL pack group, and 125 were randomized to the blank pack group. Over the 3 months, participants who received the GWL packs had reduced positive perceptions of recent cigarettes smoked compared with participants who received the branded US pack (mean difference, -0.46 SD; 95% CI, -0.73 SD to -0.20 SD; P < .001). Health concerns increased in all groups, with a significant increase in the GWL group vs the US pack group (mean difference, 0.35 SD; 95% CI, 0.09 SD to 0.62 SD; P = .002). Quitting cognitions increased in all study groups, with a peak mean change of 0.60 SD for GWL participants vs 0.34 SD for US pack participants (mean difference, 0.55 SD; 95% CI, 0.28 SD to 0.81 SD; P < .001). GWL participants had slightly more cigarette abstinence periods per week than the US pack group, but the difference was not significant (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.13). At 3 months, there was no between-group difference in any smoking behavior. The blank pack group was similar to the US pack group on all measures. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the introduction of GWL packs appears to decrease positive perceptions of cigarettes and increase quitting cognitions in the short term. However, additional complementary tobacco control strategies may be necessary for GWL packs to be associated with reduced smoking behavior. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02676193.

7.
Tob Control ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effect of menthol use and transitions in use (switching to or from menthol) on short-term and long-term cessation from cigarette smoking and whether this differed across demographic groups (age, sex, race). METHODS: We compared the probability of 30+ day and 12-month abstinence from cigarette smoking by menthol use status using two cohorts of US adult cigarette smokers who attempted to quit smoking in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (wave 1 to wave 3 and wave 2 to wave 4; n=5759), inverse probability of treatment weighting and adjusted risk ratios (aRRs). RESULTS: Using menthol (vs non-menthol) prior to a quit attempt decreased the probability of 30+ day abstinence by 28% (aRR=0.78; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.91) and the probability of 12-month abstinence by 53% (aRR=0.65; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.88). Additionally, switching from menthol (vs maintaining menthol use) increased the probability of 30+ day abstinence by 58% (aRR=1.58; 95% CI 1.00 to 2.50) and the probability of 12-month abstinence by 97% (aRR=1.86; 95% CI 0.92 to 3.74). Switching to menthol (vs maintaining non-menthol use) was associated with a lower probability of 30+ day (aRR=0.70; 95% CI 0.42 to 1.16) and 12-month abstinence (aRR=0.64; 95% CI 0.30 to 1.36), but these associations were imprecise. The effects of menthol use on impaired quitting were slightly larger for non-Hispanic Black smokers, but not different for other demographic groups. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that menthol impaired menthol smokers' attempts to quit smoking but switching from menthol improved success. This suggests that removing menthol may improve menthol smokers' success during quit attempts.

8.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-15, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251946

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intensive Comprehensive Aphasia Programs (ICAPs) were first described in 2013 with an international survey documenting 12 unique programs. ICAPs involve high dose intervention delivered in both group and individual settings, targeting communication across impairment, functioning, participation, and contextual domains. In this study, we aimed to investigate international growth in ICAPs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a 43-item questionnaire expanding on the original 2013 version to investigate program modifications, activities, protocolised therapies, software and apps, and family involvement. The survey was disseminated to aphasia clinicians and researchers internationally (November 2019-February 2020). RESULTS: Thirty-nine unique respondents completed the survey from nine countries. Twenty-one met the criteria for an ICAP or modified ICAP (mICAP): 14 ICAPs; 7 mICAPs, and 13 of these were new programs. ICAPs differed from mICAPs with greater emphasis on group sessions, use of technology, total communication, advocacy, and art activities. A large range of protocolised therapies were used across programs. An increased focus on mood and psychosocial well-being was observed compared to the 2013 survey. CONCLUSIONS: The number and comprehensiveness of ICAPs has grown since 2013 with development of modified versions. Future research should focus on comparative efficacy of ICAPs/mICAPs and other forms of aphasia interventions and factors underpinning growth and sustainability.Implications for RehabilitationClinicians who coordinate or are considering commencing an ICAP in future can use these results to consider the design of their program.Coordinators should carefully consider the components of their ICAPs and advise consumers whether they meet the definition of an ICAP or a mICAP.With the increasing number of ICAPs across the globe, clinicians commencing an ICAP may wish to contact existing ICAPs within their country for advice.Program sustainability may be challenging and these results provide an indication of some of the key challenges coordinators may face.

9.
Pediatrics ; 147(2)2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of becoming a daily cigarette smoker over the course of 4 years. METHODS: We identified 12- to 24-year-olds at wave 1 of the US Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study and determined ever use, age at first use, and daily use through wave 4 for 12 tobacco products. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent of 12- to 24-year-olds (95% confidence interval [CI]: 60.1% to 63.2%) tried tobacco, and 30.2% (95% CI: 28.7% to 31.6%) tried ≥5 tobacco products by wave 4. At wave 4, 12% were daily tobacco users, of whom 70% were daily cigarette smokers (95% CI: 67.4% to 73.0%); daily cigarette smoking was 20.8% in 25- to 28-year-olds (95% CI: 18.9% to 22.9%), whereas daily electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) vaping was 3.3% (95% CI: 2.4% to 4.4%). Compared with single product triers, the risk of progressing to daily cigarette smoking was 15 percentage points higher (adjusted risk difference [aRD] 15%; 95% CI: 12% to 18%) among those who tried ≥5 products. In particular, e-cigarette use increased the risk of later daily cigarette smoking by threefold (3% vs 10%; aRD 7%; 95% CI: 6% to 9%). Daily smoking was 6 percentage points lower (aRD -6%; 95% CI: -8% to -4%) for those who experimented after age 18 years. CONCLUSIONS: Trying e-cigarettes and multiple other tobacco products before age 18 years is strongly associated with later daily cigarette smoking. The recent large increase in e-cigarette use will likely reverse the decline in cigarette smoking among US young adults.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/tendências , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping/epidemiologia , Vaping/tendências , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450890

RESUMO

The United States spends more on health care than any other OECD country, yet the nation's health is declining. Recent research has identified multiple sources for this decline, including one's position in social and economic structures, environmental quality, and individual and collective social capital. This paper assesses the primary hypotheses that the health effects of household energy burden, social capital and environmental quality on aggregated community health levels remain while controlling for other determinants. The analysis moves beyond prior research by integrating multiple secondary data sources to assess those effects across US counties. Three indicators of public health are analyzed (premature mortality, self-reported health, and life expectancy). The county-level energy burden is measured by the percent of household income spent on housing energy bills for low- and moderate-income households. In addition to energy burden, social capital, environmental quality and other determinants are included in the analysis. The results produced by multivariate regression models support the primary hypotheses, even while a number of control variables also have a significant effect on health. The paper concludes that public health is associated with a complex nexus of factors, including environmental quality and social capital, and that energy burden needs to be among the considerations.


Assuntos
Capital Social , Humanos , Renda , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
11.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(6): 909-919, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196799

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study compared tobacco use and cessation for African Americans (AA), Asians/Pacific Islanders (API), Hispanics/Latinos (H/L), American Indian/Alaskan Natives (AI/AN), and non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) in the United States to California (CA), the state with the longest continually funded tobacco control program. The purpose of this study was to identify tobacco use disparities across racial/ethnic groups across time. METHODS: Cigarette use prevalence (uptake and current use), consumption (mean number of cigarettes smoked per day [CPD]), and quit ratios were calculated across survey years, and trends were examined within each race/ethnic group and comparing between CA and the United States, utilizing the 1992-2019 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey. RESULTS: Prevalence decreased for all race/ethnic groups. Current use among CA NHW showed significant decline compared with US counterparts, whereas US H/L showed greater decline than CA counterparts. CPD decreased by approximately 30% across race/ethnic groups, with CA groups having lower numbers. The greatest decrease occurred among AA in CA (average 10.3 CPD [95% confidence interval (CI): 10.3, 12.6] in 1992/1993 to 3 CPD [95% CI: 2.4, 3.7] in 2018/2019). Quit ratios increased from 1992/1993 to 2018/2019 for CA H/L 52.4% (95% CI: 49.8, 53.0) to 59.3 (95% CI: 55.8, 62.5) and CA NHWs 61.5% (95% CI: 60.7, 61.9) to 63.8% (95% CI: 63.9, 66.9). CONCLUSIONS: Although overall prevalence decreased over time for each racial/ethnic group, declines in CA outpaced the United States only for NHWs. Reductions in CPD were encouraging but the quit ratio points to the need to increase tobacco control efforts toward cessation. IMPLICATIONS: The successes in reduced cigarette use uptake and prevalence across time for both California and the rest of the United States were observed largely among non-Hispanic White populations. Although reductions in the number of cigarettes smoked per day are a notable success, particularly among the Californian African Americans, efforts to support quitting across racial/ethnic groups, especially marginalized groups, need to be prioritized.

12.
Tob Control ; 30(3): 312-319, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345609

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Graphic warning labels on cigarette packaging are mandated in 118 countries and are under consideration in the USA. We propose an appeal-aversion assessment tool to help regulators choose among graphic packaging options. METHODS: After familiarisation with different cigarette packaging, adult daily smokers (n=338) from San Diego, California, USA completed a discrete choice appeal-aversion purchasing task and provided information on nicotine dependence and sociodemographics (2017-2019). The conjoint analysis estimated the importance and price utility for product attributes (ie, packaging, price, tobacco origin and quitline number). The price premiums that smokers would be willing to pay to avoid purchasing graphic packaging were calculated. RESULTS: Among purchase determinants, the price was the most important attribute (65.5%), followed by packaging design (27.1%). Compared with blank packaging without marketing, branded industry packs had appeal valuations (US$0.54; 95% CI: US$0.44 to US$0.65), whereas graphic warning packs had aversion valuations that varied with the salience of the image (blindness=-US$2.53, 95% CI: -US$2.76 to -US$2.31; teeth damage=-US$2.90, 95% CI: -US$3.17 to -US$2.63; and gangrenous foot=-US$3.70, 95% CI: -US$4.01 to -US$3.39). The aversion was such that 46.2% of participants were willing to pay a 50+% premium over their current cigarette price to have their branded packs rather than a graphic pack. These appeal-aversion valuations were moderated by sex, income and nicotine dependence (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Smokers indicated a willingness to pay substantial premiums to avoid purchasing graphic packaging. Results suggest that mandating graphic warnings on US cigarette packs would induce price aversion and may deter cigarette purchasing. Price valuations from this appeal-aversion tool could be useful for regulators to differentiate between graphic warning labels.

14.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(8): 1373-1381, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377146

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cigarette advertising is a causal agent of smoking uptake among young people. Although prior research links ad receptivity to tobacco product interest and use, little is known regarding the specific advertising tactics associated with increased product appeal among young people. METHODS: A national sample of 13-20 year-olds (N = 3688, youth) and 21-24 year-olds (N = 1556, young adults) in the US participated in an online survey in 2017 (mean age 18.1 years). The majority (72.0%) of youth and nearly half (44.8%) of young adults were never smokers. Participants were shown a cigarette ad, randomly assigned from a pool of 50 advertisements, and reported how much they liked the ad, and were curious about and interested in using the advertised product. All 50 advertisements were content analyzed for a variety of features. Data from the survey and content analysis were merged and mixed effects analyses used to identify the features associated with increased liking, curiosity, and interest in using, referred to collectively as product appeal. RESULTS: Presence of a sweepstakes offer was associated with increased liking, curiosity and interest among youth and curiosity and interest among young adults. Outdoors settings, flora imagery, natural descriptors, and environmental themes were associated with increased appeal. Price reductions (eg, coupons) were associated with decreased appeal among youth. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified several advertising tactics associated with increased appeal among youth and young adults. If additional research confirms these findings, the U.S. Food and Drug Association should consider restricting use of these tactics in tobacco advertising. IMPLICATIONS: This study's findings provide insight into features of cigarette ads that appeal to youth and young adults. Overall, the presence of sweepstakes appealed to youth and young adults and outdoors and environmental themes were particularly appealing to young adults. Such tactics could serve to further brand engagement, improve brand image and lead to initiation or escalation of use. If confirmatory studies further demonstrate the effects of the tactics identified in this study on youth product appeal, U.S. Food and Drug Administration should consider using its authority to restrict the use of youth-appealing tactics.

15.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 33(1): 82-86, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is an international crisis placing tremendous strain on medical systems around the world. Like other specialties, neuroanesthesiology has been adversely affected and training programs have had to quickly adapt to the constantly changing environment. METHODS: An email-based survey was used to evaluate the effects of the pandemic on clinical workflow, clinical training, education, and trainee well-being. The impact of the International Council on Perioperative Neuroscience Training (ICPNT) accreditation was also assessed. RESULTS: Responses were received from 14 program directors (88% response rate) in 10 countries and from 36 fellows in these programs. Clinical training was adversely affected because of the cancellation of elective neurosurgery and other changes in case workflow, the introduction of modified airway and other protocols, and redeployment of trainees to other sites. To address educational demands, most programs utilized online platforms to organize clinical discussions, journal clubs, and provide safety training modules. Several initiatives were introduced to support trainee well-being during the pandemic. Feelings of isolation and despair among trainees varied from 2 to 8 (on a scale of 1 to 10). Fellows all reported concerns that their clinical training had been adversely affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic because of decreased exposure to elective subspecialty cases and limited opportunities to complete workplace-based assessments and training portfolio requirements. Cancellation of examination preparation courses and delayed examinations were cited as common sources of stress. Programs accredited by the ICPNT reported that international networking and collaboration was beneficial to reduce feelings of isolation during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Neuroanesthesia fellowship training program directors introduced innovative ways to maintain clinical training, educational activity and trainee well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Acreditação/tendências , Anestesiologia/educação , Anestesiologia/tendências , COVID-19 , Bolsas de Estudo/tendências , Neurologia/educação , Neurologia/tendências , Pandemias , Competência Clínica , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Humanos , Neurocirurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neurocirurgia/tendências
16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138152

RESUMO

The incidence of depression is two-to-three times higher in cancer survivors than the general population. Acid-producing diets may play important roles in the development of depression. Cancer survivors are more susceptible to acid-producing diets, yet few prospective studies have investigated the association of acid-producing diets with depression among breast cancer survivors. We leveraged a large cohort of 2975 early stage breast cancer survivors, which collected detailed dietary data via 24-h recalls. Potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP), two commonly used dietary acid load scores, were used to estimate acid-producing diets. Intakes of PRAL and NEAP were assessed at baseline and years one and four. Increased PRAL and NEAP were each independently associated with increased depression in the longitudinal analyses, after adjusting for covariates. The magnitude of the associations was stronger for PRAL than NEAP. Women with the highest quartile intakes of PRAL had 1.34 (95% CI 1.11-1.62) times the risk of depression compared to women with the lowest quartile. Furthermore, we also observed a joint impact of PRAL and younger age on depression, as well as a joint impact of PRAL and physical activity on depression. Decreasing the consumption of acid-producing diets may be a novel and practical strategy for reducing depressive symptoms among breast cancer survivors, especially those who are younger and have a sedentary lifestyle.

17.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-12, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164590

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Aphasia is a debilitating chronic acquired language disorder that impacts heavily on a person's life. Behavioural treatments aim to remediate language processing skills or to enhance communication between the person with aphasia and others, and a number of different treatments are efficacious. However, it is unclear how much of a particular treatment a person needs in order to optimise recovery of language and communication skills following stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic search for and meta-analysis of experimental studies that directly compared different amounts of the same behavioural aphasia treatment, following PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: Treatment dose research in aphasia is an emerging area. Just six studies comparing different doses of the same intervention met all criteria for inclusion. Evidence from these studies was synthesised and meta-analysed, where possible. Meta-analyses were inconclusive due to limited data; however, there are indications that suggest increased dose may confer greater improvement on language and communication measures, but with diminishing returns over time. Aphasia severity and chronicity may affect dose-response relationships. CONCLUSIONS: There is currently insufficient evidence to determine the effect of dose on treatment response. A dedicated and coordinated research agenda is required to systematically explore dose-response relationships in post-stroke aphasia interventions.A video abstract is available in the Supplementary Material.Implications for rehabilitationThe investigation of the effect of dose on treatment outcomes in post-stroke aphasia is an emerging research area with few studies reporting comparison of different amounts of the same intervention.In the acute phase of recovery following stroke, higher doses of treatment provided over short periods may not be preferable, tolerable, or superior to lower doses of the same treatment.In the chronic phase, providing additional blocks of treatment may confer additional benefit for some people with aphasia but with diminishing returns.People with chronic aphasia can achieve and maintain significant gains in picture naming after a relatively brief period of high-dose treatment.

18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237938, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More smokers report using e-cigarettes to help them quit than FDA-approved pharmacotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of e-cigarettes with future abstinence from cigarette and tobacco use. DESIGN: Cohort study of US sample, with annual follow-up. PARTICIPANTS: US adult (ages 18+) daily cigarette smokers identified at Wave 1 (W1; 2013-14) of the PATH Study, who reported a quit attempt before W2 and completed W3 (n = 2443). EXPOSURES: Use of e-cigarettes, pharmacotherapy (including nicotine replacement therapy), or no product for last quit attempt (LQA), and current daily e-cigarette use at W2. ANALYSIS: Propensity score matching (PSM) of groups using different methods to quit. OUTCOME MEASURES: 12+ months abstinence at W3 from cigarettes and from all tobacco (including e-cigarettes). 30+ days abstinence at W3 was a secondary outcome. RESULTS: Among daily smokers with an LQA, 23.5% used e-cigarettes, 19.3% used pharmacotherapy only (including NRT) and 57.2% used no product. Cigarette abstinence for 12+ months at W3 was ~10% in each group. Half of the cigarette abstainers in the e-cigarette group were using e-cigarettes at W3. Different methods to help quitting had statistically comparable 12+ month cigarette abstinence at W3 (e-cigarettes vs no product: Risk Difference (RD) = 0.01, 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.06; e-cigarettes vs pharmacotherapy: RD = 0.02, 95% CI:-0.04 to 0.09). Likewise, daily e-cigarette users at W2 did not show a cessation benefit over comparable no-e-cigarette users and this finding was robust to sensitivity analyses. Abstinence for 30+ days at W3 was also similar across products. LIMITATIONS: The frequency of e-cigarette use during the LQA was not assessed, nor was it possible to assess continuous abstinence from the LQA. CONCLUSION: Among US daily smokers who quit cigarettes in 2014-15, use of e-cigarettes in that attempt compared to approved cessation aids or no products showed similar abstinence rates 1-2 years later.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Tratamento Farmacológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabagismo/terapia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/etiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239294, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS: The role of smoking as a risk factor for group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization in women during pregnancy has not been previously adequately explored. We hypothesized that women of term or near term neonates who smoked during pregnancy were more likely to have GBS colonization than their non-smoking counterparts. METHODS: The electronic health records (EHRs) of a convenience sample of women delivering in an inner-city university tertiary care center were reviewed. The outcome variable of interest was maternal GBS colonization during pregnancy. The primary independent variable of interest was tobacco smoking during pregnancy, determined from the EHRs by the number of cigarettes smoked during gestation. Descriptive statistics were conducted and categorical data were compared by the Fischer's exact test. Multiple logistic regression analysis was further conducted to determine the independent impact of tobacco smoke exposure on GBS colonization. RESULTS: The prevalence of maternal GBS colonization was 35% among the study population. In the univariate analyses, factors associated with maternal GBS colonization were tobacco smoking during pregnancy (P of trend <0.001), Race (P<0.001), maternal age <20 years (P = 0.006), low birthweight <2500 gm (P = 0.020), maternal drug use (P = 004), and gestational age <37 (P = 0.041). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, tobacco smoking during pregnancy remained the most significant predictor of GBS colonization. Women who smoked during pregnancy were more than twice more likely to be colonized than their non-smoking counterparts (OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.5-4.6; p<0.001). Maternal age was the only other significant predictor with younger mothers more than one and a half time more likely to be colonized than their older counterparts (OR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.02-2.68; P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of GBS colonization in this institution was consistent with recent national rates. Smoking and maternal age were identified as two independent risk factors for GBS colonization during pregnancy. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Virginia
20.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 98: 106152, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The US lags behind >120 countries in implementing graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packs. US courts prevented implementation of FDA's 2012 rule requiring GWLs citing the need for more evidence on effectiveness. After more research, in 2020, the FDA proposed a revised rule mandating GWLs. This trial will test how the introduction of GWLs influence cognitions and behavior in US smokers. METHOD: To investigate the "real-world" impact of GWLs in US smokers, we are conducting a randomized trial involving a 3-month intervention and 8-month follow-up. The study recruited California smokers between September 2016 through December 2019 and randomly assigned them into 3 groups (1) Blank Pack devoid of any cigarette branding; (2) GWL Pack featuring 1 of 3 rotating images added to blank pack; or (3) their usual Standard US Pack. Throughout the 3-month intervention, participants purchased study-packaged cigarettes and reported daily cognitions and behavior through ecological momentary assessments. We will validate self-reported tobacco use with saliva cotinine concentrations following the 3-month intervention and 8-month follow-up. RESULTS: The trial enrolled 359 participants (average age 39 years; average cigarette consumption half a pack/day). The 3 study groups were balanced on age, gender, race-ethnicity, education and income (17% low income) as well as on smoking related variables. CONCLUSIONS: This 3-month real-world randomized trial will test the effect of repackaging cigarettes from standard US packs to GWL plain packs on smokers' perceptions of the risks of smoking, their perception of the appeal of their cigarettes, and on their smoking behavior.

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