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1.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831306

RESUMO

In diabetic patients, medial vascular calcification is common and associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Excessive glucose concentrations can activate the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-kB) and trigger pro-calcific effects in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which may actively augment vascular calcification. Zinc is able to mitigate phosphate-induced VSMC calcification. Reduced serum zinc levels have been reported in diabetes mellitus. Therefore, in this study the effects of zinc supplementation were investigated in primary human aortic VSMCs exposed to excessive glucose concentrations. Zinc treatment was found to abrogate the stimulating effects of high glucose on VSMC calcification. Furthermore, zinc was found to blunt the increased expression of osteogenic and chondrogenic markers in high glucose-treated VSMCs. High glucose exposure was shown to activate NF-kB in VSMCs, an effect that was blunted by additional zinc treatment. Zinc was further found to increase the expression of TNFα-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) in high glucose-treated VSMCs. The silencing of TNFAIP3 was shown to abolish the protective effects of zinc on high glucose-induced NF-kB-dependent transcriptional activation, osteogenic marker expression, and the calcification of VSMCs. Silencing of the zinc-sensing receptor G protein-coupled receptor 39 (GPR39) was shown to abolish zinc-induced TNFAIP3 expression and the effects of zinc on high glucose-induced osteogenic marker expression. These observations indicate that zinc may be a protective factor during vascular calcification in hyperglycemic conditions.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(22): e021094, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743540

RESUMO

Background Although safety and tolerability of vericiguat were established in the VICTORIA (Vericiguat Global Study in Subjects With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction) trial in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, some subgroups may be more susceptible to symptomatic hypotension, such as older patients, those with lower baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP), or those concurrently taking angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors. We described the SBP trajectories over time and compared the occurrence of symptomatic hypotension or syncope by treatment arm in potentially vulnerable subgroups in VICTORIA. We also evaluated the relation between the efficacy of vericiguat and baseline SBP. Methods and Results Among patients receiving at least 1 dose of the study drug (n=5034), potentially vulnerable subgroups were those >75 years old (n=1395), those with baseline SBP 100-110 mm Hg (n=1344), and those taking angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (n=730). SBP trajectory was plotted as mean change from baseline over time. The treatment effect on time to symptomatic hypotension or syncope was evaluated overall and by subgroup, and the primary efficacy composite outcome (heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death) across baseline SBP was examined using Cox proportional hazards models. SBP trajectories showed a small initial decline in SBP with vericiguat in those >75 years old (versus younger patients), as well as those receiving angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (versus none), with SBP returning to baseline thereafter. Patients with SBP <110 mm Hg at baseline showed a trend to increasing SBP over time, which was similar in both treatment arms. Safety event rates were generally low and similar between treatment arms within each subgroup. In Cox proportional hazards analysis, there were similar numbers of safety events with vericiguat versus placebo (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.18; 95% CI, 0.99-1.39; P=0.059). No difference existed between treatment arms in landmark analysis beginning after the titration phase (ie, post 4 weeks) (adjusted HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.93-1.38; P=0.20). The benefit of vericiguat compared with placebo on the primary composite efficacy outcome was similar across the spectrum of baseline SBP (P for interaction=0.32). Conclusions These data demonstrate the safety of vericiguat in a broad population of patients with worsening heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, even among those predisposed to hypotension. Vericiguat's efficacy persisted regardless of baseline SBP. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02861534.

3.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 739907, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778401

RESUMO

Background: Obesity can influence the structure and function of the atrium, but most studies focused on the relationship of body mass index (BMI) and overt left atrium (LA) dysfunction as assessed by clinical imaging. We combined the assessment of right atrium (RA) function in vivo and in vitro in obese and non-obese patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery. Methods: Atrial structure and function were quantified pre-operatively by echocardiography. RA tissue removed for the establishment of extracorporeal support was collected and RA trabeculae function was quantified in vitro at baseline and with adrenergic stimulation (isoproterenol). Fatty acid-binding protein 3 (FABP3) was quantified in RA tissue. Results were stratified according to the BMI of the patients. Results: About 76 patients were included pre-operatively for the echocardiographic analysis. RA trabeculae function at baseline was finally quantified from 46 patients and RA function in 28 patients was also assessed with isoproterenol. There was no significant correlation between BMI and the parameters of atrial function measured by the clinical echocardiography. However, in vitro measurements revealed a significant correlation between BMI and a prolonged relaxation of the atrial myocardium at baseline, which persisted after controlling for the atrial fibrillation and diabetes by the partial correlation analysis. Acceleration of relaxation with isoproterenol was significantly lower in the obese group (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). As a result, relaxation with adrenergic stimulation in the obese group remained significantly higher compared to the overweight group (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2, p = 0.027) and normal group (18.5 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 25 kg/m2, p = 0.036). There were no differences on impacts of the isoproterenol on (systolic) developed force between groups. The expression of FABP3 in the obese group was significantly higher compared to the normal group (p = 0.049) and the correlation analysis showed the significant correlations between the level of FABP3 in the RA trabeculae function. Conclusion: A higher BMI is associated with the early subclinical changes of RA myocardial function with the slowed relaxation and reduced adrenergic lusitropy.

4.
Biochem Biophys Rep ; 28: 101162, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761128

RESUMO

Background: Calpains are calcium activated cysteine proteases that play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of cardiac remodeling. Methods: Here, we performed left anterior descending coronary artery ligation in rats as a model for ischemic systolic heart failure and examined the time- and region-specific regulation of calpain-1 and calpain-2 in the left ventricular myocardium. Results: Following anterior wall myocardial infarction, calpain activity was significantly increased restricted to the ischemic anterior area at days 1, 5 and 14. No changes in calpain activity at neither time point were detected in the borderzone and remote posterior area of the left ventricle. Of note, calpain activity in the infarcted anterior myocardium was regulated differentially in the acute vs. subacute and chronic phase. In the acute phase, calpain translocation to the plasma membrane and attenuation of the expression of its endogenous inhibitor, calpastatin, were identified as the driving forces. In the subacute and chronic phase, calpain activity was regulated at the level of protein expression that was shown to be essentially independent of transcriptional activity. Conclusions: We conclude that myocardial infarction leads to a distinct calpain regulation pattern in the left ventricular myocardium that is region specific and time dependent. Considering the results from our previous studies, a spatio-temporal interaction between calpains and calcium dependent natriuretic peptide production in the infarcted myocardium is possible. General significance: Our results shed more light in the differential regulation of calpain activity in the myocardium and might aid in the development of targeted post-infarct and/or heart failure therapeutics.

5.
Heart Rhythm ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent case reports and small studies have reported activation of the magnet-sensitive switches in cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) by the new iPhone 12 series, initiating asynchronous pacing in pacemakers and suspension of anti-tachycardia therapies in ICDs. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We performed a prospective single-center observational study to quantify the risk of magnetic field interactions of the iPhone 12 with CIEDs. A representative model of each CIED series from all manufacturers was tested ex vivo. Incidence and minimum distance necessary for magnet mode triggering were analyzed in 164 CIED patients with either the front or the back of the phone facing the device. The magnetic field of the iPhone 12 was analyzed using a 3-axis hall probe. RESULTS: Ex vivo, magnetic interferences occurred in 84.6% with the back compared to 46.2% with the front of the iPhone 12 facing the CIED. In vivo, activation of the magnet-sensitive switch occurred in 30 CIED patients (18.3%; 21 pacemaker, 9 ICDs) when the iPhone 12 was placed in close proximity over the CIED pocket and the back of the phone was facing the skin. Multiple binary logistic regression analysis identified the implantation depth (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02 to 0.24) as independent predictor of magnet-sensitive switch activation. CONCLUSION: Magnetic field interactions occur only in close proximity, and with precise alignment of the iPhone 12 and CIEDs. It is important to advise CIED patients to not put the iPhone 12 directly on the skin above the CIED. Further recommendations are not necessary.

6.
JAMA ; 326(19): 1919-1929, 2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783839

RESUMO

Importance: There is limited evidence on the benefits of sacubitril/valsartan vs broader renin angiotensin system inhibitor background therapy on surrogate outcome markers, 6-minute walk distance, and quality of life in patients with heart failure and mildly reduced or preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF >40%). Objective: To evaluate the effect of sacubitril/valsartan on N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels, 6-minute walk distance, and quality of life vs background medication-based individualized comparators in patients with chronic heart failure and LVEF of more than 40%. Design, Setting, and Participants: A 24-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel group clinical trial (August 2017-October 2019). Of 4632 patients screened at 396 centers in 32 countries, 2572 patients with heart failure, LVEF of more than 40%, elevated NT-proBNP levels, structural heart disease, and reduced quality of life were enrolled (last follow-up, October 28, 2019). Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 either to sacubitril/valsartan (n = 1286) or to background medication-based individualized comparator (n = 1286), ie, enalapril, valsartan, or placebo stratified by prior use of a renin angiotensin system inhibitor. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary end points were change from baseline in plasma NT-proBNP level at week 12 and in the 6-minute walk distance at week 24. Secondary end points were change from baseline in quality of life measures and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class at 24 weeks. Results: Among 2572 randomized patients (mean age, 72.6 years [SD, 8.5 years]; 1301 women [50.7%]), 2240 (87.1%) completed the trial. At baseline, the median NT-proBNP levels were 786 pg/mL in the sacubitril/valsartan group and 760 pg/mL in the comparator group. After 12 weeks, patients in the sacubitril/valsartan group (adjusted geometric mean ratio to baseline, 0.82 pg/mL) had a significantly greater reduction in NT-proBNP levels than did those in the comparator group (adjusted geometric mean ratio to baseline, 0.98 pg/mL) with an adjusted geometric mean ratio of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.80 to 0.88; P < .001). At week 24, there was no significant between-group difference in median change from baseline in the 6-minute walk distance with an increase of 9.7 m vs 12.2 m (adjusted mean difference, -2.5 m; 95% CI, -8.5 to 3.5; P = .42). There was no significant between-group difference in the mean change in the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire clinical summary score (12.3 vs 11.8; mean difference, 0.52; 95% CI, -0.93 to 1.97) or improvement in NYHA class (23.6% vs 24.0% of patients; adjusted odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.18). The most frequent adverse events in the sacubitril/valsartan group vs the comparator group were hypotension (14.1% vs 5.5%), albuminuria (12.3% vs 7.6%), and hyperkalemia (11.6% vs 10.9%). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with heart failure and left ventricular ejection factor of higher than 40%, sacubitril/valsartan treatment compared with standard renin angiotensin system inhibitor treatment or placebo resulted in a significantly greater decrease in plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels at 12 weeks but did not significantly improve 6-minute walk distance at 24 weeks. Further research is warranted to evaluate potential clinical benefits of sacubitril/valsartan in these patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03066804.


Assuntos
Aminobutiratos/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Tolerância ao Exercício/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Valsartana/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aminobutiratos/efeitos adversos , Aminobutiratos/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Compostos de Bifenilo/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Volume Sistólico , Valsartana/efeitos adversos , Valsartana/farmacologia , Teste de Caminhada
8.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685778

RESUMO

The pathophysiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is poorly understood and therapeutic strategies are lacking. This study aimed to identify plasma proteins with pathophysiological relevance in HFpEF and with respect to spironolactone-induced effects. We assessed 92 biomarkers in plasma samples from 386 HFpEF patients-belonging to the Aldo-DHF trial-before (baseline, BL) and after one-year treatment (follow up, FU) with spironolactone (verum) or a placebo. At BL, various biomarkers showed significant associations with the two Aldo-DHF primary end point parameters: 33 with E/e' and 20 with peak VO2. Ten proteins including adrenomedullin, FGF23 and inflammatory peptides (e.g., TNFRSF11A, TRAILR2) were significantly associated with both parameters, suggesting a role in the clinical HFpEF presentation. For 13 proteins, expression changes from BL to FU were significantly different between verum and placebo. Among them were renin, growth hormone, adrenomedullin and inflammatory proteins (e.g., TNFRSF11A, IL18 and IL4RA), indicating distinct spironolactone-mediated effects. BL levels of five proteins, e.g., inflammatory markers such as CCL17, IL4RA and IL1ra, showed significantly different effects on the instantaneous risk for hospitalization between verum and placebo. This study identified plasma proteins with different implications in HFpEF and following spironolactone treatment. Future studies need to define their precise mechanistic involvement.

9.
Metabolites ; 11(9)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564437

RESUMO

Lipids represent a valuable target for metabolomic studies since altered lipid metabolism is known to drive the pathological changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Metabolomic technologies give us the ability to measure thousands of metabolites providing us with a metabolic fingerprint of individual patients. Metabolomic studies in humans have supported previous findings into the pathomechanisms of CVD, namely atherosclerosis, apoptosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. The most widely studied classes of lipid metabolite biomarkers in CVD are phospholipids, sphingolipids/ceramides, glycolipids, cholesterol esters, fatty acids, and acylcarnitines. Technological advancements have enabled novel strategies to discover individual biomarkers or panels that may aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of CVD, with sphingolipids/ceramides as the most promising class of biomarkers thus far. In this review, application of metabolomic profiling for biomarker discovery to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of CVD as well as metabolic abnormalities in CVD will be discussed with particular emphasis on lipid metabolites.

10.
Pharmacotherapy ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569641

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine if variants in NR3C2, which codes the target protein of spironolactone, or CYP11B2, which is involved in aldosterone synthesis, were associated with spironolactone response, focused on the primary end point of diastolic function (E/e'), in Aldosterone Receptor Blockade in Diastolic Heart Failure (Aldo-DHF) participants. DESIGN: Post-hoc genetic analysis. DATA SOURCE: Data and samples were derived from the multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Aldo-DHF trial. PATIENTS: Aldo-DHF participants treated with spironolactone (n = 184) or placebo (n = 178) were included. INTERVENTION: Participants were genotyped for NR3C2 rs5522, NR3C2 rs2070951 and CYP11B2 rs1799998 via pyrosequencing. MEASUREMENTS: In the placebo and spironolactone arms, separate multivariable linear regression analyses were performed for change in E/e' with each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), adjusted for age, sex, and baseline E/e'. To discern potential mechanisms of a genotype effect, associated SNPs were further examined for their association with change in blood pressure, circulating procollagen type III N-terminal peptide (PIIINP), and left atrial area. MAIN RESULTS: Carriers of the rs5522 G allele in the placebo arm had a greater increase in E/e' over the 12-month course of the trial compared to noncarriers (ß = 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05-2.16; p = 0.04). No corresponding E/e' worsening by rs5522 genotype was observed in the spironolactone arm. None of the other genotypes were associated with change in E/e'. Compared to noncarriers, rs5522 G carriers also had a greater increase in left atrial area with placebo (ß = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.17-1.48; p = 0.01) and a greater reduction in diastolic blood pressure with spironolactone (ß = -3.56; 95% CI: -6.73 to -0.39; p = 0.03). Serum PIIINP levels were similar across rs5522 genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that spironolactone attenuates progression of diastolic dysfunction associated with the NR3C2 rs5522 G allele. Validation of our findings is needed.

11.
Pflugers Arch ; 473(12): 1899-1910, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564739

RESUMO

In chronic kidney disease (CKD), hyperphosphatemia promotes medial vascular calcification, a process augmented by osteogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VSMC function is regulated by sympathetic innervation, and these cells express α- and ß-adrenergic receptors. The present study explored the effects of ß2-adrenergic stimulation by isoproterenol on VSMC calcification. Experiments were performed in primary human aortic VSMCs treated with isoproterenol during control or high phosphate conditions. As a result, isoproterenol dose dependently up-regulated the expression of osteogenic markers core-binding factor α-1 (CBFA1) and tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) in VSMCs. Furthermore, prolonged isoproterenol exposure augmented phosphate-induced calcification of VSMCs. Isoproterenol increased the activation of PKA and CREB, while knockdown of the PKA catalytic subunit α (PRKACA) or of CREB1 genes was able to suppress the pro-calcific effects of isoproterenol in VSMCs. ß2-adrenergic receptor silencing or inhibition with the selective antagonist ICI 118,551 blocked isoproterenol-induced osteogenic signalling in VSMCs. The present observations imply a pro-calcific effect of ß2-adrenergic overstimulation in VSMCs, which is mediated, at least partly, by PKA/CREB signalling. These observations may support a link between sympathetic overactivity in CKD and vascular calcification.

12.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508569

RESUMO

AIMS: In patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), exercise training improves the quality of life and aerobic capacity (peakV·O2). Up to 55% of HF patients, however, show no increase in peakV·O2 despite adequate training. We hypothesized that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) can distinguish exercise low responders (LR) from exercise high responders (HR) among HFpEF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We selected HFpEF patients from the Optimizing Exercise Training in Prevention and Treatment of Diastolic HF (OptimEx) study which attended ≥70% of training sessions during 3 months (n = 51). Patients were defined as HR with a change in peakV·O2 above median (6.4%), and LR as below median (n = 30 and n = 21, respectively). Clinical, ergospirometric, and echocardiographic characteristics were similar between LR and HR. We performed an miRNA array (n = 377 miRNAs) in 14 age- and sex-matched patients. A total of 10 miRNAs were upregulated in LR, of which 4 correlated with peakV·O2. Validation in the remaining 37 patients indicated that high miR-181c predicted reduced peakV·O2 response (multiple linear regression, ß = -2.60, P = 0.011), and LR status (multiple logistic regression, odds ratio = 0.48, P = 0.010), independent of age, sex, body mass index, and resting heart rate. Furthermore, miR-181c decreased in LR after exercise training (P-group = 0.030, P-time = 0.048, P-interaction = 0.037). An in silico pathway analysis identified several downstream targets involved in exercise adaptation. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating miR-181c is a marker of the response to exercise training in HFpEF patients. High miR-181c levels can aid in identifying LR prior to training, providing the possibility for individualized management.

13.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 665202, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395550

RESUMO

Objective: In the past years, heart rate (HR) has emerged as a highly relevant modifiable risk factor for heart failure (HF) patients. However, most of the clinical trials so far evaluated the role of HR in stable chronic HF cohorts. The aim of this multi-center, prospective observational study was to assess the association between HR and therapy with HR modulators (beta blockers, ivabradine, or a combination of ivabradine and beta blockers) at hospital discharge with patients' cardiovascular mortality and re-hospitalization at 6 months in acutely decompensated HF patients. Materials and Methods: We recruited 289 HF patients discharged alive after admission for HF decompensation from 10 centers in northern Italy over 9 months (from April 2017 to January 2018). The primary endpoint was the combination of cardiovascular mortality or re-hospitalizations for HF at 6 months. Results: At 6 months after discharge, 64 patients were readmitted (32%), and 39 patients died (16%). Multivariate analysis showed that HR at discharge ≥ 90 bpm (OR = 8.47; p = 0.016) independently predicted cardiovascular mortality, while therapy with beta blockers at discharge was found to reduce the risk of the composite endpoint. In patients receiving HR modulators the event rates for the composite endpoint, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular mortality were lower than in patients not receiving HR modulators. Conclusions: Heart rate at discharge ≥90 bpm predicts cardiovascular mortality, while therapy with beta blockers is negatively associated with the composite endpoint of cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization at 6 months in acutely decompensated HF patients. Patients receiving a HR modulation therapy at hospital discharge showed the lowest rate of cardiovascular mortality and re-hospitalization.

14.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255976, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury associated with cytokine release frequently occurs in SARS-CoV-2 mediated coronavirus disease (COVID19) and mortality is particularly high in these patients. The mechanistic role of the COVID19 associated cytokine-storm for the concomitant cardiac dysfunction and associated arrhythmias is unclear. Moreover, the role of anti-inflammatory therapy to mitigate cardiac dysfunction remains elusive. AIMS AND METHODS: We investigated the effects of COVID19-associated inflammatory response on cardiac cellular function as well as its cardiac arrhythmogenic potential in rat and induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CM). In addition, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of the IL-1ß antagonist Canakinumab using state of the art in-vitro confocal and ratiometric high-throughput microscopy. RESULTS: Isolated rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were exposed to control or COVID19 serum from intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe ARDS and impaired cardiac function (LVEF 41±5%; 1/3 of patients on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; CK 154±43 U/l). Rat cardiomyocytes showed an early increase of myofilament sensitivity, a decrease of Ca2+ transient amplitudes and altered baseline [Ca2+] upon exposure to patient serum. In addition, we used iPS-CM to explore the long-term effect of patient serum on cardiac electrical and mechanical function. In iPS-CM, spontaneous Ca2+ release events were more likely to occur upon incubation with COVID19 serum and nuclear as well as cytosolic Ca2+ release were altered. Co-incubation with Canakinumab had no effect on pro-arrhythmogenic Ca2+ release or Ca2+ signaling during excitation-contraction coupling, nor significantly influenced cellular automaticity. CONCLUSION: Serum derived from COVID19 patients exerts acute cardio-depressant and chronic pro-arrhythmogenic effects in rat and iPS-derived cardiomyocytes. Canakinumab had no beneficial effect on cellular Ca2+ signaling during excitation-contraction coupling. The presented method utilizing iPS-CM and in-vitro Ca2+ imaging might serve as a novel tool for precision medicine. It allows to investigate cytokine related cardiac dysfunction and pharmacological approaches useful therein.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Arritmias Cardíacas , COVID-19 , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Arritmias Cardíacas/patologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/patologia
15.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 689255, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381823

RESUMO

Background: Myocardial efficiency should be maintained stable under light-to-moderate stress conditions, but ischemia puts the myocardium at risk for impaired functionality. Additionally, the measurement of such efficiency typically requires invasive heart catheterization and exposure to ionizing radiation. In this work, we aimed to non-invasively assess myocardial power and the resulting efficiency during pharmacological stress testing and ischemia induction. Methods: In a cohort of n = 10 healthy Landrace pigs, dobutamine stress testing was performed, followed by verapamil-induced ischemia alongside cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. External myocardial power, internal myocardial power, and myocardial efficiency were assessed non-invasively using geometrical and functional parameters from CMR volumetric as well as blood flow and pressure measurements. Results: External myocardial power significantly increased under dobutamine stress [2.3 (1.6-3.1) W/m2 vs. 1.3 (1.1-1.6) W/m2, p = 0.005] and significantly decreased under verapamil-induced ischemia [0.8 (0.5-0.9) W/m2, p = 0.005]. Internal myocardial power [baseline: 5.9 (4.6-8.5) W/m2] was not affected by dobutamine [7.5 (6.9-9.0) W/m2, p = 0.241] nor verapamil [5.8 (4.7-8.8) W/m2, p = 0.878]. Myocardial efficiency did not change from baseline to dobutamine [21% (15-27) vs. 31% (20-44), p = 0.059] but decreased significantly during verapamil-induced ischemia [10% (8-13), p = 0.005]. Conclusion: In healthy Landrace pigs, dobutamine stress increased external myocardial power, whereas myocardial efficiency was maintained stable. On the contrary, verapamil-induced ischemia substantially decreased external myocardial power and myocardial efficiency. Non-invasive CMR was able to quantify these efficiency losses and might be useful for future clinical studies evaluating the effects of therapeutic interventions on myocardial energetics.

16.
Circulation ; 144(18): 1489-1499, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the VICTORIA trial (Vericiguat Global Study in Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction), anemia occurred more often in patients treated with vericiguat (7.6%) than with placebo (5.7%). We explored the association between vericiguat, randomization hemoglobin, development of anemia, and whether the benefit of vericiguat related to baseline hemoglobin. METHODS: Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <13.0 g/dL in men and <12.0 g/dL in women (World Health Organization Anemia). Adverse events reported as anemia were also evaluated. We assessed the risk-adjusted relationship between hemoglobin and hematocrit with the primary outcome (composite of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization) and the time-updated hemoglobin relationship to outcomes. RESULTS: At baseline, 1719 (35.7%) patients had World Health Organization anemia; median hemoglobin was 13.4 g/L (25th, 75th percentile: 12.1, 14.7 g/dL). At 16 weeks from randomization, 1643 patients had World Health Organization anemia (284 new for vericiguat and 219 for placebo), which occurred more often with vericiguat than placebo (P<0.001). After 16 weeks, no further decline in hemoglobin occurred over 96 weeks of follow-up and the ratio of hemoglobin/hematocrit remained constant. Overall, adverse event anemia occurred in 342 patients (7.1%). A lower hemoglobin was unrelated to the treatment benefit of vericiguat (versus placebo) on the primary outcome. In addition, analysis of time-updated hemoglobin revealed no association with the treatment effect of vericiguat (versus placebo) on the primary outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia was common at randomization and lower hemoglobin was associated with a greater frequency of clinical events. Although vericiguat modestly lowered hemoglobin by 16 weeks, this effect did not further progress nor was it related to the treatment benefit of vericiguat. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov: Unique identifier: NCT02861534.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(17): e020351, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423658

RESUMO

Background Phenylketonuria is the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism, where oxidative stress and collateral metabolic abnormalities are likely to cause cardiac structural and functional modifications. We aim herein to characterize the cardiac phenotype of adult subjects with phenylketonuria using advanced cardiac imaging. Methods and Results Thirty-nine adult patients with phenylketonuria (age, 30.5±8.7 years; 10-year mean phenylalanine concentration, 924±330 µmol/L) and 39 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were investigated. Participants underwent a comprehensive cardiac magnetic resonance and echocardiography examination. Ten-year mean plasma levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine were used to quantify disease activity and adherence to treatment. Patients with phenylketonuria had thinner left ventricular walls (septal end-diastolic thickness, 7.0±17 versus 8.8±1.7 mm [P<0.001]; lateral thickness, 6.1±1.4 versus 6.8±1.2 mm [P=0.004]), more dilated left ventricular cavity (end-diastolic volume, 87±14 versus 80±14 mL/m2 [P=0.0178]; end-systolic volume, 36±9 versus 29±8 mL/m2 [P<0.001]), lower ejection fraction (59±6% versus 64±6% [P<0.001]), reduced systolic deformation (global circumferential strain, -29.9±4.2 % versus -32.2±5.0 % [P=0.027]), and lower left ventricular mass (38.2±7.9 versus 47.8±11.0 g/m2 [P<0.001]). T1 native values were decreased (936±53 versus 996±26 ms [P<0.001]), with particular low values in patients with phenylalanine >1200 µmol/L (909±48 ms). Both mean phenylalanine (P=0.013) and tyrosine (P=0.035) levels were independently correlated with T1; and in a multiple regression model, higher phenylalanine levels and higher left ventricular mass associate with lower T1. Conclusions Cardiac phenotype of adult patients with phenylketonuria reveals some traits of an early-stage cardiomyopathy. Regular cardiology follow-up, tighter therapeutic control, and prophylaxis of cardiovascular risk factors, in particular dyslipidemia, are recommended.

18.
J Card Fail ; 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prediction of outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) may inform prognosis, clinical decisions regarding treatment selection, and new trial planning. The VICTORIA trial included high-risk patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction and a recent worsening HF event. The study participants had an unusually high event rate despite usage of contemporary guideline-based therapies. To provide generalizable predictive data for a broad population with a recent worsening HF event, we focused on risk prognostication in the placebo group. METHODS: Data from 2524 participants randomized to placebo with chronic HF (New York Heart Association class [NYHA] II-IV) and ejection fraction <45% were studied and backward variable selection was used to create Cox proportional hazards models for clinical endpoints, selecting from 66 candidate predictors. Final model results were produced, accounting for missing data, non-linearities, and interactions with treatment. Optimism-corrected c-indices were calculated using 200 bootstrap samples. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 10.4 months, the primary outcome of HF hospitalization or cardiovascular death occurred in 972 (38.5%) patients. Independent predictors of increased risk for the primary endpoint included HF characteristics (longer HF duration and worse NYHA class), medical history (prior myocardial infarction), and laboratory values (higher N-terminal pro-hormone B-type natriuretic peptide, bilirubin, urate; lower chloride and albumin). Optimism-corrected c-indices were 0.68 for the HF hospitalization/cardiovascular death model, 0.68 for HF hospitalization/all-cause death, 0.72 for cardiovascular death, and 0.73 for all-cause death. CONCLUSIONS: Predictive models developed in a large diverse clinical trial with comprehensive clinical and laboratory baseline data-including novel measures-performed well in high-risk HF patients who were receiving excellent guideline-based clinical care. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier, NCT02861534. LAY SUMMARY: Patients with heart failure may benefit from tools that help clinicians better understand patient's risk for future events like hospitalization. Relatively few risk models have been created after worsening of heart failure in a contemporary cohort. We provide insights on risk factors for clinical events from a recent large, global trial of patients with worsening heart failure to help clinicians better understand and communicate prognosis and select treatment options.

19.
J Card Fail ; 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prediction of outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) may inform prognosis, clinical decisions regarding treatment selection, and new trial planning. The VerICiguaT Global Study in Subjects With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction included high-risk patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction and a recent worsening HF event. The study participants had a high event rate despite the use of contemporary guideline-based therapies. To provide generalizable predictive data for a broad population with a recent worsening HF event, we focused on risk prognostication in the placebo group. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 2524 participants randomized to placebo with chronic HF (New York Heart Association functional class II-IV) and an ejection fraction of less than 45% were studied and backward variable selection was used to create Cox proportional hazards models for clinical end points, selecting from 66 candidate predictors. Final model results were produced, accounting for missing data, and nonlinearities. Optimism-corrected c-indices were calculated using 200 bootstrap samples. Over a median follow-up of 10.4 months, the primary outcome of HF hospitalization or cardiovascular death occurred in 972 patients (38.5%). Independent predictors of increased risk for the primary end point included HF characteristics (longer HF duration and worse New York Heart Association functional class), medical history (prior myocardial infarction), and laboratory values (higher N-terminal pro-hormone B-type natriuretic peptide, bilirubin, urate; lower chloride and albumin). Optimism-corrected c-indices were 0.68 for the HF hospitalization/cardiovascular death model, 0.68 for HF hospitalization/all-cause death, 0.72 for cardiovascular death, and 0.73 for all-cause death. CONCLUSIONS: Predictive models developed in a large diverse clinical trial with comprehensive clinical and laboratory baseline data-including novel measures-performed well in high-risk patients with HF who were receiving excellent guideline-based clinical care. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier, NCT02861534.Lay Summary: Patients with heart failure may benefit from tools that help clinicians to better understand a patient's risk for future events like hospitalization. Relatively few risk models have been created after the worsening of heart failure in a contemporary cohort. We provide insights on the risk factors for clinical events from a recent, large, global trial of patients with worsening heart failure to help clinicians better understand and communicate prognosis and select treatment options.

20.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(9): 627-635, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246603

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship among high-sensitivity troponin-T (hs-TnT), outcomes, and treatment with sacubitril/valsartan in patients with heart failure (HF) and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). BACKGROUND: hs-TnT is a marker of myocardial injury in HF. METHODS: The PARAGON-HF trial randomized 4,796 patients with HFpEF to sacubitril/valsartan or valsartan. We compared the risk of the composite outcome of cardiovascular death (CVD) and total HF hospitalization (HHF) according to hs-TnT. We also assessed the effect of allocated treatment on hs-TnT. RESULTS: hs-TnT was available in 1,141 patients (24%) at run-in (median value: 17 ng/L) and 1,260 (26%) at randomization, with 58.3% having hs-TnT >14 ng/L (upper limit of normal). During a median follow-up of 34 months, there were 393 outcome events (82 CVD, 311 HHF). Adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), log-hs-TnT at randomization was an independent predictor of the composite outcome (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.19-1.59; P < 0.001). Compared with valsartan, sacubitril/valsartan significantly reduced hs-TnT by 9% at week 16 (P < 0.001). Patients whose hs-TnT decreased from randomization to 16 weeks to at or below the median value of 17 ng/L subsequently had a lower risk of CVD/HHF compared with those with persistently elevated hs-TnT (P = 0.046). Patients with higher baseline hs-TnT (>17 ng/L) appeared to have a greater benefit from sacubitril/valsartan treatment when accounting for other potential effect modifiers (P interaction = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Higher baseline hs-TnT was associated with increased risk of CVD/HHF, whereas hs-TnT decrease at 16 weeks led to lower subsequent risk of CVD/HHF compared with those who had persistently elevated values. Sacubitril/valsartan significantly reduced hs-TnT compared with valsartan. hs-TnT may be helpful in identifying patients with HFpEF who are more likely to benefit from sacubitril/valsartan.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Troponina T , Aminobutiratos/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Bifenilo , Combinação de Medicamentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Volume Sistólico , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Valsartana/uso terapêutico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
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