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1.
Cancer Discov ; 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522273

RESUMO

The majority of metastatic colorectal cancers (mCRC) are mismatch repair (MMR) proficient and unresponsive to immunotherapy, while MMR-deficient (MMRd) tumors often respond to immune-checkpoint-blockade. We previously reported that treatment of CRC preclinical models with temozolomide (TMZ) leads to MMR-deficiency, increased tumor mutational burden (TMB) and sensitization to immunotherapy. To clinically translate these findings, we designed the ARETHUSA clinical trial whereby O6-Methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) deficient, MMR-proficient, RAS mutant mCRC patients received priming therapy with TMZ. Analysis of tissue biopsies and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) revealed the emergence of a distinct mutational signature and increased TMB after TMZ treatment. Multiple alterations in the nucleotide context favored by the TMZ signature emerged in MMR genes and the p.T1219I MSH6 variant was detected in ctDNA and tissue of 94% (16/17) of the cases. A patient's subset whose tumors displayed the MSH6 mutation, the TMZ mutational signature and increased TMB, achieved disease stabilization upon pembrolizumab treatment.

2.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 6: e2200015, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476549

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In GI cancers, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements are extremely less frequent than in non-small-cell lung cancer but may be important to offer personalized strategies of treatment in selected patients. Data about the activity and efficacy of ALK inhibitors (ALKi) in GI cancers are scarce. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assembled a clinical and molecular international data set of pretreated patients with metastatic or nonresectable cancers of GI primary tumor origin with documented ALK rearrangement treated with at least one line of ALKi. Measurable disease as per RECIST 1.1 was required for response analysis. RESULTS: Primary tumor sites were distributed as follows: 5 (38%) pancreas, 3 (23%) right colon, and 1 (8%) for each one of gastric, duodenal, rectal, left colon, and biliary tract sites. Seven patients (54%) were treated with alectinib, 5 (38%) with crizotinib, and 1 (8%) with entrectinib. After disease progression, five patients (38%) received a subsequent ALKi treatment line, and at the time of data cutoff date, treatment was still ongoing in two patients. Five of 12 evaluable patients (41%) achieved a partial response to first-line ALKi, five patients (41%) had stable disease, and 2 (17%) had progressive disease. No complete responses were registered. At a median follow-up of 39.6 months (interquartile range: 19.8-59.5), the median progression-free survival was 5.0 months (95% CI, 3.68 to no response) and the median overall survival was 9.3 months (95% CI, 5.46 to no response). CONCLUSION: Treatment with ALKi provides remarkable responses and clinical benefit in pretreated patients with ALK fusion-positive GI malignancies. Despite the rarity, ALK rearrangements represent an important therapeutic target in individual pretreated patients with GI solid tumors. Further work providing prospective clinical validation of this target is needed.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Crizotinibe/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
3.
Eur J Cancer ; 167: 23-31, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We performed a pooled analysis of TRIBE and TRIBE2 studies to assess the efficacy and safety of the intensification of upfront chemotherapy backbone - from doublets to the triplet FOLFOXIRI - in combination with bevacizumab (bev) in patients with early-onset metastatic colorectal cancer (EO-mCRC; aged <50 years) and to explore whether EO-mCRCs have a peculiar tumour genomic profiling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subgroup analyses according to age (<50 versus ≥50 years) and treatment (FOLFOXIRI/bev versus doublets/bev) were carried out for rates of any grade and grade ≥3 (≥G3) overall and singular adverse events, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and objective response rate (ORR). Tumour genomic profiling was obtained using a DNA-based next-generation sequencing platform. RESULTS: Of 1187 patients included, 194 (16%) patients were aged <50 years. Females were more frequently diagnosed with EO-mCRC (P = 0.04). Patients aged <50 years showed a lower risk of ≥G3 neutropenia (P = 0.07), diarrhoea (P = 0.04), asthenia (P = 0.008) and a higher risk of any grade nausea (P < 0.01) and vomiting (P < 0.01). Patients receiving FOLFOXIRI/bev more frequently experienced ≥G3 chemotherapy-related adverse events respect to doublets/bev, regardless of age (Pinteraction = 0.60). FOLFOXIRI/bev was associated to a lower incidence of neutropenia (P = 0.04) and asthenia (P = 0.01) in patients <50 years old, than those aged ≥50 years. PFS, OS and ORR did not differ according to age (PFS P = 0.81, OS P = 0.44, ORR P = 0.50) and no interaction between age and the benefit from the intensification of upfront chemotherapy was observed (PFS Pinteraction = 0.72, OS Pinteraction = 0.54, ORR Pinteraction = 0.65). Genomic profiling was assessed in 296 patients, showing an enrichment of FBXW7 and POLE mutations in EO-mCRC. CONCLUSIONS: Upfront FOLFOXIRI/bev shows a favourable efficacy/safety balance in EO-mCRC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers NCT00719797, NCT0233-9116.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neutropenia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Astenia/induzido quimicamente , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Compostos Organoplatínicos
4.
J Clin Oncol ; 40(14): 1562-1573, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35258987

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This is a multicenter, single-arm phase II trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of an immune-sensitizing strategy with temozolomide priming followed by a combination of low-dose ipilimumab and nivolumab in patients with microsatellite-stable (MSS) and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT)-silenced metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with pretreated mCRC were centrally prescreened for MSS status and MGMT silencing (ie, lack of MGMT expression by immunohistochemistry plus MGMT methylation by pyrosequencing). Eligible patients received two priming cycles of oral temozolomide 150 mg/sqm once daily, days 1-5, once every 4 weeks (first treatment part) followed, in absence of progression, by its combination with ipilimumab 1 mg/kg once every 8 weeks and nivolumab 480 mg once every 4 weeks (second treatment part). The primary end point was the 8-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate calculated from enrollment in patients who started the second treatment part, with ≥ 4 out of 27 subjects progression-free by the 8-month time point as decision rule. RESULTS: Among 716 prescreened patients, 204 (29%) were molecularly eligible and 135 started the first treatment part. Among these, 102 (76%) were discontinued because of death or disease progression on temozolomide priming, whereas 33 patients (24%) who achieved disease control started the second treatment part and represented the final study population. After a median follow-up of 23.1 months (interquartile range, 14.9-24.6 months), 8-month PFS rate was 36%. Median PFS and overall survival were 7.0 and 18.4 months, respectively, and overall response rate was 45%. Grade 3-4 immune-related adverse events were skin rash (6%), colitis (3%), and hypophysitis (3%). No unexpected adverse events or treatment-related deaths were reported. CONCLUSION: The MAYA study provided proof-of-concept that a sequence of temozolomide priming followed by a combination of low-dose ipilimumab and nivolumab may induce durable clinical benefit in MSS and MGMT-silenced mCRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Retais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Humanos , Ipilimumab , Repetições de Microssatélites , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , O(6)-Metilguanina-DNA Metiltransferase/genética , O(6)-Metilguanina-DNA Metiltransferase/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico
5.
Oncologist ; 27(1): e29-e36, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35305093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with RAS/BRAF wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), growing evidence supports anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) retreatment, whereas little is known on the outcomes of anti-EGFR-based reinduction therapy during the upfront strategy. METHODS: We included patients enrolled in the Valentino study who had disease progression and received at least one dose of post-progression therapy. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression were used for the survival analysis. When comparing the outcomes of anti-EGFR-based reinduction versus any second line, a propensity score-based matching was used. RESULTS: Liver-limited/single site of disease (P < .001 and P = .002), left-sidedness (P = .029), surgery of metastases (P = .003), early tumor shrinkage, and deeper responses (P = .018 and P = .036) were associated with the use of anti-EGFR-based reinduction versus any other second line. All patients treated with reinduction had an anti-EGFR-free interval of at least 3 months. In the propensity score-matched population, progression-free survival (PFS) was similar in the 2 treatment groups, the overall survival (OS) was significantly longer for patients treated with reinduction (P = .029), and the response rate was higher in patients treated with reinduction (P = .033). An oxaliplatin-free interval ≥12 months, left-sidedness, and molecular hyperselection beyond RAS/BRAF were associated with significantly better outcomes after anti-EGFR-based reinduction. CONCLUSIONS: Reinduction strategies with anti-EGFR-based regimens are commonly used in clinical practice. Our data highlight the importance of clinical-molecular selection for re-treatments and the need for prospective strategy trials in selected populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Retais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Humanos , Panitumumabe/farmacologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Eur J Cancer ; 165: 116-124, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No biomarkers are currently available to predict the efficacy of trifluridine/tipiracil (FTD/TPI) in chemorefractory metastatic colorectal cancer. The multicohort REGOLAND study aims at exploring and validating circulating markers potentially able to predict benefit from regorafenib in this setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the retrospective 'regorafenib exploratory cohort', including 105 patients treated with regorafenib, baseline (d1) plasma levels of angiogenesis-related biomarkers and their early modulation after 15 days (d15) of treatment were investigated for correlation with clinical outcome. Based on a pre-specified statistical hypothesis, main retrospective findings were prospectively challenged in the 'regorafenib validation cohort', including 100 patients treated with regorafenib. Prospectively validated putative biomarkers were then assessed in the control 'FTD/TPI cohort', including 93 patients treated with FTD/TPI. RESULTS: In the 'regorafenib exploratory cohort', the early (d15) increase of Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) was associated with longer progression-free survival (HR:0.57 [95%CI:0.38-0.88], P = 0.004) and a trend towards longer OS (HR:0.74 [95%CI:0.48-1.14], P = 0.165), than the early decrease. Similar results were prospectively confirmed in the 'regorafenib validation cohort' (HR for progression-free survival:0.72 [95%CI:0.48-1.08], P = 0.095; HR for OS:0.77 [95%CI:0.51-1.16], P = 0.204). No predictive impact was shown for the early modulation of Ang-2 in the 'FTD/TPI cohort'. High baseline Ang-2 levels predict poor prognosis in all the investigated cohorts, independently of other clinical prognostic variables. CONCLUSIONS: The early modulation of circulating Ang-2 predicts the efficacy of regorafenib. Baseline Ang-2 plasma levels are an independent prognostic biomarker in chemorefractory metastatic colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Demência Frontotemporal , Neoplasias Retais , Angiopoietina-2 , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Demência Frontotemporal/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Piridinas , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trifluridina/uso terapêutico
8.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 172: 103647, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248712

RESUMO

Advances in molecular biology have markedly increased our understanding of the heterogeneous molecular landscape of colorectal cancer (CRC). Up to 15% of CRCs harbor the BRAF p.V600E somatic mutation (BRAFmt), a well-established negative prognostic marker in patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC). The BEACON CRC trial set a new standard of care in patients with progressive BRAFmt cancers, consisting of the combination of encorafenib and cetuximab. On these bases, BRAF mutational testing is now recommended in patients with mCRC. However, efforts are needed to further stratify patients carrying this mutation. Here, we discuss the heterogeneous pathologic and molecular landscape of BRAFmt CRCs, focusing on the promises and pitfalls of molecular diagnostics, on novel biomarkers to improve patients' stratification and on the current diagnostic scenario for CRC. We believe that a better stratification based on histopathological features and novel molecular biomarkers should be performed to optimize patient management and therapeutic decision-making.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Colorretais , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética
9.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2102453, 2022 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349370

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Subset analyses from phase III evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition (EGFRi) suggest improved outcomes in patients with EGFR-amplified gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA), but large-scale analyses are lacking. This multi-institutional analysis sought to determine the role of EGFRi in the largest cohort of patients with EGFR-amplified GEA to date. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 60 patients from 15 tertiary cancer centers in six countries met the inclusion criteria. These criteria required histologically confirmed GEA in the metastatic or unresectable setting with EGFR amplification identified by using a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-approved assay, and who received on- or off-protocol EGFRi. Testing could be by tissue next-generation sequencing, plasma circulating tumor DNA next-generation sequencing, and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization performed by a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments approved laboratory. Treatment patterns and outcomes analysis was also performed using a deidentified clinicogenomic database (CGDB). RESULTS: Sixty patients with EGFR-amplified GEA received EGFRi, including 31 of 60 patients (52%) with concurrent chemotherapy. Across treatment lines, patients achieved a 43% objective response rate with a median progression-free survival of 4.6 months (95% CI, 3.5 to 6.4). Patients receiving EGFRi in first-, second-, and third-line therapy achieved a median overall survival of 20.6 months (95% CI, 13.5 to not reached [NR]), 9 months (95% CI, 7.9 to NR), and 8.4 months (7.6 to NR), respectively. This survival far exceeded the 11.2-month (95% CI, 8.7 to 14.2) median overall survival from first-line initiation of non-EGFRi therapy in patients with EGFR-amplified GEA in the CGDB. Despite this benefit, analysis of the CGDB (January 2011-December 2020) suggests that only 5% of patients with EGFR-amplified GEA received EGFRi. CONCLUSION: Patients with EGFR-amplified GEA derive significant benefit from EGFRi. Further prospective investigation of EGFRi in a well-selected patient population is ongoing in an upcoming trial of amivantamab in EGFR and/or MET amplified GEA.

10.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(2)2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35110358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite unprecedented benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in patients with mismatch repair deficient (dMMR)/microsatellite instability high (MSI-H) advanced gastrointestinal cancers, a relevant proportion of patients shows primary resistance or short-term disease control. Since malignant effusions represent an immune-suppressed niche, we investigated whether peritoneal involvement with or without ascites is a poor prognostic factor in patients with dMMR/MSI-H metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and gastric cancer (mGC) receiving ICIs. METHODS: We conducted a global multicohort study at Tertiary Cancer Centers and collected clinic-pathological data from a cohort of patients with dMMR/MSI-H mCRC treated with anti-PD-(L)1 ±anti-CTLA-4 agents at 12 institutions (developing set). A cohort of patients with dMMR/MSI-high mGC treated with anti-PD-1 agents±chemotherapy at five institutions was used as validating dataset. RESULTS: The mCRC cohort included 502 patients. After a median follow-up of 31.2 months, patients without peritoneal metastases and those with peritoneal metastases and no ascites had similar outcomes (adjusted HR (aHR) 1.15, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.56 for progression-free survival (PFS); aHR 0.96, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.42 for overall survival (OS)), whereas inferior outcomes were observed in patients with peritoneal metastases and ascites (aHR 2.90, 95% CI 1.70 to 4.94; aHR 3.33, 95% CI 1.88 to 5.91) compared with patients without peritoneal involvement. The mGC cohort included 59 patients. After a median follow-up of 17.4 months, inferior PFS and OS were reported in patients with peritoneal metastases and ascites (aHR 3.83, 95% CI 1.68 to 8.72; aHR 3.44, 95% CI 1.39 to 8.53, respectively), but not in patients with only peritoneal metastases (aHR 1.87, 95% CI 0.64 to 5.46; aHR 2.15, 95% CI 0.64 to 7.27) when compared with patients without peritoneal involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with dMMR/MSI-H gastrointestinal cancers with peritoneal metastases and ascites should be considered as a peculiar subgroup with highly unfavorable outcomes to current ICI-based therapies. Novel strategies to target the immune-suppressive niche in malignant effusions should be investigated, as well as next-generation ICIs or intraperitoneal approaches.


Assuntos
Ascite/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gástricas/complicações , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Ascite/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Metástase Neoplásica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35101346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a poor prognostic factor in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Here we provide final results of CAVE mCRC trial, of cetuximab plus avelumab rechallenge in chemo-refractory mCRC patients and investigated the predictive role of NLR. METHODS: All the 77 patients enrolled were included in the analysis. A cut-off of 3 was used to correlate baseline NLR with with overall survival (OS) and with progression free survival (PFS), in intention to treat (ITT) and in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) RAS/BRAF Wild Type (WT) patients. RESULTS: In ITT population, NLR <3 (49%) group had median overall survival (mOS) of 17.8 months, vs. 8.9 months in NLR ≥ 3 group (51%) [HR 0.50, (CI 95% 0.3-0.8), P = .006]. Median progression free survival (mPFS) was 3.9 months in NLR <3 group and 3.5 months in NLR≥3 [HR 0.79, (CI 95% 0.5-1.24), P = .3]. In ctDNA RAS/BRAF WT population, mOS was 22 months in NLR <3 group (48%), vs. 8.9 months in NLR ≥3 group (52%), [HR 0.38, (CI 95% 0.19-0.75), P = .005]. A trend towards increased mPFS was observed in patients with NLR <3 versus NLR ≥3: 5.3 vs. 3.6 months [HR: 0.79, (CI 95% 0.44-1.4), P = .43]. In contrast, NLR did not correlate either with PFS or OS in ctDNA RAS/BRAF mutated patients. CONCLUSION: In the exploratory analysis of the CAVE mCRC trial, baseline NLR <3 significantly correlated with improved survival and may represent a potential predictive biomarker of cetuximab plus avelumab rechallenge activity in ctDNA RAS/BRAF WT patients, that must be confirmed in randomized studies.

12.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 103: 102326, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retrospective series suggest that bevacizumab-induced hypertension (HTN) is a prognostic and potentially predictive biomarker of efficacy of the antiangiogenic drug in the upfront treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. The immortal-time bias and the effect of pre-existing HTN might affect these findings. We conducted a pooled, post hoc analysis of 2 prospective randomized trials of chemotherapy plus bevacizumab in mCRC, and performed a systematic review of the available literature focusing on how the immortal-time bias was taken into account and how pre-existing HTN potentially requiring the use of antihypertensive drugs was managed. METHODS: The pooled-analysis included patients enrolled in the phase III TRIBE and TRIBE-2 studies that compared upfront FOLFOXIRI + bevacizumab to FOLFIRI or FOLFOX + bevacizumab, respectively. Association between HTN and survival outcomes was assessed by incorporating a time-dependent Cox regression model to consider the time-dependency of the probability of HTN onset during the treatment. The systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: The systematic review retrieved 14 eligible and highly heterogeneous studies. A positive prognostic impact of bevacizumab-induced HTN was reported in the 58% of the analyses reporting Progression Free Survival (PFS) and in the 54% of the analyses reporting Overall Survival (OS) data. Immortal-time bias was incorporated in 4 studies (28%). In TRIBE and TRIBE-2 study populations (N = 1175), patients experiencing ≥ G2 HTN during first-line bevacizumab administration showed longer PFS (median: 14.7 versus 10.3 months, p < 0.001) and OS (median: 31.7 versus 24.2 months, p < 0.001). The association with OS retained statistical significance after correction for time-dependency (p = 0.003) and was confirmed in the multivariable model including HTN as a time-dependent variable (p = 0.02). Moreover, in patients with pre-existing HTN, no difference in terms of PFS and OS was observed compared with the subgroup of patients who never experienced ≥G2 HTN (HR 1.01, p = 0.86 and HR 1.02, p = 0.78 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Bevacizumab-induced HTN during the first-line treatment of mCRC is an independent prognostic factor, also adopting a time-dependency correction. Toxicity should be interpreted as a time-dependent variable when exploring its association with clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Br J Cancer ; 126(3): 449-455, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811502

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), baseline circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) variant allele fraction (VAF) might serve as a surrogate of disease burden and should be evaluated in comparison with CEA and RECIST-defined sum of target lesions. METHODS: In this pre-planned analysis of the VALENTINO trial, we included patients with RAS wild-type mCRC receiving upfront FOLFOX/panitumumab with available baseline liquid biopsy. CtDNA was analysed by means of a 14-gene NGS panel. For each patient, the gene with the highest VAF in ctDNA was selected. RESULTS: The final cohort included 135 patients. The median VAF was 12.6% (IQR: 2.0-45.2%). Higher VAF was observed in patients with liver metastases and with synchronous metastases presentation. Patients with high VAF had poorer median OS compared to those with low VAF (21.8 vs 36.5 months; HR: 1.82, 95%CI: 1.20-2.76; p = 0.005). VAF outperformed baseline CEA and target lesion diameter in the prognostic stratification and remained significantly correlated with OS (p = 0.003) in a multivariate model. VAF was not significantly correlated with dimensional response and PFS. CONCLUSION: CtDNA measured by VAF is prognostic in patients with RAS wild-type mCRC. Response and PFS after an anti-EGFR-based first-line strategy are independent from initial tumour burden.


Assuntos
DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Frequência do Gene , Mutação , Carga Tumoral/genética , Proteínas ras/genética , Idoso , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/sangue , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(2): 271-279, 2022 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumors with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) show high sensitivity to platinum salts and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-inhibitors in several malignancies. In colorectal cancer (CRC), the role of HRD alterations is mostly unknown. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing, whole transcriptome sequencing, and whole exome sequencing were conducted using CRC samples submitted to a commercial Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments certified laboratory. Tumors with pathogenic and/or presumed pathogenic mutations in 33 genes involved in the homologous recombination pathway were considered HRD, the others were homologous recombination proficient (HRP). Furthermore, tumor samples from patients enrolled in the phase III TRIBE2 study comparing upfront FOLFOXIRI+bevacizumab vs FOLFOX+bevacizumab were analyzed with next-generation sequencing. The analyses were separately conducted in microsatellite stable or proficient mismatch repair (MSS/pMMR) and microsatellite instable-high or deficient mismatch repair (MSI-H/dMMR) groups. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: Of 9321 CRC tumors, 1270 (13.6%) and 8051 (86.4%) were HRD and HRP, respectively. HRD tumors were more frequent among MSI-H/dMMR than MSS/pMMR tumors (73.4% vs 9.5%; P < .001; q < 0.001). In MSS/pMMR group, HRD tumors were more frequently tumor mutational burden high (8.1% vs 2.2%; P < .001; q < 0.001) and PD-L1 positive (5.0% vs 2.4%; P < .001; q = 0.001), enriched in all immune cell and fibroblast populations and genomic loss of heterozygosity-high (16.2% vs 9.5%; P = .03). In the TRIBE2 study, patients with MSS/pMMR and HRD tumors (10.7%) showed longer overall survival compared with MSS/pMMR and HRP tumors (40.2 vs 23.8 months; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.45 to 0.98; P = .04). Consistent results were reported in the multivariable model (HR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45 to 1.02; P = .07). No interaction effect was evident between homologous recombination groups and treatment arm. CONCLUSIONS: HRD tumors are a distinctive subgroup of MSS/pMMR CRCs with specific molecular and prognostic characteristics. The potential efficacy of agents targeting the homologous recombination system and immune checkpoint inhibitors in this subgroup is worthy of clinical investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Recombinação Homóloga , Humanos , Prognóstico
15.
Eur J Cancer ; 161: 90-98, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933155

RESUMO

AIM: To unveil genomic and immunohistochemical expression profiles associated with primary resistance to EGFR/BRAF targeted therapy in patients with BRAF-mutated and microsatellite stable (MSS) metastatic colorectal cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this multicenter case-control study on patients treated with EGFR/BRAF ± MEK blockade, we compared a primary resistance cohort (N = 20; RECISTv1.1 PD/SD, and progression-free survival [PFS] <16 weeks) versus a sensitive one (N = 19; RECISTv1.1 PR/CR, and PFS ≥16 weeks) in terms of clinical and genomic/expression data by means of comprehensive genomic profiling, tumour mutational burden (TMB), BRAF-mutant transcriptional subtypes (BM) classification and PTEN expression. RESULTS: Left-sided tumours (28% of the total) were enriched in the sensitive versus resistant cohort (53% versus 10%, P = 0.010). Genomic alterations in the PIK3CA/MTOR pathway, BM1 status and PTEN loss were similarly distributed among patients with resistant and sensitive tumours. Amplification of CCND1-3 genes were found only in patients with primary resistance (20% versus 0%, P = 0.106). TMB and prevalence of intermediate TMB (TMB-I 6-20 mutations/Mb) were higher in the resistant versus sensitive cohort (median TMB: 6 [IQR, 3-7.29] versus 3 [IQR, 1.26-3.5]; P = 0.013; TMB-I/H: 60% versus 11%; P = 0.001). Patients with TMB-I had shorter PFS (3.3 versus 5.9 months; HR = 2.19, 95%CI, 1.07-4.47, P = 0.031) and overall survival (6.3 versus 10.5 months; HR = 2.22, 95%CI, 1.02-4.81, P = 0.044). CONCLUSION: Despite the small sample size, the association of a relatively higher TMB with limited benefit from EGFR/BRAF blockade in patients with MSS and BRAF-mutated mCRC deserves prospective validation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Carga Tumoral/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica
16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(22)2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830870

RESUMO

The single-arm phase II CAVE mCRC trial evaluated the combination of cetuximab plus avelumab as rechallenge strategy in RAS wild-type (WT) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients, with clinical response to first-line anti-EGFR-based chemotherapy, who progressed and received a subsequent line of therapy. The correlation of skin toxicity (ST) and different clinico-molecular variables with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and response rate (RR) was assessed at univariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 33/77 (42.9%) patients experienced grade 2-3 ST and displayed median OS (mOS) of 17.8 months (CI 95%, 14.9-20.6); whereas 44/77 (57.1%) patients with grade 0-1 ST exhibited mOS of 8.2 months (CI 95%, 5.5-10.9), (hazard ratio (HR), 0.51; CI 95%, 0.29-0.89; p = 0.019). Median PFS (mPFS) was 4.6 months (CI 95%, 3.4-5.7) in patients with grade 2-3 ST, compared to patients with grade 0-1 ST with mPFS of 3.4 months (CI 95%, 2.7-4.1; HR, 0.49; CI 95%, 0.3-0.8; p = 0.004). Grade 2-3 ST (HR, 0.51; CI 95%, 0.29-0.89; p = 0.019) and RAS/BRAF/EGFR WT circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) (HR, 0.50; CI 95%, 0.27-0.9; p = 0.019) had a statistically significant effect on OS at univariate analysis. At the multivariate analysis, RAS/BRAF/EGFR WT ctDNA status maintained statistical significance (HR, 0.49; CI 95%, 0.27-0.9; p = 0.023), whereas there was a trend towards ST grade 2-3 (HR, 0.54; CI 95%, 0.29-1.01; p = 0.054). Skin toxicity is a promising biomarker to identify patients with mCRC that could benefit of anti-EGFR rechallenge.

17.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(11)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No standard therapies beyond first line are established for advanced squamous cell anal carcinoma (aSCAC). Earlier preliminary data suggest activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition and programmed cell death ligand (PD-(L))1 blockade in patients with previously treated disease. Aim of this study was to explore activity and safety of avelumab with/without cetuximab in patients with aSCAC. METHODS: In this open-label, non-comparative, 'pick the winner', multicenter randomized phase II trial (NCT03944252), patients with aSCAC progressing after one or more lines of treatment were randomized 1:1 to the anti-PD-L1 agent avelumab alone (arm A) or combined with cetuximab (arm B). Overall response rate (ORR) was the primary endpoint. With one-sided α error set at 0.05 and power of 80%, at least 4 responses out of 27 patients per arm had to be observed to declare the study positive. Secondary endpoints were progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. RESULTS: Thirty patients per arm were enrolled. Three patients in arm A and five in arm B achieved partial response: primary endpoint was reached in combination arm. ORR was 10% (95% CI 2.1 to 26.5) and 17% (95% CI 5.6 to 34.7) in arms A and B; disease control rate was 50% (95% CI 31.3 to 68.7) in arm A and 57 (95% CI 37.4-74.5) in arm B. At a median follow-up of 26.7 months (IQR 26.5-26.9), median PFS was 2.0 months (95% CI 1.8 to 4.0) in arm A and 3.9 (95% CI 2.1 to 5.6) in arm B. Median OS was 13.9 months (95% CI 7.7 to 19.4) in arm A and 7.8 (95% CI 6.2 to 11.2) in arm B. Acceptable safety profile was observed in both arms. CONCLUSIONS: CARACAS study met its primary endpoint in arm B, documenting promising activity of dual EGFR and PD-L1 blockade in aSCAC.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Ânus/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica
18.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(8)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in patients with microsatellite instability (MSI)-high metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is unprecedented. A relevant proportion of subjects achieving durable disease control may be considered potentially 'cured', as opposed to patients experiencing primary ICI refractoriness or short-term clinical benefit. We developed and externally validated a nomogram to estimate the progression-free survival (PFS) and the time-independent event-free probability (EFP) in patients with MSI-high mCRC receiving ICIs. METHODS: The PFS and EFP were estimated using a cure model fitted on a developing set of 163 patients and validated on a set of 146 patients with MSI-high mCRC receiving anti-programmed death (ligand)1 (PD-(L)1) ± anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) agents. A total of 23 putative prognostic factors were chosen and then selected using a random survival forest (RSF). The model performance in estimating PFS probability was evaluated by assessing calibration (internally-developing set and externally-validating set) and quantifying the discriminative ability (Harrell C index). RESULTS: RFS selected five variables: ICI type (anti-PD-(L)1 monotherapy vs anti-CTLA-4 combo), ECOG PS (0 vs >0), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (≤3 vs >3), platelet count, and prior treatment lines. As both in the developing and validation series most PFS events occurred within 12 months, this was chosen as cut-point for PFS prediction. The combination of the selected variables allowed estimation of the 12-month PFS (focused on patients with low chance of being cured) and the EFP (focused on patients likely to be event-free at a certain point of their follow-up). ICI type was significantly associated with disease control, as patients receiving the anti-CTLA-4-combination experienced the best outcomes. The calibration of PFS predictions was good both in the developing and validating sets. The median value of the EFP (46%) allowed segregation of two prognostic groups in both the developing (PFS HR=3.73, 95% CI 2.25 to 6.18; p<0.0001) and validating (PFS HR=1.86, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.23; p=0.0269) sets. CONCLUSIONS: A nomogram based on five easily assessable variables including ICI treatment was built to estimate the outcomes of patients with MSI-high mCRC, with the potential to assist clinicians in their clinical practice. The web-based system 'MSI mCRC Cure' was released.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Instabilidade de Microssatélites/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Nomogramas , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Gut ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Epigenomic alterations in cancer interact with the immune microenvironment to dictate tumour evolution and therapeutic response. We aimed to study the regulation of the tumour immune microenvironment through epigenetic alternate promoter use in gastric cancer and to expand our findings to other gastrointestinal tumours. DESIGN: Alternate promoter burden (APB) was quantified using a novel bioinformatic algorithm (proActiv) to infer promoter activity from short-read RNA sequencing and samples categorised into APBhigh, APBint and APBlow. Single-cell RNA sequencing was performed to analyse the intratumour immune microenvironment. A humanised mouse cancer in vivo model was used to explore dynamic temporal interactions between tumour kinetics, alternate promoter usage and the human immune system. Multiple cohorts of gastrointestinal tumours treated with immunotherapy were assessed for correlation between APB and treatment outcomes. RESULTS: APBhigh gastric cancer tumours expressed decreased levels of T-cell cytolytic activity and exhibited signatures of immune depletion. Single-cell RNAsequencing analysis confirmed distinct immunological populations and lower T-cell proportions in APBhigh tumours. Functional in vivo studies using 'humanised mice' harbouring an active human immune system revealed distinct temporal relationships between APB and tumour growth, with APBhigh tumours having almost no human T-cell infiltration. Analysis of immunotherapy-treated patients with GI cancer confirmed resistance of APBhigh tumours to immune checkpoint inhibition. APBhigh gastric cancer exhibited significantly poorer progression-free survival compared with APBlow (median 55 days vs 121 days, HR 0.40, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.93, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate an association between alternate promoter use and the tumour microenvironment, leading to immune evasion and immunotherapy resistance.

20.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 20(4): 314-317, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent phase II randomized Japanese study reported better survival with regorafenib followed at progression by cetuximab ± irinotecan compared with the reverse standard sequence in chemo-refractory and anti-EGFR-naïve, RAS wild-type (wt) mCRC patients. Nowadays the use of anti-EGFR antibodies is more frequently anticipated to the first-line of therapy especially in patients with left-sided RAS/BRAF wt tumours. However, retrospective analyses and phase II single-arm trials showed promising activity of re-using anti-EGFRs in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients who previously achieved benefit from a first-line anti-EGFR-based treatment. Post-hoc analyses of these trials revealed that the detection of RAS mutations in circulating tumour DNA (ct-DNA) at the time of re-treatment may be useful to identify resistant patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: PARERE (NCT04787341) is a prospective, open label, multicentre phase II study in which 214 RAS/BRAF wt chemo-refractory mCRC patients with previous benefit from first-line anti-EGFR-based treatment and RAS/BRAF wt ct-DNA in the liquid biopsy collected at the time of inclusion will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive panitumumab followed after progression by regorafenib versus the reverse sequence. Primary endpoint is overall survival. Secondary endpoints are 1st-progression free-survival (PFS), 2nd-PFS, time to failure strategy, objective response rate, and safety. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study is to validate the role of anti-EGFR retreatment and its proper placement in the therapeutic route of mCRC patients selected according to the analysis of ct-DNA in liquid biopsy. Results are expected at the end of 2023.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Humanos , Panitumumabe/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Fenilureia , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Piridinas , Estudos Retrospectivos
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