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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662857

RESUMO

Lung ultrasound (LUS) can be used to assess loss of aeration, which is associated with outcome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presenting to the emergency department. We hypothesized that LUS scores are associated with outcome in critically ill COVID-19 patients receiving invasive ventilation. This retrospective international multicenter study evaluated patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with at least one LUS study within 5 days after invasive mechanical ventilation initiation. The global LUS score was calculated by summing the 12 regional scores (range 0-36). Pleural line abnormalities and subpleural consolidations were also scored. The outcomes were successful liberation from the ventilator and intensive care mortality within 28 days, analyzed with multistate, competing risk proportional hazard models. One hundred thirty-seven patients with COVID-19-related ARDS were included in our study. The global LUS score was associated with successful liberation from mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.91 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-0.96; P = 0.0007) independently of the ARDS severity, but not with 28 days mortality (HR: 1.03; 95% CI 0.97-1.08; P = 0.36). Subpleural consolidation and pleural line abnormalities did not add to the prognostic value of the global LUS score. Examinations within 24 hours of intubation showed no prognostic value. To conclude, a lower global LUS score 24 hours after invasive ventilation initiation is associated with increased probability of liberation from the mechanical ventilator COVID-19 ARDS patients, independently of the ARDS severity.

2.
Front Physiol ; 12: 730857, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594240

RESUMO

Background: The identification of phenotypes based on lung morphology can be helpful to better target mechanical ventilation of individual patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We aimed to assess the accuracy of lung ultrasound (LUS) methods for classification of lung morphology in critically ill ARDS patients under mechanical ventilation. Methods: This was a post hoc analysis on two prospective studies that performed LUS and chest computed tomography (CT) scanning at the same time. Expert panels from the two participating centers separately developed two LUS methods for classifying lung morphology based on LUS aeration scores from a 12-region exam (Amsterdam and Lombardy method). Moreover, a previously developed LUS method based on anterior LUS scores was tested (Piedmont method). Sensitivity and specificity of all three LUS methods was assessed in the cohort of the other center(s) by using CT as the gold standard for classification of lung morphology. Results: The Amsterdam and Lombardy cohorts consisted of 32 and 19 ARDS patients, respectively. From these patients, 23 (45%) had focal lung morphology while others had non-focal lung morphology. The Amsterdam method could classify focal lung morphology with a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 100%, while the Lombardy method had a sensitivity and specificity of 100 and 61%. The Piedmont method had a sensitivity and specificity of 91 and 75% when tested on both cohorts. With both the Amsterdam and Lombardy method, most patients could be classified based on the anterior regions alone. Conclusion: LUS-based methods can accurately classify lung morphology in invasively ventilated ARDS patients compared to gold standard chest CT. The anterior LUS regions showed to be the most discriminant between focal and non-focal lung morphology, although accuracy increased moderately when lateral and posterior LUS regions were integrated in the method.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257314, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this prospective observational study, we evaluated the effects of fluid bolus (FB) on venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide tension (PvaCO2) in 42 adult critically ill patients with pre-infusion PvaCO2 > 6 mmHg. RESULTS: FB caused a decrease in PvaCO2, from 8.7 [7.6-10.9] mmHg to 6.9 [5.8-8.6] mmHg (p < 0.01). PvaCO2 decreased independently of pre-infusion cardiac index and PvaCO2 changes during FB were not correlated with changes in central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) whatever pre-infusion CI. Pre-infusion levels of PvaCO2 were inversely correlated with decreases in PvaCO2 during FB and a pre-infusion PvaCO2 value < 7.7 mmHg could exclude a decrease in PvaCO2 during FB (AUC: 0.79, 95%CI 0.64-0.93; Sensitivity, 91%; Specificity, 55%; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Fluid bolus decreased abnormal PvaCO2 levels independently of pre-infusion CI. Low baseline PvaCO2 values suggest that a positive response to FB is unlikely.

4.
Front Physiol ; 12: 666941, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149448

RESUMO

Background: Recruitment maneuvers (RMs) have heterogeneous effects on lung aeration and have adverse side effects. We aimed to identify morphological, anatomical, and functional imaging characteristics that might be used to predict the RMs on lung aeration in invasively ventilated patients. Methods: We performed a systemic review. Studies included invasively ventilated patients who received an RM and in whom re-aeration was examined with chest computed tomography (CT), electrical impedance tomography (EIT), and lung ultrasound (LUS) were included. Results: Twenty studies were identified. Different types of RMs were applied. The amount of re-aerated lung tissue after an RM was highly variable between patients in all studies, irrespective of the used imaging technique and the type of patients (ARDS or non-ARDS). Imaging findings suggesting a non-focal morphology (i.e., radiologic findings consistent with attenuations with diffuse or patchy loss of aeration) were associated with higher likelihood of recruitment and lower chance of overdistention than a focal morphology (i.e., radiological findings suggestive of lobar or segmental loss of aeration). This was independent of the used imaging technique but only observed in patients with ARDS. In patients without ARDS, the results were inconclusive. Conclusions: ARDS patients with imaging findings suggestive of non-focal morphology show most re-aeration of previously consolidated lung tissue after RMs. The role of imaging techniques in predicting the effect of RMs on re-aeration in patients without ARDS remains uncertain.

5.
Cureus ; 13(5): e15019, 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34150378

RESUMO

Sepsis is a condition characterized by high morbidity and mortality which is commonly encountered in an emergency and critical care setting. Despite a substantial body of research, the ideal biomarker for the diagnosis and prognostic stratification of septic patients remains unknown. This review aimed to summarize the publications referring to the validity of the biomarker presepsin when used for the detection, monitoring and prognosis in patients suffering with sepsis. This work is a narrative review based on a PubMed/Medline search conducted in order to identify all relevant publications referring to the use of presepsin in sepsis. Search was not limited by year of publication so all articles archived in the database would be retrieved. No article from before 2010 was identified. A total of 57 publications of the last decade were included, all of which support the use of presepsin as a biomarker for the assessment of septic patients. It has been used alone or in combination with commonly used biomarkers in the evaluation of patients with sepsis in settings such as the emergency department and the intensive care unit. It is useful in the initial workup of patients with suspected sepsis in the emergency setting and may be a predictive factor of mortality and the most severe complication of sepsis. Presepsin seems to be a valuable tool for the laboratory workup of sepsis, especially when used in conjunction with other biomarkers and clinical rating scores with an established role in this population. Further research is needed to evaluate the clinical implications of utilizing presepsin measurements in the workup of sepsis.

6.
Acta Clin Belg ; 76(1): 79-84, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434557

RESUMO

Aim: The purpose of this review is to summarize all relevant publications regarding the use and validity of the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) when used by clinicians in the emergency department (ED) for the detection and monitoring of patients with sepsis syndrome. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted in order to identify all publications related to the use of suPAR in sepsis patients in the ED setting. Results: Although suPAR is actively involved in the pathophysiology of sepsis, over the last 15 years, only a few studies have been published referring to its predictive validity in the ED. Conclusions: SuPAR can be easily and rapidly measured in an ED setting, and its role in the exclusion of an infection and the management of sepsis, alone or in combination to other biomarkers, should be further evaluated. The optimal cut-off value, the timing of the measurement and the role of the suPAR in an ED setting should be further investigated.

7.
J Transl Int Med ; 8(3): 188-194, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062595

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Running has gone from a vital necessity for the man to a playful sport. Different rheumatic and orthopedic pathologies have appeared, in front of which the shoe industry has reacted by creating reinforced shoes that are supposed to overcome the induced lesions. Several years later, the trend toward reinforcement has gone toward minimalism, which is the absence of reinforcement, that is, a more natural race. Method: We observed variations of kinetics and kinematics in young, unprofessional, healthy runners during a shoe race and a shoeless race, which is the form of maximum minimalism. We then correlated minimalism variations with the variables of the race and the joint angles. Results: We observed significant difference (P < 0.01) in the cycle rate, the cycle length, the step rate, and the angle of attack between running with and without shoes. A small variation of the minimalism index is associated with an increase in knee angle (r 2> 0.5). Conversely, a large variation in the minimalism index is related to a decrease in the knee angle (r 2> 0.5). The minimalism index has no impact on the angulation of the ankle and hip (r 2< 0.3). Conclusion: Slow transition will bring gains in terms of decreasing the length of the stride, which limits the load on the shin. Greater flexibility can be achieved by decreasing the flexion angle of the knee, which decreases the demand for quadriceps muscles and the risk of knee injury with a greater risk of injury at the tibial level.

8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1978-1982, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909535

RESUMO

Two patients with respiratory failure due to confirmed COVID-19 were examined using bedside lung ultrasound (LUS) shortly after intubation and start of invasive ventilation. In the first patient, LUS revealed extensive atelectatic areas. A recruitment maneuver was applied, resulting in some reaeration of areas that showed atelectasis, and some improvement in oxygenation was observed. Oxygenation improved further with the use of prone positioning. In the second patient, LUS showed diffuse abnormalities without atelectatic areas, and ventilation proceeded without a recruitment maneuver but with prone positioning. These two cases illustrate how LUS could be useful in identifying different lung morphologies early after the start of invasive ventilation and help decide on adjunctive therapies. This has possible implications for ventilator management in resource-limited settings, with limited availability of chest computed tomography and blood gas analyzers. Tailoring invasive ventilation based on LUS findings early after the start of invasive ventilation is feasible, but this should be further evaluated in future studies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Decúbito Ventral , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 287, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503670

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sepsis biomarkers can have important diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic functions. In a previous review, we identified 3370 references reporting on 178 different biomarkers related to sepsis. In the present review, we evaluate the progress in the research of sepsis biomarkers. METHODS: Using the same methodology as in our previous review, we searched the PubMed database from 2009 until September 2019 using the terms "Biomarker" AND "Sepsis." There were no restrictions by age or language, and all studies, clinical and experimental, were included. RESULTS: We retrieved a total of 5367 new references since our previous review. We identified 258 biomarkers, 80 of which were new compared to our previous list. The majority of biomarkers have been evaluated in fewer than 5 studies, with 81 (31%) being assessed in just a single study. Apart from studies of C-reactive protein (CRP) or procalcitonin (PCT), only 26 biomarkers have been assessed in clinical studies with more than 300 participants. Forty biomarkers have been compared to PCT and/or CRP for their diagnostic value; 9 were shown to have a better diagnostic value for sepsis than either or both of these biomarkers. Forty-four biomarkers have been evaluated for a role in answering a specific clinical question rather than for their general diagnostic or prognostic properties in sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: The number of biomarkers being identified is still increasing although at a slower rate than in the past. Most of the biomarkers have not been well-studied; in particular, the clinical role of these biomarkers needs to be better evaluated.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Padrão de Cuidado/tendências , Humanos , Sepse/diagnóstico
10.
ASAIO J ; 65(8): e97-e99, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283531

RESUMO

We report the case of a 47 year old male who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome after bariatric surgery, requiring a venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. An inadequate extracorporeal membrane oxygenation output flow was observed, possibly because of severe polycythemia and hyperviscosity. Management with acute normovolemic hemodilution corrected both the biologic and hemodynamic parameters. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of acute normovolemic hemodilution to improve extracorporeal membrane oxygenation outflow. Clinicians should be aware that polycythemia and hyperviscosity may impair extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support and that acute normovolemic hemodilution may be a safe and efficient procedure to address such matter. The optimal hemoglobin level on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Hemodiluição , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia
11.
J Clin Med Res ; 11(4): 237-246, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937113

RESUMO

Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) lines are commonly used by clinicians in daily practice. This strategy has been established the latest years as a common approach in many clinical conditions. Apart from their usefulness, PICC use is related to some complications. Aim of this review is to summarize all relevant publications regarding the PICC-related infection, as sepsis remains a high mortality syndrome. We conducted a PubMed search to identify all relevant publications referring to infective complications after insertion and use of PICC lines in hospitalized adult patients. A great number of publications suggest that PICC lines are widely used in the management of patients. The use of peripheral inserted central lines is related with a few complications, including bloodstream infections. Existing data mainly support their use in specific clinical conditions because of the low infectious rates. Some conflicting data also exist regarding PICC use, due to an unclear benefit from their use compared to other commonly used strategies. Although a number of complications, including bloodstream infections are related with insertion of PICC lines, their use has a promising role and can be used when indicated in a wide variety of clinical conditions, especially in specific categories of patients and prolonged periods.

12.
Cardiol Young ; 29(4): 505-510, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942148

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary homografts are standard alternatives to right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction in congenital heart surgery. Unfortunately, shortage and conduit failure by early calcifications and shrinking are observed for small-sized homografts in younger patients. In neonates, Contegra® 12 mm (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America) could be a valuable alternative, but conflicting evidence exists. There is no published study considering only newborns with heterogeneous pathologies. We retrospectively compared the outcomes of these two conduits in this challenging population. METHODS: Patients who underwent a right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction between January 1992 and December 2014 at the Hôpital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola were included. We retrospectively collected and analysed demographic, echocardiographic, surgical, and follow-up data. RESULTS: Of the 53 newborns who benefited from a right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction during the considered period, 30 received a Contegra 12 mm (mean age 15 ± 8 days), and 23 a small (9-14 mm) pulmonary homograft (mean age 10 ± 7 days). Overall mortality was 16.6% with Contegra versus 17.4% in the pulmonary homograft group (p = 0.98 log-rank). Operative morbidity and early re-operation for conduit failure were not significantly different between the two groups. Mean follow-up in this study is 121 ± 74 months. Survival free from re-operation was not different between the two groups (p = 0.15). Multivariable analysis showed that weight and significant early gradient were factors associated with anticipated conduit failure. CONCLUSIONS: Contegra 12 mm is a valid alternative to small pulmonary homografts in a newborn patient population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03348397.


Assuntos
Veias Jugulares/transplante , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo/fisiopatologia , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo/cirurgia , Bélgica , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 73, 2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously analyzed morbidity and mortality in Jehovah's Witnesses patients after cardiac surgery compared to control population patients. Patients who were Jehovah's Witnesses were operated in accordance with their philosophical convictions and in respect of their refusal of transfusions. We propose to assess long-term survival and quality of life in the patients of this preliminary study. METHODS: We contacted 31 adult Jehovah's Witnesses patients who underwent heart surgery at the Brugmann hospital between 1991 and 2012 and compared them to a control population of 62 patients that had no transfusion restriction, and matched them for sex, age at the time of intervention and the type of surgery performed. We compared long-term quality of life in both populations through the MacNew software, a validated instrument to assess quality of life of patients with cardiovascular disease. The long-term survival of patients was analyzed by Kaplan Meier curves. RESULTS: Long-term quality of life and survival do not appear different between the two groups. Patient evaluation by MacNew software shows comparable physical (p = 0.54), emotional (p = 0.12), social (p = 0.21) and global (p = 0.25) scores between the two populations. The analysis of the actuarial survival curves shows no differences in terms of long-term survival of these patients (p = 0.37). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac surgery in Jehovah's Witnesses can be performed with identical long-term quality of life and survival compared to surgery without blood transfusion restriction, if one follows rigorous blood conserving strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03348072 . Retrospectively registered 16 November 2017.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Procedimentos Médicos e Cirúrgicos sem Sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Testemunhas de Jeová/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Religião e Medicina , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento , Idoso , Bélgica , Procedimentos Médicos e Cirúrgicos sem Sangue/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Médicos e Cirúrgicos sem Sangue/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Clin Med ; 7(6)2018 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29891780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the current published literature on the use of procalcitonin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in adult patients with meningitis. METHODS: We conducted a PubMed search to identify all relevant publications regarding the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum procalcitonin in patients with a known or suspected central nervous system infection. We also reviewed the bibliographies of all identified manuscripts in an attempt to identify additional relevant references. RESULTS: A significant body of evidence suggests that serum procalcitonin has a promising role and can be a useful biomarker in the assessment of patients with meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: Our literature review suggests that data on the role of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) procalcitonin are limited, whereas serum procalcitonin (S⁻PCT) is probably a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with a known or suspected central nervous system infection and can help distinguish between bacterial and viral meningitis.

18.
J Transl Int Med ; 6(4): 176-180, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30637204

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the electroencephalographic (EEG) findings and correlate EEG findings with inflammatory biomarkers and the sepsis prognostic scores SOFA, SAPS II and APACHE II in patients who present in the Emergency Department with sepsis without clinical central nervous system involvement. Methods: The study included seventeen patients (< 70 years old) with sepsis without central nervous system involvement presenting in the Emergency Department of the University Hospital of Patras, Greece. All patients underwent neurologic examination and EEG analysis on admission to the hospital and were treated according to the international guideline protocols for sepsis. Results: Six of seventeen sepsis patients had mild or moderate EEG abnormalities. We did not find any significant correlation between EEG abnormalities and inflammatory biomarkers (CRP, WBC) or commonly used prognostic sepsis scores. Conclusions: EEG could serve as a useful tool to identify brain alterations at an early stage in sepsis, before clinical sings of encephalopathy can be detected. However, the presence of EEG abnormalities does not correlate with sepsis severity as measured by the commonly used prognostic sepsis scores SOFA, APACHE II or SAPS II. Because this was a small single center observational study, large multi-center studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

19.
Curr Cardiol Rev ; 14(1): 15-24, 2018 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29141552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitral para-prosthetic leaks are rare but major complications of mitral heart valve replacements. When they must be re-operated, they are burdened with high mortality rates. We proposed to review our surgical experience in terms of approach and type of operation carried out. METHODS: Demographic, preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative characteristics of 34 patients benefited from a surgical treatment of mitral paravalvular leak, at the Brugmann University Hospital between 1996 and 2016, have been analysed retrospectively. We analysed the data to identify the risk factors of postoperative mortality. We then compared the data depending on the approach and the type of surgical treatment in order to compare the morbidity-mortality. RESULTS: The postoperative mortality rate was 11.7%. The presence of endocarditis and increase in lactate dehydrogenase were predictive factors of mortality. Cardiac complications and acute kidney failure were significantly more common in the decease population. Direct mitral paravalvular leak suturing was more frequently performed on early apparition, anterior and isolated leaks, whereas a mitral heart valve replacement was most often performed to cure active primary endocarditis. The incidence of complications and mortality rates were identical according to the approach and the type of operation performed. A mitral para-prosthetic leak recurrence was observed in 33% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Surgical treatment of mitral para-prosthetic leaks is accompanied by a high mortality rate. The operative strategy plays a major role and can influence the morbidity-mortality encountered in those patients.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Falha de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/anormalidades , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Crit Care ; 40: 31-35, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28314169

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Increased bilirubin concentrations may be related to outcome, but this has not been well studied. We evaluated the relationship between total serum bilirubin levels and outcome in critically ill patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were analyzed from adult critically ill patients included in a 1-day international prevalence study after excluding those with an obvious underlying cause of hyperbilirubinemia. RESULTS: Serum bilirubin concentrations were >1 mg/dL in 2803 (31%) of 8973 patients, and these patients had higher mortality rates than patients with lower bilirubin concentrations (30% vs 21%, P<.01). For serum bilirubin values of 1.1-6 mg/dL, there was a linear increase in crude mortality (R2=0.96), with the highest hospital mortality (42%) in patients with bilirubin concentrations between 3.7 and 6.0 mg/dL. There was no further increase in the mortality rates for patients with bilirubin concentrations >6 mg/dL. A serum bilirubin concentration >1 mg/dL was an independent risk factor for mortality in multilevel analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperbilirubinemia without a recognized cause was common and independently associated with increased mortality. There was a linear correlation of mortality with bilirubin concentration for values between 1 and 6 mg/dL but not for higher values.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Hiperbilirrubinemia/mortalidade , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Bilirrubina/sangue , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hiperbilirrubinemia/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
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