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1.
Nat Med ; 27(9): 1564-1575, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426706

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants influence the risk of late-onset human diseases, but the reasons for this are poorly understood. Undertaking a hypothesis-free analysis of 5,689 blood-derived biomarkers with mtDNA variants in 16,220 healthy donors, here we show that variants defining mtDNA haplogroups Uk and H4 modulate the level of circulating N-formylmethionine (fMet), which initiates mitochondrial protein translation. In human cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) lines, fMet modulated both mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins on multiple levels, through transcription, post-translational modification and proteolysis by an N-degron pathway, abolishing known differences between mtDNA haplogroups. In a further 11,966 individuals, fMet levels contributed to all-cause mortality and the disease risk of several common cardiovascular disorders. Together, these findings indicate that fMet plays a key role in common age-related disease through pleiotropic effects on cell proteostasis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Idade de Início , Doadores de Sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , DNA Mitocondrial/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/patologia , N-Formilmetionina/metabolismo , Proteostase , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
2.
Diabetes ; 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426508

RESUMO

There is considerable interest in GIPR agonism to enhance the insulinotropic and extra-pancreatic effects of GIP, thereby improving glycaemic and weight control in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. Recent genetic epidemiological evidence has implicated higher GIPR-mediated GIP levels in raising coronary artery disease (CAD) risk, a potential safety concern for GIPR agonism. We therefore aimed to quantitatively assess whether the association between higher GIPR-mediated fasting GIP levels and CAD risk is mediated via GIPR or is instead the result of linkage disequilibrium (LD) confounding between variants at the GIPR locus. Using Bayesian multi-trait colocalisation, we identified a GIPR missense variant rs1800437 (G allele; E354) as the putatively causal variant shared between fasting GIP levels, glycaemic traits and adiposity-related traits (posterior probability for colocalisation, PPcoloc>0.97; PP explained by the candidate variant; PPexplained=1) that was independent from a cluster of CAD and lipid traits driven by a known missense variant in APOE (rs7412; distance to E354 ∼770Kb; R2 with E354 = 0.004; PPcoloc>0.99; PPexplained=1). Further, conditioning the association between E354 and CAD on the residual LD with rs7412, we observed slight attenuation in association, but it remained significant (OR per copy of E354 after adjustment 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02, 1.04; P=0.003). Instead, E354's association with CAD was completely attenuated when conditioning on an additional established CAD signal, rs1964272, (R2 with E354=0.27), an intronic variant in SNRPD2 (OR for E354 after adjustment for rs1964272: 1.01; 95% CI, 0.99, 1.03; P=0.06). We demonstrate that associations with GIP, anthropometric and glycaemic traits are driven by distinct genetic signals from those driving CAD and lipid traits in the GIPR region, and higher E354-mediated fasting GIP levels are not associated with CAD risk. These findings provide evidence that the inclusion of GIPR agonism in dual GIPR/GLP-1R agonists could potentiate the protective effect of GLP-1 agonists on diabetes without undue CAD risk, an aspect which has yet to be assessed in clinical trials.

3.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 161, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is among the most common chronic diseases worldwide, and it is one of the main reasons for tooth loss. Comprehensive profiling of the metabolite content of the saliva can enable the identification of novel pathways associated with periodontitis and highlight non-invasive markers to facilitate time and cost-effective screening efforts for the presence of periodontitis and the prediction of tooth loss. METHODS: We first investigated cross-sectional associations of 13 oral health variables with saliva levels of 562 metabolites, measured by untargeted mass spectrometry among a sub-sample (n = 938) of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2) using linear regression models adjusting for common confounders. We took forward any candidate metabolite associated with at least two oral variables, to test for an association with a 5-year tooth loss over and above baseline oral health status using negative binomial regression models. RESULTS: We identified 84 saliva metabolites that were associated with at least one oral variable cross-sectionally, for a subset of which we observed robust replication in an independent study. Out of 34 metabolites associated with more than two oral variables, baseline saliva levels of nine metabolites were positively associated with a 5-year tooth loss. Across all analyses, the metabolites 2-pyrrolidineacetic acid and butyrylputrescine were the most consistent candidate metabolites, likely reflecting oral dysbiosis. Other candidate metabolites likely reflected tissue destruction and cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: Untargeted metabolic profiling of saliva replicated metabolic signatures of periodontal status and revealed novel metabolites associated with periodontitis and future tooth loss.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4178, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234147

RESUMO

Mosaic loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in leukocytes is the most common form of clonal mosaicism, caused by dysregulation in cell-cycle and DNA damage response pathways. Previous genetic studies have focussed on identifying common variants associated with LOY, which we now extend to rarer, protein-coding variation using exome sequences from 82,277 male UK Biobank participants. We find that loss of function of two genes-CHEK2 and GIGYF1-reach exome-wide significance. Rare alleles in GIGYF1 have not previously been implicated in any complex trait, but here loss-of-function carriers exhibit six-fold higher susceptibility to LOY (OR = 5.99 [3.04-11.81], p = 1.3 × 10-10). These same alleles are also associated with adverse metabolic health, including higher susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes (OR = 6.10 [3.51-10.61], p = 1.8 × 10-12), 4 kg higher fat mass (p = 1.3 × 10-4), 2.32 nmol/L lower serum IGF1 levels (p = 1.5 × 10-4) and 4.5 kg lower handgrip strength (p = 4.7 × 10-7) consistent with proposed GIGYF1 enhancement of insulin and IGF-1 receptor signalling. These associations are mirrored by a common variant nearby associated with the expression of GIGYF1. Our observations highlight a potential direct connection between clonal mosaicism and metabolic health.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mosaicismo , Adulto , Idoso , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Leucócitos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088979

RESUMO

Depression constitutes a leading cause of disability worldwide. Despite extensive research on its interaction with psychobiological factors, associated pathways are far from being elucidated. Metabolomics, assessing the final products of complex biochemical reactions, has emerged as a valuable tool for exploring molecular pathways. We conducted a metabolome-wide association analysis to investigate the link between the serum metabolome and depressed mood (DM) in 1411 participants of the KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Augsburg Region) F4 study (discovery cohort). Serum metabolomics data comprised 353 unique metabolites measured by Metabolon. We identified 72 (5.1%) KORA participants with DM. Linear regression tests were conducted modeling each metabolite value by DM status, adjusted for age, sex, body-mass index, antihypertensive, cardiovascular, antidiabetic, and thyroid gland hormone drugs, corticoids and antidepressants. Sensitivity analyses were performed in subcohorts stratified for sex, suicidal ideation, and use of antidepressants. We replicated our results in an independent sample of 968 participants of the SHIP-Trend (Study of Health in Pomerania) study including 52 (5.4%) individuals with DM (replication cohort). We found significantly lower laurylcarnitine levels in KORA F4 participants with DM after multiple testing correction according to Benjamini/Hochberg. This finding was replicated in the independent SHIP-Trend study. Laurylcarnitine remained significantly associated (p value < 0.05) with depression in samples stratified for sex, suicidal ideation, and antidepressant medication. Decreased blood laurylcarnitine levels in depressed individuals may point to impaired fatty acid oxidation and/or mitochondrial function in depressive disorders, possibly representing a novel therapeutic target.

6.
Metabolites ; 11(4)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805221

RESUMO

The use of oral contraceptives (OCs) has been associated with elevated blood cortisol concentrations. However, metabolic downstream effects of OC intake are not well described. Here, we aimed to determine if the blood metabolome is associated with the use of OCs and to estimate if these associations might be statistically mediated by serum cortisol concentrations. Plasma metabolites measured with the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 Kit and serum cortisol concentrations measured by an immunoassay were determined in 391 premenopausal women (116 OC users) participating in two independent cohorts of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). After correction for multiple testing, 27 metabolites were significantly associated with OC intake in SHIP-TREND (discovery cohort), of which 25 replicated in SHIP-2. Inter alia, associated metabolites included 12 out of 38 phosphatidylcholines with diacyl residue, 7 out of 14 lysophosphatidylcholines and 5 out of 21 amino acids. The associations with phosphatidylcholines were statistically mediated by cortisol, whereas lysophosphatidylcholines showed no mediation effect. The results represent a step toward a better understanding of the metabolic consequences of OC intake. Connecting cortisol with metabolic consequences of OC intake could help to understand the mechanisms underlying adverse effects. The blood metabolome may serve as a biomarker for identifying users at high risk for developing such adverse effects.

7.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 668-676, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837377

RESUMO

Drug repurposing provides a rapid approach to meet the urgent need for therapeutics to address COVID-19. To identify therapeutic targets relevant to COVID-19, we conducted Mendelian randomization analyses, deriving genetic instruments based on transcriptomic and proteomic data for 1,263 actionable proteins that are targeted by approved drugs or in clinical phase of drug development. Using summary statistics from the Host Genetics Initiative and the Million Veteran Program, we studied 7,554 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and >1 million controls. We found significant Mendelian randomization results for three proteins (ACE2, P = 1.6 × 10-6; IFNAR2, P = 9.8 × 10-11 and IL-10RB, P = 2.3 × 10-14) using cis-expression quantitative trait loci genetic instruments that also had strong evidence for colocalization with COVID-19 hospitalization. To disentangle the shared expression quantitative trait loci signal for IL10RB and IFNAR2, we conducted phenome-wide association scans and pathway enrichment analysis, which suggested that IFNAR2 is more likely to play a role in COVID-19 hospitalization. Our findings prioritize trials of drugs targeting IFNAR2 and ACE2 for early management of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/fisiologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Subunidade beta de Receptor de Interleucina-10/genética , Subunidade beta de Receptor de Interleucina-10/fisiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/fisiologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6677, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758296

RESUMO

Gallstone disease affects up to twenty percent of the population in western countries and is a significant contributor to morbidity and health care expenditure. Intestinal microbiota have variously been implicated as either contributing to gallstone formation or to be affected by cholecystectomy. We conducted a large-scale investigation on 404 gallstone carriers, 580 individuals post-cholecystectomy and 984 healthy controls with similar distributions of age, sex, body mass index, smoking habits, and food-frequency-score. All 1968 subjects were recruited from the population-based Study-of-Health-in-Pomerania (SHIP), which includes transabdominal gallbladder ultrasound. Fecal microbiota profiles were determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. No significant differences in microbiota composition were detected between gallstone carriers and controls. Individuals post-cholecystectomy exhibited reduced microbiota diversity, a decrease in the potentially beneficial genus Faecalibacterium and an increase in the opportunistic pathogen Escherichia/Shigella. The absence of an association between the gut microbiota and the presence of gallbladder stones suggests that there is no intestinal microbial risk profile increasing the likelihood of gallstone formation. Cholecystectomy, on the other hand, is associated with distinct microbiota changes that have previously been implicated in unfavorable health effects and may not only contribute to gastrointestinal infection but also to the increased colon cancer risk of cholecystectomized patients.

9.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 471-479, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707775

RESUMO

Multimorbidity, the simultaneous presence of multiple chronic conditions, is an increasing global health problem and research into its determinants is of high priority. We used baseline untargeted plasma metabolomics profiling covering >1,000 metabolites as a comprehensive readout of human physiology to characterize pathways associated with and across 27 incident noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) assessed using electronic health record hospitalization and cancer registry data from over 11,000 participants (219,415 person years). We identified 420 metabolites shared between at least 2 NCDs, representing 65.5% of all 640 significant metabolite-disease associations. We integrated baseline data on over 50 diverse clinical risk factors and characteristics to identify actionable shared pathways represented by those metabolites. Our study highlights liver and kidney function, lipid and glucose metabolism, low-grade inflammation, surrogates of gut microbial diversity and specific health-related behaviors as antecedents of common NCD multimorbidity with potential for early prevention. We integrated results into an open-access webserver ( https://omicscience.org/apps/mwasdisease/ ) to facilitate future research and meta-analyses.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Multimorbidade , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Plasma/metabolismo , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Obes Facts ; : 1-11, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601371

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients who are overweight or obese have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Weight loss can have a positive effect on glycemic control. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate glycemic control in patients with T2DM and overweight or obesity during a structured weight-loss program. METHODS: This was a prospective, interventional study. We recruited 36 patients (14 men and 22 women) with a median age of 58.5 years and median body mass index (BMI) of 34.1, to a 15-week structured weight-loss program with a low-calorie (800 kcal) formula diet for 6 weeks. The primary end point, HbA1c level, and secondary end points, anthropometric data, medication, and safety, were assessed weekly. Laboratory values and quality of life were assessed at baseline and after 15 weeks. RESULTS: HbA1c decreased from 7.3% at baseline to 6.5% at 15 weeks (p < 0.001), median body weight by 11.9 kg (p < 0.001), median BMI by 4.3 (p < 0.001) and median waist circumference by 11.0 cm (p < 0.001). Two participants discontinued insulin therapy, 4 could reduce their dosage of oral antidiabetic agents, and 6 completely discontinued their antidiabetic medication. Insulin dose decreased from 0.63 (0.38-0.89) to 0.39 (0.15-0.70) units/kg body weight (p < 0.001). No patient experienced hypoglycemic episodes or hospital emergency visits. Triglycerides and total cholesterol decreased as well as surrogate markers of liver function. However, the levels of high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C) as well as uric acid remain unchanged. Regarding quality of life, the median physical health score increased from 44.5 (39.7-51.4) at baseline to 48.0 (43.1-55.3; p = 0.007), and the median mental health score decreased from 42.1 (36.1-46.7) to 37.4 (30.3-43.7; p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: A structured weight-loss program is effective in the short term in reducing HbA1c, weight, and antidiabetic medication in patients with T2DM who are overweight or obese. Levels of HDL-C and LDL-C were not affected by short-term weight loss. The decline in mental health and the long-term effects of improved glycemic control require further trials.

11.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 659-667, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633408

RESUMO

To identify circulating proteins influencing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility and severity, we undertook a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study, rapidly scanning hundreds of circulating proteins while reducing bias due to reverse causation and confounding. In up to 14,134 cases and 1.2 million controls, we found that an s.d. increase in OAS1 levels was associated with reduced COVID-19 death or ventilation (odds ratio (OR) = 0.54, P = 7 × 10-8), hospitalization (OR = 0.61, P = 8 × 10-8) and susceptibility (OR = 0.78, P = 8 × 10-6). Measuring OAS1 levels in 504 individuals, we found that higher plasma OAS1 levels in a non-infectious state were associated with reduced COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. Further analyses suggested that a Neanderthal isoform of OAS1 in individuals of European ancestry affords this protection. Thus, evidence from MR and a case-control study support a protective role for OAS1 in COVID-19 adverse outcomes. Available pharmacological agents that increase OAS1 levels could be prioritized for drug development.


Assuntos
2',5'-Oligoadenilato Sintetase/fisiologia , COVID-19/etiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , SARS-CoV-2 , 2',5'-Oligoadenilato Sintetase/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , COVID-19/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Subunidade beta de Receptor de Interleucina-10/genética , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Homem de Neandertal , Isoformas de Proteínas/fisiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Thyroid ; 31(7): 1135-1146, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637021

RESUMO

Background: The thyroid hormone (TH) metabolite 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) is considered as a potential drug for treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) based on its prominent antisteatotic effects in murine models of obesity without the detrimental thyromimetic side effects known for classical TH. To expand our understanding of its mode of action, we comprehensively characterized the effects of 3,5-T2 on hepatic gene expression in a diet-induced murine model of obesity by a combined liver proteome and transcriptome analysis. Materials and Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) to induce NAFLD or standard diet (SD) as control were treated with 2.5 µg/g body weight 3,5-T2 or saline for 4 weeks. We performed mass spectrometry analyses and integrated those proteome data with earlier published microarray-based transcriptome data from the same animals. In addition, concentrations of several sex steroids in serum and different tissues were determined by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: We observed limited concordance between transcripts and proteins exhibiting differential abundance under 3,5-T2 treatment, which was only partially explainable by methodological reasons and might, therefore, reflect noncanonical post-transcriptional events. The treatment affected the levels of more and partially different proteins under HFD as compared with SD, demonstrating response modulation by the hepatic lipid load. The hepatic physiological signatures of 3,5-T2 treatment inferable from the omics data comprised the reduction of oxidative stress and alteration of apolipoprotein profiles, both due to decreased liver fat content. In addition, induction of several classical TH target genes and genes involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, bile acids (BAs), and male sex steroids was observed. The latter finding was supported by hepatic sex steroid measurements. Conclusion: While confirming the beneficial hepatic liver fat reduction by 3,5-T2 treatment, our data suggest that besides the well-known induction of fatty acid oxidation the stimulation of cholesterol- and BA synthesis with subsequent excretion of the latter through bile might represent a further important mechanism in this context. The obvious intensified male sex steroid exposition of the liver in 3,5-T2-treated HFD animals can be predicted to cause enhanced hepatic "masculinization," with not yet clear but potentially detrimental physiological consequences.

13.
J Hum Genet ; 66(6): 625-636, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469137

RESUMO

The stress hormone cortisol modulates fuel metabolism, cardiovascular homoeostasis, mood, inflammation and cognition. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium previously identified a single locus associated with morning plasma cortisol. Identifying additional genetic variants that explain more of the variance in cortisol could provide new insights into cortisol biology and provide statistical power to test the causative role of cortisol in common diseases. The CORNET consortium extended its genome-wide association meta-analysis for morning plasma cortisol from 12,597 to 25,314 subjects and from ~2.2 M to ~7 M SNPs, in 17 population-based cohorts of European ancestries. We confirmed the genetic association with SERPINA6/SERPINA1. This locus contains genes encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and α1-antitrypsin. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses undertaken in the STARNET cohort of 600 individuals showed that specific genetic variants within the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 locus influence expression of SERPINA6 rather than SERPINA1 in the liver. Moreover, trans-eQTL analysis demonstrated effects on adipose tissue gene expression, suggesting that variations in CBG levels have an effect on delivery of cortisol to peripheral tissues. Two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses provided evidence that each genetically-determined standard deviation (SD) increase in morning plasma cortisol was associated with increased odds of chronic ischaemic heart disease (0.32, 95% CI 0.06-0.59) and myocardial infarction (0.21, 95% CI 0.00-0.43) in UK Biobank and similarly in CARDIoGRAMplusC4D. These findings reveal a causative pathway for CBG in determining cortisol action in peripheral tissues and thereby contributing to the aetiology of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Transcortina/genética , alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética , Corticosteroides/sangue , Adulto , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Reino Unido
14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(5): e2290-e2298, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462612

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Exocrine pancreatic function is critically involved in regulating the gut microbiota composition. At the same time, its impairment acutely affects human metabolism. How these 2 roles are connected is unknown. We studied how the exocrine pancreas contributes to metabolism via modulation of gut microbiota. DESIGN: Fecal samples were collected in 2226 participants of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP/SHIP-TREND) to determine exocrine pancreatic function (pancreatic elastase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and intestinal microbiota profiles (16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing). Plasma metabolite levels were determined by mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Exocrine pancreatic function was associated with changes in the abundance of 28 taxa and, simultaneously, with those of 16 plasma metabolites. Mediation pathway analysis revealed that a significant component of how exocrine pancreatic function affects the blood metabolome is mediated via gut microbiota abundance changes, most prominently, circulating serotonin and lysophosphatidylcholines. CONCLUSION: These results imply that the effect of exocrine pancreatic function on intestinal microbiota composition alters the availability of microbial-derived metabolites in the blood and thus directly contributes to the host metabolic changes associated with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Metaboloma , Pâncreas Exócrino/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Química do Sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
15.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 54-64, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414548

RESUMO

In cross-platform analyses of 174 metabolites, we identify 499 associations (P < 4.9 × 10-10) characterized by pleiotropy, allelic heterogeneity, large and nonlinear effects and enrichment for nonsynonymous variation. We identify a signal at GLP2R (p.Asp470Asn) shared among higher citrulline levels, body mass index, fasting glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and type 2 diabetes, with ß-arrestin signaling as the underlying mechanism. Genetically higher serine levels are shown to reduce the likelihood (by 95%) and predict development of macular telangiectasia type 2, a rare degenerative retinal disease. Integration of genomic and small molecule data across platforms enables the discovery of regulators of human metabolism and translation into clinical insights.


Assuntos
Saúde , Metabolismo/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Oftalmopatias/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Loci Gênicos , Pleiotropia Genética , Genoma Humano , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 2/genética , Glicina/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Metaboloma/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Telangiectasia Retiniana/genética , Tamanho da Amostra , Serina/metabolismo
16.
Gut ; 70(3): 522-530, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The intestinal microbiome affects the prevalence and pathophysiology of a variety of diseases ranging from inflammation to cancer. A reduced taxonomic or functional diversity of the microbiome was often observed in association with poorer health outcomes or disease in general. Conversely, factors or manifest diseases that determine the long-term stability or instability of the microbiome are largely unknown. We aimed to identify disease-relevant phenotypes associated with faecal microbiota (in-)stability. DESIGN: A total of 2564 paired faecal samples from 1282 participants of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) were collected at a 5-year (median) interval and microbiota profiles determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The changes in faecal microbiota over time were associated with highly standardised and comprehensive phenotypic data to determine factors related to microbiota (in-)stability. RESULTS: The overall microbiome landscape remained remarkably stable over time. The greatest microbiome instability was associated with factors contributing to metabolic syndrome such as fatty liver disease and diabetes mellitus. These, in turn, were associated with an increase in facultative pathogens such as Enterobacteriaceae or Escherichia/Shigella. Greatest stability of the microbiome was determined by higher initial alpha diversity, female sex, high household income and preserved exocrine pancreatic function. Participants who newly developed fatty liver disease or diabetes during the 5-year follow-up already displayed significant microbiota changes at study entry when the diseases were absent. CONCLUSION: This study identifies distinct components of metabolic liver disease to be associated with instability of the intestinal microbiome, increased abundance of facultative pathogens and thus greater susceptibility toward dysbiosis-associated diseases.

17.
Diabetes Care ; 44(1): 98-106, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Higher plasma vitamin C levels are associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk, but whether this association is causal is uncertain. To investigate this, we studied the association of genetically predicted plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted genome-wide association studies of plasma vitamin C among 52,018 individuals of European ancestry to discover novel genetic variants. We performed Mendelian randomization analyses to estimate the association of genetically predicted differences in plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes in up to 80,983 case participants and 842,909 noncase participants. We compared this estimate with the observational association between plasma vitamin C and incident type 2 diabetes, including 8,133 case participants and 11,073 noncase participants. RESULTS: We identified 11 genomic regions associated with plasma vitamin C (P < 5 × 10-8), with the strongest signal at SLC23A1, and 10 novel genetic loci including SLC23A3, CHPT1, BCAS3, SNRPF, RER1, MAF, GSTA5, RGS14, AKT1, and FADS1. Plasma vitamin C was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per SD 0.88; 95% CI 0.82, 0.94), but there was no association between genetically predicted plasma vitamin C (excluding FADS1 variant due to its apparent pleiotropic effect) and type 2 diabetes (1.03; 95% CI 0.96, 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate discordance between biochemically measured and genetically predicted plasma vitamin C levels in the association with type 2 diabetes among European populations. The null Mendelian randomization findings provide no strong evidence to suggest the use of vitamin C supplementation for type 2 diabetes prevention.

18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6397, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328453

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic architecture of host proteins interacting with SARS-CoV-2 or mediating the maladaptive host response to COVID-19 can help to identify new or repurpose existing drugs targeting those proteins. We present a genetic discovery study of 179 such host proteins among 10,708 individuals using an aptamer-based technique. We identify 220 host DNA sequence variants acting in cis (MAF 0.01-49.9%) and explaining 0.3-70.9% of the variance of 97 of these proteins, including 45 with no previously known protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) and 38 encoding current drug targets. Systematic characterization of pQTLs across the phenome identified protein-drug-disease links and evidence that putative viral interaction partners such as MARK3 affect immune response. Our results accelerate the evaluation and prioritization of new drug development programmes and repurposing of trials to prevent, treat or reduce adverse outcomes. Rapid sharing and detailed interrogation of results is facilitated through an interactive webserver ( https://omicscience.org/apps/covidpgwas/ ).


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Proteínas/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Aptâmeros de Peptídeos/sangue , Aptâmeros de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Coagulação Sanguínea , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fatores Celulares Derivados do Hospedeiro/metabolismo , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
19.
Curr Diab Rep ; 20(11): 60, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033935

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Proteins are the central layer of information transfer from genome to phenome and represent the largest class of drug targets. We review recent advances in high-throughput technologies that provide comprehensive, scalable profiling of the plasma proteome with the potential to improve prediction and mechanistic understanding of type 2 diabetes (T2D). RECENT FINDINGS: Technological and analytical advancements have enabled identification of novel protein biomarkers and signatures that help to address challenges of existing approaches to predict and screen for T2D. Genetic studies have so far revealed putative causal roles for only few of the proteins that have been linked to T2D, but ongoing large-scale genetic studies of the plasma proteome will help to address this and increase our understanding of aetiological pathways and mechanisms leading to diabetes. Studies of the human plasma proteome have started to elucidate its potential for T2D prediction and biomarker discovery. Future studies integrating genomic and proteomic data will provide opportunities to prioritise drug targets and identify pathways linking genetic predisposition to T2D development.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Humanos , Plasma , Proteoma/genética , Proteômica
20.
Bone ; 141: 115675, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: YKL-40, also known as chitinase-3-like protein 1, is a new proinflammatory biomarker, that might play a role in tissue remodeling and bone resorption. Here we evaluated the associations of the YKL-40 plasma concentration with heel ultrasound parameters and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in adult men and women from the general population. We tested for a causal role of YKL-40 on bone metabolism using published single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with consequences for YKL-40 expression and function. METHODS: Data were obtained from two population-based cohorts: the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) and SHIP-Trend. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements at the heel were performed and bone turnover was assessed by measurement of intact amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) and carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX). Associations between the YKL-40 plasma concentration and the QUS-based parameters, bone turnover marker (BTM) concentrations and 44 SNPs, including the lead SNP rs4950928, were evaluated in 382 subjects. Furthermore, we assessed the associations between the same SNPs and the QUS-based parameters (n = 5777) or the BTM concentrations (n = 7190). RESULTS: Sex-specific linear regression models adjusted for a comprehensive panel of interfering covariantes revealed statistically significant inverse associations between YKL-40 and all QUS-based parameters as well as positive associations with CTX in women. The rs4950928 polymorphism was associated with YKL-40 in men and women but none of the tested SNPs was associated with the QUS-based parameters or the BTMs after correction for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma YKL-40 concentrations are associated with QUS-based parameters as well as CTX concentrations in women but these associations are probably not causal.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea , Calcanhar , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Densidade Óssea , Proteína 1 Semelhante à Quitinase-3/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Feminino , Calcanhar/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pró-Colágeno , Ultrassonografia
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