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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(20): 3475-3487, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931299

RESUMO

Proteoglycans are among the most abundant and structurally complex biomacromolecules and play critical roles in connective tissues. They are composed of a core protein onto which glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains are attached via a linker region. Biallelic mutations in B3GALT6, encoding one of the linker region glycosyltransferases, are known to cause either spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) or a severe pleiotropic form of Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS). This study provides clinical, molecular and biochemical data on 12 patients with biallelic B3GALT6 mutations. Notably, all patients have features of both EDS and SEMD. In addition, some patients have severe and potential life-threatening complications such as aortic dilatation and aneurysm, cervical spine instability and respiratory insufficiency. Whole-exome sequencing, next generation panel sequencing and direct sequencing identified biallelic B3GALT6 mutations in all patients. We show that these mutations reduce the amount of ß3GalT6 protein and lead to a complete loss of galactosyltransferase activity. In turn, this leads to deficient GAG synthesis, and ultrastructural abnormalities in collagen fibril organization. In conclusion, this study redefines the phenotype associated with B3GALT6 mutations on the basis of clinical, molecular and biochemical data in 12 patients, and provides an in-depth assessment of ß3GalT6 activity and GAG synthesis to better understand this rare condition.

2.
J Med Genet ; 55(6): 422-429, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Segmentation defects of the vertebrae (SDV) are non-specific features found in various syndromes. The molecular bases of SDV are not fully elucidated due to the wide range of phenotypes and classification issues. The genes involved are in the Notch signalling pathway, which is a key system in somitogenesis. Here we report on mutations identified in a diagnosis cohort of SDV. We focused on spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD) and the phenotype of these patients in order to establish a diagnostic strategy when confronted with SDV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used DNA samples from a cohort of 73 patients and performed targeted sequencing of the five known SCD-causing genes (DLL3, MESP2, LFNG, HES7 and TBX6) in the first 48 patients and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 28 relevant patients. RESULTS: Ten diagnoses, including four biallelic variants in TBX6, two biallelic variants in LFNG and DLL3, and one in MESP2 and HES7, were made with the gene panel, and two diagnoses, including biallelic variants in FLNB and one variant in MEOX1, were made by WES. The diagnostic yield of the gene panel was 10/73 (13.7%) in the global cohort but 8/10 (80%) in the subgroup meeting the SCD criteria; the diagnostic yield of WES was 2/28 (8%). CONCLUSION: After negative array CGH, targeted sequencing of the five known SCD genes should only be performed in patients who meet the diagnostic criteria of SCD. The low proportion of candidate genes identified by WES in our cohort suggests the need to consider more complex genetic architectures in cases of SDV.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 39(3): 319-332, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29243349

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive microcephaly or microcephaly primary hereditary (MCPH) is a genetically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a reduction in brain volume, indirectly measured by an occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) 2 standard deviations or more below the age- and sex-matched mean (-2SD) at birth and -3SD after 6 months, and leading to intellectual disability of variable severity. The abnormal spindle-like microcephaly gene (ASPM), the human ortholog of the Drosophila melanogaster "abnormal spindle" gene (asp), encodes ASPM, a protein localized at the centrosome of apical neuroprogenitor cells and involved in spindle pole positioning during neurogenesis. Loss-of-function mutations in ASPM cause MCPH5, which affects the majority of all MCPH patients worldwide. Here, we report 47 unpublished patients from 39 families carrying 28 new ASPM mutations, and conduct an exhaustive review of the molecular, clinical, neuroradiological, and neuropsychological features of the 282 families previously reported (with 161 distinct ASPM mutations). Furthermore, we show that ASPM-related microcephaly is not systematically associated with intellectual deficiency and discuss the association between the structural brain defects (strong reduction in cortical volume and surface area) that modify the cortical map of these patients and their cognitive abilities.

4.
J Med Genet ; 54(6): 371-380, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28289185

RESUMO

Oral-facial-digital syndromes (OFDS) gather rare genetic disorders characterised by facial, oral and digital abnormalities associated with a wide range of additional features (polycystic kidney disease, cerebral malformations and several others) to delineate a growing list of OFDS subtypes. The most frequent, OFD type I, is caused by a heterozygous mutation in the OFD1 gene encoding a centrosomal protein. The wide clinical heterogeneity of OFDS suggests the involvement of other ciliary genes. For 15 years, we have aimed to identify the molecular bases of OFDS. This effort has been greatly helped by the recent development of whole-exome sequencing (WES). Here, we present all our published and unpublished results for WES in 24 cases with OFDS. We identified causal variants in five new genes (C2CD3, TMEM107, INTU, KIAA0753 and IFT57) and related the clinical spectrum of four genes in other ciliopathies (C5orf42, TMEM138, TMEM231 and WDPCP) to OFDS. Mutations were also detected in two genes previously implicated in OFDS. Functional studies revealed the involvement of centriole elongation, transition zone and intraflagellar transport defects in OFDS, thus characterising three ciliary protein modules: the complex KIAA0753-FOPNL-OFD1, a regulator of centriole elongation; the Meckel-Gruber syndrome module, a major component of the transition zone; and the CPLANE complex necessary for IFT-A assembly. OFDS now appear to be a distinct subgroup of ciliopathies with wide heterogeneity, which makes the initial classification obsolete. A clinical classification restricted to the three frequent/well-delineated subtypes could be proposed, and for patients who do not fit one of these three main subtypes, a further classification could be based on the genotype.


Assuntos
Face/anormalidades , Síndromes Orofaciodigitais/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/genética , Encefalocele/genética , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Doenças Renais Policísticas/genética , Proteínas/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa
5.
Case Rep Neurol ; 8(3): 204-210, 2016 Sep-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27790126

RESUMO

Hemiplegic migraine is a rare and complex disease, characterized by migraine with a reversible motor aura. Hemiplegic migraine can be easily misdiagnosed at its first presentation with an atypical severe form of migraine, a stroke, multiple sclerosis, metabolic disorders, conversion disorder or an epilepsy. We present the case of a young 24-year-old male patient, who since the age of 4 years had been having multiple episodes of migraine associated with hemiparesis, paraesthesia, prolonged somnolence, aphasia and confusion. We review the literature and discuss important diagnostic findings in hemiplegic migraine to help establishing a prompt diagnosis.

6.
Genet Med ; 18(1): 49-56, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25790162

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Treacher Collins/Franceschetti syndrome (TCS; OMIM 154500) is a disorder of craniofacial development belonging to the heterogeneous group of mandibulofacial dysostoses. TCS is classically characterized by bilateral mandibular and malar hypoplasia, downward-slanting palpebral fissures, and microtia. To date, three genes have been identified in TCS:,TCOF1, POLR1D, and POLR1C. METHODS: We report a clinical and extensive molecular study, including TCOF1, POLR1D, POLR1C, and EFTUD2 genes, in a series of 146 patients with TCS. Phenotype-genotype correlations were investigated for 19 clinical features, between TCOF1 and POLR1D, and the type of mutation or its localization in the TCOF1 gene. RESULTS: We identified 92/146 patients (63%) with a molecular anomaly within TCOF1, 9/146 (6%) within POLR1D, and none within POLR1C. Among the atypical negative patients (with intellectual disability and/or microcephaly), we identified four patients carrying a mutation in EFTUD2 and two patients with 5q32 deletion encompassing TCOF1 and CAMK2A in particular. Congenital cardiac defects occurred more frequently among patients with TCOF1 mutation (7/92, 8%) than reported in the literature. CONCLUSION: Even though TCOF1 and POLR1D were associated with extreme clinical variability, we found no phenotype-genotype correlation. In cases with a typical phenotype of TCS, 6/146 (4%) remained with an unidentified molecular defect.


Assuntos
RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Disostose Mandibulofacial/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Disostose Mandibulofacial/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/genética , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Adulto Jovem
8.
Hum Mol Genet ; 21(24): 5306-17, 2012 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22983954

RESUMO

Several genes expressed at the centrosome or spindle pole have been reported to underlie autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH), a neurodevelopmental disorder consisting of an important brain size reduction present since birth, associated with mild-to-moderate mental handicap and no other neurological feature nor associated malformation. Here, we report a mutation of CASC5 (aka Blinkin, or KNL1, or hSPC105) in MCPH patients from three consanguineous families, in one of which we initially reported the MCPH4 locus. The combined logarithm of odds score of the three families was >6. All patients shared a very rare homozygous mutation of CASC5. The mutation induced skipping of exon 18 with subsequent frameshift and truncation of the predicted protein. CASC5 is part of the KMN network of the kinetochore and is required for proper microtubule attachment to the chromosome centromere and for spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) activation during mitosis. Like MCPH gene ASPM, CASC5 is upregulated in the ventricular zone (VZ) of the human fetal brain. CASC5 binds BUB1, BUBR1, ZWINT-1 and interestingly it binds to MIS12 through a protein domain which is truncated by the mutation. CASC5 localized at the equatorial plate like ZWINT-1 and BUBR1, while ASPM, CEP152 and PCTN localized at the spindle poles in our patients and in controls. Comparison of primate and rodent lineages indicates accelerated evolution of CASC5 in the human lineage. Our data provide strong evidence for CASC5 as a novel MCPH gene, and underscore the role of kinetochore integrity in proper volumetric development of the human brain.


Assuntos
Cinetocoros/metabolismo , Microcefalia/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Microcefalia/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Mitose/genética , Mitose/fisiologia , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo
9.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 18(3): 352-5, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23716947

RESUMO

While the XYY and XXYY syndromes have been several time described in patients, the combination of both syndromes in an individual is a rare event and may result in a severe phenotype. In the present observation, a boy with congenital scoliosis due to segmented thoracic hemivertebra associated with radioulnar synostosis and congenital heart disease is described. Chromosome G-banding and FISH analysis demonstrated a de novo mosaic karyotype 48, XXYY/47, XYY in this patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a combination of XYY and XXYY syndromes.

10.
J Trop Pediatr ; 54(5): 350-2, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18499737

RESUMO

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease that results from the expansion of an unstable trinucleotide CAG repeat encoding for a polyglutamine tract. In normal individuals, alleles contain between 14 and 31 CAG repeats, whereas the pathological alleles have more than 35 CAG repeats. The clinical phenotype of SCA2 includes a progressive cerebellar ataxia with additional features such as ophthalmoplegia, extra-pyramidal or pyramidal signs and peripheral neuropathy. We report a SCA2 large African family with several affected individuals. A major pathological allele carrying 43 CAG repeats was identified in the proband. To our knowledge, this is a first report of a SCA disorder described in Central African patients, thus indicating the need to consider this diagnosis in young African ataxic patients.


Assuntos
Ataxias Espinocerebelares/diagnóstico , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/genética , Repetições de Trinucleotídeos , Adolescente , Alelos , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Transtornos dos Movimentos/etiologia , Oftalmoplegia/etiologia , Linhagem , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/etiologia , Fenótipo , Ruanda , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/complicações
11.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet ; 182(1): 40-2, 2008 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18328949

RESUMO

Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by short stature, typical craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, congenital heart defects, and predisposition to malignant tumors. In approximately 50% of cases, the disease is caused by missense mutations in the PTPN11 gene. To date, solid tumors, and particularly brain tumors and rhabdomyosarcomas, have been documented in patients with NS; however, few cases of neuroblastoma associated with NS have been reported. Here we report an unusual case of neuroblastoma with mediastinal, retroperitoneal, and medullar locations associated in a NS patient carrying a PTPN11 germline missense mutation (p.G60A). This missense mutation occurs within the N-SH2 domain of the PTPN11 gene and has been reported to be associated with acute leukemia in NS patients. The association of this p.G60A PTPN11 mutation with neuroblastoma provides new evidence that gain of function PTPN11 mutations may play an important role in the pathogenesis of solid tumors associated with Noonan syndrome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Mediastino/genética , Neuroblastoma/complicações , Neuroblastoma/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/complicações , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/genética , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Lactente , Neoplasias do Mediastino/complicações , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/complicações
12.
J Trop Pediatr ; 53(6): 434-7, 2007 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17616540

RESUMO

Hunter syndrome (or Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, MPS II) is an X-linked recessive disorder due to the deficiency of the iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) enzyme, resulting in the accumulation of heparan and dermatan sulfates in the lysosomes. The heterogeneity of clinical phenotypes, ranging from mild-to-severe forms, is a result of different mutations in the IDS gene. We report here, a novel nonsense mutation (p.Y54X) in two siblings MPS II African patients affected with a severe form of the disease. We postulated that the p.Y54X mutation which causes a loss of the IDS region highly conserved among sulfatase enzymes, could be predicted as a severe disease-causing mutation for Hunter syndrome.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Glicoproteínas/genética , Mucopolissacaridose II/genética , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Mucopolissacaridose II/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia , Irmãos
13.
Hum Mutat ; 26(3): 282, 2005 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16088922

RESUMO

Townes-Brocks syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder, which comprises multiple birth defects including renal, ear, anal, and limb malformations. TBS has been shown to result from mutations in SALL1, a human gene related to the developmental regulator SAL of Drosophila melanogaster. The SALL1 gene product is a zinc finger protein thought to act as a transcription factor. It contains four highly conserved, evenly distributed C2H2 double zinc finger domains. A single C2H2 motif is attached to the second domain, and at the amino terminus SALL1 contains a C2HC motif. Most mutations causing TBS are clustered in the N-terminal third of the SALL1 coding region and result in the production of truncated proteins containing only one or none of the C2H2 domains and the N-terminal transcriptional repressor domain of SALL1. Twenty-three SALL1 mutations were reported prior to this work, 22 of which are located in exon 2, 5' of the second double zinc finger-encoding region. Here we present 12 novel mutations in SALL1 associated with Townes-Brocks syndrome in 13 unrelated families. These include three nonsense mutations, three short insertions and six short deletions. Thus the number of SALL1 mutations increases to 35. Rare phenotypical features among mutation positive patients include hypothyroidism, vaginal aplasia with bifid uterus, cryptorchidism, bifid scrotum without hypospadia scrotalis, unilateral chorioretinal coloboma with loss of vision, dorsal hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and umbilical hernia.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Mutação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Criança , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Rim/anormalidades , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Síndrome
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