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Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7960, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846417


Theoretically, panic disorder and agoraphobia pathology can be conceptualized as a cascade of dynamically changing defensive responses to threat cues from inside the body. Guided by this trans-diagnostic model we tested the interaction between defensive activation and vagal control as a marker of prefrontal inhibition of subcortical defensive activation. We investigated ultra-short-term changes of vagally controlled high frequency heart rate variability (HRV) during a standardized threat challenge (entrapment) in n = 232 patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia, and its interaction with various indices of defensive activation. We found a strong inverse relationship between HRV and heart rate during threat, which was stronger at the beginning of exposure. Patients with a strong increase in heart rate showed a deactivation of prefrontal vagal control while patients showing less heart rate acceleration showed an increase in vagal control. Moreover, vagal control collapsed in case of imminent threat, i.e., when body symptoms increase and seem to get out of control. In these cases of defensive action patients either fled from the situation or experienced a panic attack. Active avoidance, panic attacks, and increased sympathetic arousal are associated with an inability to maintain vagal control over the heart suggesting that teaching such regulation strategies during exposure treatment might be helpful to keep prefrontal control, particularly during the transition zone from post-encounter to circa strike defense.Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN80046034.

Int J Mol Sci ; 21(5)2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182938


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer death. The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is widely used for systemic therapy in advanced HCC. Sorafenib might affect epoxyeicosanoids, as it is also a potent inhibitor of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), which catalyzes the conversion of epoxides derived from long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (AA) and omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), into their corresponding diols. Experimental studies with AA-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) showed that they can promote tumor growth and metastasis, while DHA-derived 19,20-epoxydocosapentaenoic acid (19,20-EDP) was shown to have anti-tumor activity in mice. In this pilot study, we assessed the effect of sorafenib treatment on the presence of lipid mediators, such as EETs, in blood of the patients with HCC using the lipidomics technology. We found a significant increase in 11,12-EET and 14,15-EET levels in HCC patients treated with sorafenib. Furthermore, while not significant in this small sample set, the data presented indicate that sorafenib can also increase the level of omega-3 DHA-derived 19,20-EDP. While the effect on EETs might hamper the anti-tumor effect of sorafenib, we hypothesize that supplementation of DHA in sorafenib-treated HCC patients could increase the level of 19,20-EDP and thereby enhance its anti-tumor effect.

Int J Mol Sci ; 20(10)2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100828


In spite of therapeutic improvements in the treatment of different hematologic malignancies, the prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated solely with conventional induction and consolidation chemotherapy remains poor, especially in association with high risk chromosomal or molecular aberrations. Recent discoveries describe the complex interaction of immune effector cells, as well as the role of the bone marrow microenvironment in the development, maintenance and progression of AML. Lipids, and in particular omega-3 as well as omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to play a vital role as signaling molecules of immune processes in numerous benign and malignant conditions. While the majority of research in cancer has been focused on the role of lipid mediators in solid tumors, some data are showing their involvement also in hematologic malignancies. There is a considerable amount of evidence that AML cells are targetable by innate and adaptive immune mechanisms, paving the way for immune therapy approaches in AML. In this article we review the current data showing the lipid mediator and lipidome patterns in AML and their potential links to immune mechanisms.

Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lipídeos/uso terapêutico , Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea , Progressão da Doença , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/imunologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/imunologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Hematopoese , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia , Inflamação , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Lipídeos/imunologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Microambiente Tumoral