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1.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334771

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Alemany, JA, Pierce, JR, Bornstein, DB, Grier, TL, Jones, BH, and Glover, SH. Comprehensive physical activity assessment during U.S. Army Basic Combat Training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-Physical activity (PA) volume, intensity, and qualitative contextual information regarding activity type and loads carried are limited during U.S. Army Basic Combat Training (BCT). The purpose of this study was to characterize daily (05:00-20:00 hours) PA during BCT using a comprehensive approach. During 2 10-week BCT cycles (n = 40 trainees per cycle), pedometers, accelerometers, and direct observation were used to estimate daily step count, PA volume, and intensity. Physical activity intensity was categorized by metabolic equivalents (METs) such as "sedentary" (1-2 METs), "light" (2-3 METs), "moderate" (3-6 METs), or "vigorous" (≥6 METs). Daily PA data were analyzed longitudinally using linear mixed models, with significance set at p ≤ 0.05. The mean daily step count was 13,459 ± 4,376 steps, and the mean daily accelerometer-assessed PA volume and intensity were as follows: sedentary: 505 ± 98 minutes, light: 190 ± 78 minutes, moderate: 168 ± 51 minutes, and vigorous: 14 ± 14 minutes, with no differences between cycles for all measures (p > 0.50). Cumulative time on feet (∼50%) and sitting (20-25%) accounted for most daily activity types during both cycles. Trainees, on average, carried between 3 and 9 kg, and ≥9 kg, for 60% and 10% of the monitored day, respectively. Basic Combat Training's physical demands are high, where trainees achieved 1.7 to 2.7 times greater daily ambulation and 6 times the recommended weekly moderate-to-vigorous PA compared with civilian counterparts and performed weight-bearing load carriage for nearly half of the day. Basic Combat Training-associated PA may increase injury risk among trainees unaccustomed to arduous PA and exercise. Implementing national PA policies to improve physical fitness and facilitate acclimatization to BCT's high physical demands could reduce public health burdens and military nonreadiness.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973684

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine if acute resistance exercise-induced increases in growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were differentially responsive for one or more molecular weight (MW) isoforms and if these responses were sex-dependent. Methods: College-aged men (n = 10) and women (n = 10) performed an acute resistance exercise test (ARET; 6 sets, 10 repetition maximum (10-RM) squat, 2-min inter-set rest). Serum aliquots from blood drawn Pre-, Mid-, and Post-ARET (0, +15, and +30-min post) were processed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fractionation and pooled into 3 MW fractions (Fr.A: >60; Fr.B: 30-60; Fr.C: <30 kDa). Results: We observed a hierarchy of serum protein collected among GH fractions across all time points independent of sex (Fr.C > Fr.A > Fr.B, p ≤ 0.03). Sex × time interactions indicated that women experienced earlier and augmented increases in all serum GH MW isoform fraction pools (p < 0.05); however, men demonstrated delayed and sustained GH elevations (p < 0.01) in all fractions through +30-min of recovery. Similarly, we observed a sex-independent hierarchy among IGF-I MW fraction pools (Fr.A > Fr.B > Fr.C, p ≤ 0.01). Furthermore, we observed increases in IGF-I Fr. A (ternary complexes) in men only (p ≤ 0.05), and increases in Fr.C (free/unbound IGF-I) in women only (p ≤ 0.05) vs. baseline, respectively. Conclusions: These data indicate that the processing of GH and IGF-I isoforms from the somatotrophs and hepatocytes are differential in their response to strenuous resistance exercise and reflect both temporal and sex-related differences.


Assuntos
Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/sangue , Treinamento de Força , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547489

RESUMO

Microdialysis allows for a preview into local muscle metabolism and can provide physiological insight that blood measurements cannot. Purpose: To examine the potential differential IGF-I system regulation in interstitial fluid during unilateral stretch shortening cycle exercise. Methods: 10 men (26 ± 7 year) performed unilateral jumping [stretch shortening cycle (SSC) exercise at 50% of optimal jump height] until volitional fatigue on a sled apparatus. Biological sampling took place using a catheter inserted into an antecubital vein (serum), and 100 kDa microdialysis probes inserted into the thigh muscle of each exercise/control leg (dialysate). Serum was drawn before (Pre; -3 h) and after SSC [Post I (+0 h), II (+3 h), or III (+20 h)]; dialysate was sampled for 2 h before (Pre), during/immediately after (Ex), and 3 h into recovery (Rec) following SSC. IGF-I system parameters (free/total IGF-I and IGFBPs 1-6) were measured with immunoassays. Interstitial free IGF-I was estimated from dialysate IGF-I and relative recovery (ethanol) correction. Data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Serum total IGF-I remained elevated +3 h (Post II: 182.8 ± 37.6 vs. Pre: 168.3 ± 35.0 ng/mL, p < 0.01), but returned to baseline by +20 h (Post III vs. Pre, p = 0.31). No changes in serum free IGF-I were noted. Serum BP-1 and -3 increased over baseline, but not until + 20 h after SSC (Post III vs. Pre: 7.6 ± 4.9 vs. 3.7 ± 2.3 and 1,048.6 ± 269.2 vs. 891.4 ± 171.2 ng/mL, respectively). We observed a decreased serum BP-6 +3 h after SSC (p < 0.01), followed by a return to baseline at +20 h (p = 0.64 vs. Pre). There were no exercise-induced changes in serum BP-2, -4, or -5. Unlike serum, there were no changes in dialysate or interstitial free IGF-I in either leg (p > 0.05). Dialysate BP-1 remained increased in both exercise and control legs through 3 h into recovery (Rec vs. Pre, p < 0.01). Dialysate BP-3 also demonstrated a prolonged elevation over Pre SSC concentrations, but in the exercise leg only (Ex and Rec vs. Pre, p < 0.04). We observed a prolonged decrease in dialysate BP-5 (Ex and Rec vs. Pre, p < 0.03) and an increase in BP-4 IP in the exercise leg only. There were no changes relative to Pre SSC in dialysate BP-2 or -6. Conclusions: Unilateral exercise drives differential regulation of the IGF-I system at both local and systemic levels. More specifically, this is the first study to demonstrate that localized exercise increases IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4 and decreases in IGFBP-5 in muscle interstitial fluid.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Microdiálise , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Mil Med ; 185(Suppl 1): 376-382, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074313

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study compared the relationship between height (HT), body mass (BM), and body mass index (BMI) of female trainees and active duty female soldiers and their performance on simulated common soldiering tasks (CSTs) with high physical demands. METHODS: Female trainees (n = 133) and soldiers (n = 229) completed the following CSTs: sandbag carry, move under fire, casualty drag, casualty evacuation, and road march. Quartiles were created among HT, BM, and BMI by which task performance was compared using ANOVAs with Tukey post hoc comparisons. RESULTS: For both trainees and soldiers, HT, BM, and BMI were positively associated with improved road march, casualty drag, casualty evacuation, and sandbag carry performance. On the move under fire task, only soldier HT was positively associated with improved performance. CONCLUSION: Female trainees and soldiers who are taller and heavier with a higher BMI may demonstrate better performance on CSTs required of all soldiers. In addition to task-specific training, performance of CSTs may be enhanced in tasks requiring strength and power by recruiting and retaining taller and heavier females with a higher BMIs. Allowances should be considered for soldiers and trainees who can successfully perform soldiering tasks with high physical demands despite less desirable anthropometric measurements.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Profissional/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares/classificação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desempenho Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Growth Horm IGF Res ; 42-43: 102-107, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30399477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the influence of mode (aerobic/resistance) and volume of exercise (moderate/high) on circulating GH immediately post-exercise as well as following the onset of sleep. DESIGN: This study used repeated measures in which subjects randomly completed 5 separate conditions: control (no exercise), moderate volume resistance exercise (MR), high-volume resistance exercise (HR), moderate volume aerobic exercise (MA), and high volume aerobic exercise (HA). METHODS: Subjects had two overnight stays on each of the 5 iterations. Serial blood draws began as soon as possible after the completion of the exercise session. Blood was obtained every 20 min for 24-h. GH was measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay. Pooled samples representing post exercise (PE) and first nocturnal pulse (NP) were divided into two aliquots. One of these aliquots was chemically reduced by adding 10 mM glutathione (GSH) to break down disulfide-linked aggregates. RESULTS: No differences were observed when pooling GH response at post-exercise (2.02 ±â€¯0.21) and nocturnal pulse (2.63 ±â€¯0.51; p = .32). Pairwise comparisons revealed main effect differences between controls (1.19 ±â€¯0.29) and both MA (2.86 ±â€¯0.31; p = .009) and HA (3.73 ±â€¯0.71; p = .001). Both MA (p = .049) and HA (p = .035) responses were significantly larger than the MR stimulus (1.96 ±â€¯0.28). With GSH reduction, controls significantly differed from MA (p = .018) and HA (p = .003) during PE, but only differed from HA (p = .003) during NP. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated similar GH responses to exercise and nocturnal pulse, indicating that mode and intensity of exercise does not proportionately affect GH dimeric isoform concentration.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/metabolismo , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força , Sono/fisiologia , Dissulfetos/química , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/química , Humanos , Isoformas de Proteínas
6.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 50(6): 1249-1257, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381651

RESUMO

Poor suppression of lipolysis and blunted increase in blood flow after meal ingestion in obese adults may indicate resistance to the antilipolytic action of insulin. Exercise may be used to normalize lipolytic responses to food intake by increasing insulin sensitivity. PURPOSE: To determine if acute bouts of aerobic exercise and/or excise training alter lipolytic and blood flow responses to food intake in lean (LN) and obese (OB) children. METHODS: Sixty-five children (9-11 yr) were randomized into acute exercise (EX: 16 LN and 28 OB) or control (CON: 9 LN and 12 OB) groups that exercised (EX), or rested (CON) between standardized breakfast and lunch. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue to monitor interstitial glycerol (lipolysis) and blood flow. Changes in interstitial glycerol and nutritive flow were calculated from dialysate samples before and after each meal. A subgroup (OB = 15 and LN = 9) from the acute exercise group underwent 16 wk of aerobic exercise training. RESULTS: Poor suppression of lipolysis and a blunted increase in adipose tissue nutritive blood flow in response to breakfast was associated with BMI percentile (r = 0.3, P < 0.05). These responses were normalized at lunch in the OB in the EX (P < 0.05), but not in OB in the CON. Sixteen weeks of exercise training did not improve meal-induced blood flow and marginally altered the antilipolytic response to the two meals (P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Daily bouts of acute aerobic exercise should be used to improve the antilipolytic and nutritive blood flow response to a subsequent meal in obese children.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Lipólise , Tecido Adiposo/irrigação sanguínea , Criança , Feminino , Glicerol/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Microdiálise , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Período Pós-Prandial , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional
7.
J Sci Med Sport ; 20 Suppl 4: S79-S84, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28919497

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Army body composition standards are based upon validated criteria; however, certain field-expedient methodologies (e.g., weight-for-height, body mass index [BMI]) may disqualify individuals from service who may otherwise excel on physical performance and military-relevant tasks. The purpose was to assess soldier physical performance and military-specific task/fitness performance stratified by BMI. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. METHODS: Male (n=275) and female (n=46) soldiers performed a wide-array of physical fitness tests and military-specific tasks, including the Army physical fitness test (APFT). Within-sex performance data were analyzed by BMI tertile stratification or by Army Body Composition Program (ABCP) weight-for-height (calculated BMI) screening standards using ANOVA/Tukey post-hoc or independent t-tests, respectively. RESULTS: BMI stratification (higher vs. lower BMI) was associated with significant improvements in muscular strength and power, but also with decrements in speed/agility in male and female soldiers. Within the military specific tasks, a higher BMI was associated with an increased APFT 2-Mile Run time; however, performance on a 1600-m Loaded March or a Warrior Task and Battle Drill obstacle course was not related to BMI in either sex. Male and Female soldiers who did not meet ABCP screening standards demonstrated a slower 2-Mile Run time; however, not meeting the ABCP BMI standard only affected a minimal number (∼6%) of soldiers' ability to pass the APFT. CONCLUSIONS: Military body composition standards require a careful balance between physical performance, health, and military readiness. Allowances should be considered where tradeoffs exist between body composition classifications and performance on physical tasks with high military relevance.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Militares , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Composição Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Corrida/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Strength Cond Res ; 29 Suppl 11: S221-45, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26506192

RESUMO

Human performance optimization (HPO) is defined as "the process of applying knowledge, skills and emerging technologies to improve and preserve the capabilities of military members, and organizations to execute essential tasks." The lack of consensus for operationally relevant and standardized metrics that meet joint military requirements has been identified as the single most important gap for research and application of HPO. In 2013, the Consortium for Health and Military Performance hosted a meeting to develop a toolkit of standardized HPO metrics for use in military and civilian research, and potentially for field applications by commanders, units, and organizations. Performance was considered from a holistic perspective as being influenced by various behaviors and barriers. To accomplish the goal of developing a standardized toolkit, key metrics were identified and evaluated across a spectrum of domains that contribute to HPO: physical performance, nutritional status, psychological status, cognitive performance, environmental challenges, sleep, and pain. These domains were chosen based on relevant data with regard to performance enhancers and degraders. The specific objectives at this meeting were to (a) identify and evaluate current metrics for assessing human performance within selected domains; (b) prioritize metrics within each domain to establish a human performance assessment toolkit; and (c) identify scientific gaps and the needed research to more effectively assess human performance across domains. This article provides of a summary of 150 total HPO metrics across multiple domains that can be used as a starting point-the beginning of an HPO toolkit: physical fitness (29 metrics), nutrition (24 metrics), psychological status (36 metrics), cognitive performance (35 metrics), environment (12 metrics), sleep (9 metrics), and pain (5 metrics). These metrics can be particularly valuable as the military emphasizes a renewed interest in Human Dimension efforts, and leverages science, resources, programs, and policies to optimize the performance capacities of all Service members.


Assuntos
Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Militares , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Cognição , Consenso , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Estado Nutricional , Dor , Aptidão Física , Sono
9.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 308(12): E1131-9, 2015 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25921578

RESUMO

Animal/cell investigations indicate that there is a decreased adipose tissue mass resulting from skeletal muscle (SkM) IL-15 secretion (e.g., SkM-blood-adipose tissue axis). IL-15 could regulate fat mass accumulation in obesity via lipolysis, although this has not been investigated in humans. Therefore, the purpose was to examine whether SkM and/or subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) IL-15 concentrations were correlated with SCAT lipolysis in lean and obese humans and determine whether IL-15 perfusion could induce lipolysis in human SCAT. Local SkM and abdominal SCAT IL-15 (microdialysis) and circulating IL-15 (blood) were sampled in lean (BMI: 23.1 ± 1.9 kg/m(2); n = 10) and obese (BMI: 34.7 ± 3.5 kg/m(2); n = 10) subjects at rest/during 1-h cycling exercise. Lipolysis (SCAT interstitial glycerol concentration) was compared against local/systemic IL-15. An additional probe in SCAT was perfused with IL-15 to assess direct lipolytic responses. SkM IL-15 was not different between lean and obese subjects (P = 0.45), whereas SCAT IL-15 was higher in obese vs. lean subjects (P = 0.02) and was correlated with SCAT lipolysis (r = 0.45, P = 0.05). Exercise increased SCAT lipolysis in lean and obese (P < 0.01), but exercise-induced SCAT lipolysis changes were not correlated with exercise-induced SCAT IL-15 changes. Microdialysis perfusion resulting in physiological IL-15 concentrations in the adipose tissue interstitium increased lipolysis in lean (P = 0.04) but suppressed lipolysis in obese (P < 0.01). Although we found no support for a human IL-15 SkM-blood-adipose tissue axis, IL-15 may be produced in/act on the abdominal SCAT depot. The extent to which this autocrine/paracrine IL-15 action regulates human body composition remains unknown.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-15/administração & dosagem , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Gordura Subcutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Magreza/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-15/análise , Interleucina-15/metabolismo , Masculino , Microdiálise , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Obesidade/sangue , Descanso/fisiologia , Gordura Subcutânea/química , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Magreza/sangue , Adulto Jovem
10.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 46(10): 1917-27, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24576855

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The pulsatile secretion pattern of growth hormone (GH) is an important parameter of GH action at peripheral tissues, and more information is needed on how exercise impacts GH secretion. This study hypothesized that both aerobic and resistance exercise would exhibit dose-response relationships with respect to exercise duration and 20-h postexercise GH secretion. METHODS: Eight healthy men randomly completed five separate conditions: 1) control (no exercise; CON), 2) a moderate-duration (1-h) aerobic exercise session (MA), 3) a long-duration (2-h) aerobic exercise session (LA), 4) a moderate-duration (1-h) resistance exercise session (MR), and 5) a long-duration (2-h) resistance exercise session (LR). Exercise intensity, diet, sleep, and physical activity were strictly controlled during each condition, and blood was sampled postexercise every 20 min for 20 h, and GH secretion parameters were analyzed via cluster and deconvolution analyses. RESULTS: Only the 2-h aerobic exercise bout resulted in a significant amplification of GH secretion as evidenced by increases in GH burst peak amplitude (∼100%), basal GH secretion rate (∼127%), total GH basal secretion (∼120%), total pulsatile secretion (∼88%), and total GH secretion (∼89%) over the control (i.e., no exercise) condition. GH secretions for the resistance exercise conditions were not different from control. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that the 2-h aerobic exercise condition resulted in higher energy expenditure than the other exercise conditions could offer a partial explanation for the greater GH amplification because of the metabolic effects that GH exerts in stimulating postexercise lipolysis. We conclude that extending the duration of aerobic exercise, but not resistance exercise, from 1- to 2-h significantly amplifies GH secretion during a 20-h period.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/metabolismo , Treinamento de Força , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Metabolism ; 62(2): 179-87, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22906764

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a key regulator of metabolism during altered energy states. The IGF-I system components respond to prolonged caloric restriction but it is not clear if this system responds similarly to acute caloric restriction. The purpose of this study was to characterize the IGF-I system response to acute caloric restriction with a secondary purpose of determining if two isocaloric diets with different ratios of carbohydrate to fat alter the IGF-I system under conditions of caloric balance. MATERIALS/METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design was used in which 27 subjects underwent three, 48-h experimental treatments: 1) caloric restriction 2) carbohydrate and 3) carbohydrate/fat. Blood was sampled periodically (6 time points total) for IGF-I (total and free), IGFBPs1-4, insulin and glucose. ANOVAs were used with significance set at P<0.05. RESULTS: Total IGF-I decreased 7% during CR (P=0.051) and remained stable during CHO and CHO/F. Free IGF-I decreased 43% during CR (P<0.05) and remained stable during CHO and CHO/F. IGFBP-1 increased by 445% during CR (P<0.05) compared to CHO and CHO/F with no changes for IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-4. There was no change in glucose or insulin during CR over the course of the study. Insulin and glucose increased (P<0.05) after a meal in both the CHO and CHO/F groups with no difference between these two groups. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that free IGF-I decreases and IGFBP-1 increases during caloric restriction, but they are not altered with diets differing in carbohydrate and fat content. Changes in free IGF-I and IGFBP-1 are sensitive to caloric restriction, and their measurement may be valuable in monitoring the physiological response to refeeding in those consuming suboptimal calories.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Privação de Alimentos , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 303(10): R1080-9, 2012 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22933025

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) resides across different biocompartments [blood, interstitial fluid (ISF), and muscle]. Whether circulating IGF-I responses to exercise reflect local events remains uncertain. We measured the IGF-I response to plyometric exercise across blood, ISF, and muscle biopsy from the vastus lateralis. Twenty volunteers (8 men, 12 women, 22 ± 1 yr) performed 10 sets of 10 plyometric jump repetitions at a 40% 1-repetition maximum. Blood, ISF, and muscle samples were taken pre- and postexercise. Circulating IGF-I increased postexercise: total IGF-I (preexercise = 546 ± 42, midexercise = 585 ± 43, postexercise = 597 ± 45, +30 = 557 ± 42, +60 = 536 ± 40, +120 = 567 ± 42 ng/ml; midexercise, postexercise, and +120 greater than preexercise, P < 0.05); Free IGF-I (preexercise = 0.83 ± 0.09, midexercise = 0.78 ± 0.10, postexercise = 0.79 ± 0.11, +30 = 0.93 ± 0.10, +60 = 0.88 ± 0.10, + 120 = 0.91 ± 0.11 ng/ml; +30 greater than all other preceding time points, P < 0.05). No exercise-induced changes were observed for ISF IGF-I (preexercise = 2.35 ± 0.29, postexercise = 2.46 ± 0.35 ng/ml). No changes were observed for skeletal muscle IGF-I protein, although IGF-I mRNA content increased ∼40% postexercise. The increase in circulating total and free IGF-I was not correlated with increases in ISF IGF-I or muscle IGF-I protein content. Our data indicate that exercise-induced increases in circulating IGF-I are not reflective of local IGF-I signaling.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Líquido Extracelular/química , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/química , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 113(5): 758-65, 2012 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22797309

RESUMO

The molecular mechanisms responsible for impaired insulin action have yet to be fully identified. Rodent models demonstrate a strong relationship between insulin resistance and an elevation in skeletal muscle inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression; the purpose of this investigation was to explore this potential relationship in humans. Sedentary men and women were recruited to participate (means ± SE: nonobese, body mass index = 25.5 ± 0.3 kg/m(2), n = 13; obese, body mass index = 36.6 ± 0.4 kg/m(2), n = 14). Insulin sensitivity was measured using an intravenous glucose tolerance test with the subsequent modeling of an insulin sensitivity index (S(I)). Skeletal muscle was obtained from the vastus lateralis, and iNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) content were determined by Western blot. S(I) was significantly lower in the obese compared with the nonobese group (~43%; P < 0.05), yet skeletal muscle iNOS protein expression was not different between nonobese and obese groups. Skeletal muscle eNOS protein was significantly higher in the nonobese than the obese group, and skeletal muscle nNOS protein tended to be higher (P = 0.054) in the obese compared with the nonobese group. Alternative analysis based on S(I) (high and low tertile) indicated that the most insulin-resistant group did not have significantly more skeletal muscle iNOS protein than the most insulin-sensitive group. In conclusion, human insulin resistance does not appear to be associated with an elevation in skeletal muscle iNOS protein in middle-aged individuals under fasting conditions.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Obesidade/enzimologia , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/sangue , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/sangue , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/sangue , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/sangue , Obesidade/sangue
14.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 43(5): 793-9, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20962685

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The contributions of systemic versus local insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) action for mediating fat-free mass (FFM) accretion have yet to be fully clarified, but circulating IGF-I is the preferred measure in clinical practice, and its merits as a biomarker have been demonstrated for a number of physiological outcomes. PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that bioavailable IGF-I would have a stronger association with physical activity-induced FFM accretion than total IGF-I and would serve as a prognostic indicator of FFM accretion. METHODS: Seventy-seven young healthy women (21 ± 5 yr, 62.7 ± 8.5 kg, 27.0% ± 6.0% body fat) participated in 8 wk of Army basic training involving intense physical activity. Total and bioavailable IGF-I; IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6; and body composition parameters were measured before and after the training. RESULTS: There were significant (P≤0.05) increases in FFM (6%) and decreases in fat mass (-13%). Total IGF-I and IGFBP-4 to -6 increased, whereas IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 decreased. Bioavailable IGF-I (24%) explained three times the amount of variance in relative FFM changes than did total IGF-I (8%). Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis revealed that women with lower baseline bioavailable IGF-I were twice as likely to experience FFM gains >7%. Women gaining >7% FFM had greater increases in total IGF-I, maintained bioavailable IGF-I concentrations and experienced greater decreases in IGFBP-2 and increases in IGFBP-6 than those women gaining <7% FFM. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating bioavailable IGF-I has a moderate association with physical activity-induced increases in FFM accretion in young, healthy women, and this association is greater than observed for total IGF-I.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Disponibilidade Biológica , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/sangue , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/sangue , Militares , Curva ROC , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 42(1): 39-49, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20010131

RESUMO

Whereas there are many varied roles of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and it exists in different biocompartments, there is abundant scientific evidence demonstrating that IGF-I is an important metabolic biomarker associated with a variety of health- and exercise-related outcomes. In most cases (muscle, bone, tendon, body composition, and cognitive function), elevated IGF-I concentrations are considered beneficial; however, cancer remains a notable exception. Although the fact that both increased and decreased IGF-I concentrations can be considered as reflective of favorable and beneficial health outcomes and may seem as a paradox and even contradictory, it is important to emphasize that, in both cases, measured IGF-I concentrations do offer important insight into physiological processes. The precise and relative role of systemic versus locally produced IGF-I in mediating the outcomes of physical activity is still not clearly delineated, but it does seem as though local IGF-I is consistently upregulated with both acute and chronic exercises; whereas in certain situations, circulating IGF-I may actually decrease. Although perhaps counterintuitive to the known anabolic role that IGF-I exerts, positive neuromuscular training adaptations can occur in the presence of decreases or no changes in circulating IGF-I. These observations, however, should not be interpreted to conclude that the role of circulating IGF-I lacks importance or relevance in contributing to enhanced musculoskeletal health as evidenced by the liver IGF-I-deficient mouse model. Because of the ubiquitous nature of IGF-I, prospective experimental approaches involving physical activity that can sample and measure IGF-I in the body's various biocompartments (i.e., blood, interstitial fluid, muscle) with the most biologically relevant assays are encouraged. We believe that such endeavors will provide greater understanding in the complex role that IGF-I possesses in mediating exercise-induced adaptations.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/metabolismo , Humanos
16.
Bone ; 45(4): 768-76, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19520194

RESUMO

Prescribing exercise based on intensity, frequency, and duration of loading may maximize osteogenic responses in bone, but a model of the osteogenic potential of exercise has not been established in humans. In rodents, an osteogenic index (OI) has been used to predict the osteogenic potential of exercise. The current study sought to determine whether aerobic, resistance, or combined aerobic and resistance exercise programs conducted over eight weeks and compared to a control group could produce changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover indicative of bone formation. We further sought to determine whether an OI could be calculated for each of these programs that would reflect observed biochemical changes. We collected serum biomarkers [bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), C-terminal telopeptide fragment of type I collagen (CTx), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), and parathyroid hormone (PTH)] in 56 women (20.3+/-1.8 years) before, during and after eight weeks of training. We also measured bone mineral density (BMD) at regional areas of interest using DXA and pQCT. Biomarkers of bone formation (BAP and osteocalcin) increased in the Resistance and Combined groups (p<0.05), while biomarkers of bone resorption (TRAP and DPD) decreased and increased, respectively, after training (p<0.05) in all groups. Small changes in volumetric and areal BMD (p<0.05) were observed in the distal tibia in the Aerobic and Combined groups, respectively. Mean weekly OIs were 16.0+/-1.9, 20.6+/-2.2, and 36.9+/-5.2 for the Resistance, Aerobic, and Combined groups, respectively. The calculated osteogenic potential of our programs did not correlate with the observed changes in biomarkers of bone turnover. The results of the present study demonstrate that participation in an eight week physical training program that incorporates a resistance component by previously inactive young women results in alterations in biomarkers of bone remodeling indicative of increased formation without substantial alterations in markers of resorption.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Fosfatase Ácida/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/sangue , Antropometria , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/enzimologia , Colágeno Tipo I/sangue , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Isoenzimas/sangue , Osteocalcina/sangue , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Peptídeos/sangue , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 106(5): 655-63, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19404671

RESUMO

Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) in the circulation are thought to modulate the activation of growth factors, cytokines, and angiogenesis, facilitating physiological adaptations to exercise training. The purpose of this work was to characterize serum MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 concentrations pre- and post-eight weeks of exercise training. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training would influence serum MMP concentrations in response to an acute resistance exercise test (ARET). Participants were randomized into an 8-week training program (5 days per week) that emphasized callisthenic (CT, N = 8) or resistance (RT, N = 8) exercise. Serum MMP concentrations (MMP-1, -2, -3, -9) were assessed in men (N = 16) in response to an acute bout of high-intensity resistance exercise (six sets of 10-RM squats with 2-min inter-set rest periods) both before and after 8 weeks of training. Training resulted in a temporal shift in the peak MMP-1 concentration from post-ARET to mid-ARET in both groups. Post-training, MMP-9 concentrations were increased immediately after the ARET in the CT group as compared to pre-training ARET concentrations. RT did not alter MMP-3 and -9 concentrations. These data suggest that the mode of exercise training influences the MMP response to an acute bout of exercise, revealing a possible role of MMPs in initiating training-specific adaptations.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/sangue , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 41(3): 581-7, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19204593

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that the appearance of disulfide-linked growth hormone (GH) aggregates during and after an acute resistance exercise test (ARET) in men could be influenced by chronic physical training. METHODS: Fourteen men (28 +/- 1 yr) underwent two different 8-wk physical training programs designed to improve military performance. Before and after chronic training, subjects performed an ARET (six sets of 10 repetition-maximum squat) and had venous blood drawn pre-, mid-, and post-ARET (0, 15, and 30 min postexercise). To determine whether GH molecules were disulfide-linked, serum samples were chemically reduced via glutathione (GSH). Serum immunoreactive GH (IRGH) and immunofunctional GH (IFGH) concentrations were determined using two specific immunoassays, in nonreduced (-GSH) and reduced (+GSH) states. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. RESULTS: No differences were observed in the GH responses of the two training programs; therefore, training group data were combined for analysis. GSH reduction increased the mean GH signal (-GSH: 1.4 +/- 0.3 microg x L(-1) vs +GSH: 1.7 +/- 0.3 microg x L(-1); P < 0.01) only when quantifying IRGH. Post hoc testing indicated that serum contained IRGH disulfide-linked GH aggregates at the mid, 0-, 15-, and 30-min posttime points of the ARET (P < 0.01), whereas GSH reduction did not affect IFGH concentrations. Chronic physical training had no effect on the ARET-induced GH response. CONCLUSION: Acute resistance exercise leads to the appearance of disulfide-linked IRGH aggregates, and this response does not appear to be affected by 8 wk of chronic physical training. The physiological significance of increased proportions of disulfide-linked GH aggregates postexercise remains uncertain; however, structural alterations in GH moieties after acute exercise may represent important regulatory steps in mediating GH biological activity at selected target tissues.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos/química , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/sangue , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Adulto , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Glutationa , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Masculino , Militares , Força Muscular , Consumo de Oxigênio
19.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 100(1): 53-62, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17287986

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 4 weeks of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) on the fluctuations in motor output and the associated physiological changes. Subjects (n = 17) performed steady isometric plantarflexion (PF) and knee extension (KE) tasks, and KE shortening and lengthening contractions (intensity = 25% maximum). Spinal excitability of the soleus muscle was assessed via the H-reflex, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) via MRI, along with EMG activity during the PF tasks. Following ULLS, isometric force fluctuations increased approximately 12% for the PF, and 22% for the KE (P < 0.05), with no difference in the pattern of PF muscle activation (P = 0.46). The unsteadiness of lengthening KE contractions increased 25% following ULLS (P = 0.03), while KE steadiness during shortening contractions was not altered (P = 0.98). Significant correlations were observed between the percent changes in PF isometric force fluctuations and H-reflex (r = 0.49, P = 0.04), and between the PF isometric force fluctuations and PF CSA (r = -0.61, P < 0.01). These findings suggest the effects of unweighting on neuromotor performance are muscle group and contraction type dependent, and that the disuse-paradigm altering muscle CSA and spinal excitability may serve to mediate the associated loss of steadiness.


Assuntos
Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Simulação de Ausência de Peso , Adulto , Atrofia , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Imaginação/fisiologia , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Perna (Membro)/anatomia & histologia , Perna (Membro)/inervação , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Masculino , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Medula Espinal/fisiologia , Meias de Compressão , Transdutores
20.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 101(6): 1588-95, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16888046

RESUMO

We examined the effects of ischemia (ISC) alone and with low-intensity exercise (ISC+EX) on growth hormone (GH) and muscle function responses. Nine men (22 +/- 0.7 yr) completed 3 study days: an ISC day (thigh cuff inflated five times, 5 min on, 3 min off), an ISC+EX day [knee extension at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with ISC], and a control day. MVCs and submaximal contraction tasks (15 and 30% MVC) were performed before and following the perturbations. Surface electromyogram signals were collected from thigh muscles and analyzed for median frequency and root mean square alterations. Blood samples were collected every 10 min (190 min total) and analyzed for GH concentrations. Peak GH concentrations and GH area under the curve were highest (P < 0.01) on the ISC+EX day (7.5 microg/l and 432 microg.l(-1).min(-1), respectively) compared with the ISC (0.9 microg/l and 76.4 microg.l(-1).min(-1)), and CON (1.1 microg/l and 83.8 microg.l(-1).min(-1)) days. A greater GH pulse amplitude, mass/pulse, and production rate were also observed on the ISC+EX day (P < 0.05). Following the intervention, force production decreased on the ISC and ISC+EX days by 16.1 and 55.8%, respectively, and did not return to baseline values within 5 min of recovery. During the submaximal contractions, median frequency shifted to lower frequencies for most of the muscles examined, and root mean square electromyogram was consistently elevated for ISC+EX day. In conclusion, ISC coupled with resistance exercise acutely increases GH levels and reduces MVC, whereas ISC alone decreases force capacity, without alterations in GH levels.


Assuntos
Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Contração Isométrica , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Resistência Física , Esforço Físico , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino
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