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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(1): 273-282, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rituximab (RTX; anti-CD20 mAb) is a treatment option in children with refractory immune thrombocytopenia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA), and Evans syndrome (ES). Prevalence and clinical course of RTX-induced hypogammaglobulinemia in these patients are poorly known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for persistent hypogammaglobulinemia (PH) after RTX use. METHODS: Clinical and immunologic data from children treated with RTX for immune thrombocytopenia, AHA, and ES were collected from 16 Italian centers and 1 UK center at pre-RTX time point (0), +6 months, and yearly, up to 4 years post-RTX. Patients with previously diagnosed malignancy or primary immune deficiency (PID) were excluded. RESULTS: We analyzed 53 children treated with RTX for immune thrombocytopenia (n = 36), AHA (n = 13), and ES (n = 4). Median follow-up was 30 months (range, 12-48). Thirty-two percent of patients (17 of 53) experienced PH, defined as IgG levels less than 2 SD for age at last follow-up (>12 months after RTX). Significantly delayed B-cell recovery was observed in children experiencing PH (hazard ratio, 0.55; P < .05), and 6 of 17 (35%) patients had unresolved B-cell lymphopenia at last follow-up. PH was associated with IgA and IgM deficiency, younger age at RTX use (51 vs 116 months; P < .01), a diagnosis of AHA/ES, and better response to RTX. Nine patients with PH (9 of 17 [53%]) were eventually diagnosed with a PID. CONCLUSIONS: Post-RTX PH is a frequent condition in children with autoimmune cytopenia; a sizable proportion of patients with post-RTX PH were eventually diagnosed with a PID. In-depth investigation for PID is therefore recommended in these patients.

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863244

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by life-threatening infections, inflammation, and autoimmunity with an impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Few data are available for children, whereas no study has been conducted in adults. Here, we investigated HRQoL and emotional functioning of 19 children and 28 adults enrolled in Italian registry for CGD. PEDsQL and SDQ were used for children and their caregivers, and adults completed the SF-12 questionnaire. Mean scores were compared with norms and with patients affected by chronic diseases. Comparisons were made for CGD patients who underwent or not hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). When compared with norms, CGD children exhibited higher difficulties in social/school areas, peer relationship, and conduct/emotional problems (< 5 years of age), as scored by proxies. Differently, CGD adults reported higher difficulties both in mental and physical area than norms. Only for children, clinical status had a damaging effect on psychosocial and school dimensions, whereas age had a negative impact on social areas. No significant difference was observed between patients treated or not with HSCT. When compared with patients affected by chronic diseases, CGD children and adults both displayed fewer physical disabilities. Differently, in mental scale adults scored lower than those with rheumatology diseases and had similar impairment in comparison with patients with diabetes mellitus and cancer. This study emphasized the impact of CGD on HRQoL since infancy and its decline in adulthood, with emotional difficulties occurring early. HRQoL impairment should be considered in clinical picture of CGD and pro-actively assessed and managed by clinicians.

3.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol ; 32(2): 70-75, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508259

RESUMO

Background: Subcutaneous immunoglobulin G (SCIG) may be a better option than intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) for patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PID) due to reduced systemic and serious adverse reactions and easier administration. The Infusione Bimensile di Immunoglobuline Sottocute (IBIS) study investigated the effects of Hizentra®, a 20%-concentrated SCIG, administered biweekly in patients with PID. This subanalysis aimed to evaluate clinical and laboratory outcomes in the IBIS pediatric subcohort. Methods: Thirteen children with PID were observed for 12 months retrospectively (with previous IVIG/SCIG) and prospectively with biweekly Hizentra. Results: Mean ± standard deviation serum IG levels during the retrospective (833.8 ± 175.7 mg/dL) and the prospective (842.0 ± 188.0 mg/dL) phases were comparable; there were also no differences in the number of infections. Conclusions: Biweekly Hizentra is a noninferior option with respect to previous IVIG/SCIG-based treatment.

4.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1908, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456805

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCIDs) are a group of inborn errors of the immune system, usually associated with severe or life-threatening infections. Due to the variability of clinical phenotypes, the diagnostic complexity and the heterogeneity of the genetic basis, they are often difficult to recognize, leading to a significant diagnostic delay (DD). Aim of this study is to define presenting signs and natural history of SCID in a large cohort of patients, prior to hematopoietic stem cell or gene therapies. To this purpose, we conducted a 30-year retro-prospective multicenter study within the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. One hundred eleven patients, diagnosed as typical or atypical SCID according to the European Society for Immune Deficiencies criteria, were included. Patients were subsequently classified based on the genetic alteration, pathogenic mechanism and immunological classification. A positive relationship between the age at onset and the DD was found. SCID patients with later onset were identified only in the last decade of observation. Syndromic SCIDs represented 28% of the cohort. Eight percent of the subjects were diagnosed in Intensive Care Units. Fifty-three percent had an atypical phenotype and most of them exhibited a discordant genotype-immunophenotype. Pre-treatment mortality was higher in atypical and syndromic patients. Our study broadens the knowledge of clinical and laboratory manifestations and genotype/phenotype correlation in patients with SCID and may facilitate the diagnosis of both typical and atypical forms of the disease in countries where newborn screening programs have not yet been implemented.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 549-561, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447097

RESUMO

FOXN1 is the master regulatory gene of thymic epithelium development. FOXN1 deficiency leads to thymic aplasia, alopecia, and nail dystrophy, accounting for the nude/severe combined immunodeficiency (nu/SCID) phenotype in humans and mice. We identified several newborns with low levels of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and T cell lymphopenia at birth, who carried heterozygous loss-of-function FOXN1 variants. Longitudinal analysis showed persistent T cell lymphopenia during infancy, often associated with nail dystrophy. Adult individuals with heterozygous FOXN1 variants had in most cases normal CD4+ but lower than normal CD8+ cell counts. We hypothesized a FOXN1 gene dosage effect on the function of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) and thymopoiesis and postulated that these effects would be more prominent early in life. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed TEC subset frequency and phenotype, early thymic progenitor (ETP) cell count, and expression of FOXN1 target genes (Ccl25, Cxcl12, Dll4, Scf, Psmb11, Prss16, and Cd83) in Foxn1nu/+ (nu/+) mice and age-matched wild-type (+/+) littermate controls. Both the frequency and the absolute count of ETP were significantly reduced in nu/+ mice up to 3 weeks of age. Analysis of the TEC compartment showed reduced expression of FOXN1 target genes and delayed maturation of the medullary TEC compartment in nu/+ mice. These observations establish a FOXN1 gene dosage effect on thymic function and identify FOXN1 haploinsufficiency as an important genetic determinant of T cell lymphopenia at birth.

7.
Clin Genet ; 96(2): 169-175, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066025

RESUMO

Heterozygous missense variants in the SPTBN2 gene, encoding the non-erythrocytic beta spectrin 2 subunit (beta-III spectrin), have been identified in autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5), a rare adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, whereas homozygous loss of function variants in SPTBN2 have been associated with early onset cerebellar ataxia and global developmental delay (SCAR14). Recently, heterozygous SPTBN2 missense variants have been identified in a few patients with an early-onset ataxic phenotype. We report five patients with non-progressive congenital ataxia and psychomotor delay, 4/5 harboring novel heterozygous missense variants in SPTBN2 and one patient with compound heterozygous SPTBN2 variants. With an overall prevalence of 5% in our cohort of unrelated patients screened by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) for congenital or early-onset cerebellar ataxia, this study indicates that both dominant and recessive mutations of SPTBN2 together with CACNA1A and ITPR1, are a frequent cause of early-onset/congenital non-progressive ataxia and that their screening should be implemented in this subgroup of disorders.

8.
Front Immunol ; 10: 316, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031743

RESUMO

Background: Primary Immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic immune disorders. While some PIDs can manifest with more than one phenotype, signs, and symptoms of various PIDs overlap considerably. Recently, novel defects in immune-related genes and additional variants in previously reported genes responsible for PIDs have been successfully identified by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), allowing the recognition of a broad spectrum of disorders. Objective: To evaluate the strength and weakness of targeted NGS sequencing using custom-made Ion Torrent and Haloplex (Agilent) panels for diagnostics and research purposes. Methods: Five different panels including known and candidate genes were used to screen 105 patients with distinct PID features divided in three main PID categories: T cell defects, Humoral defects and Other PIDs. The Ion Torrent sequencing platform was used in 73 patients. Among these, 18 selected patients without a molecular diagnosis and 32 additional patients were analyzed by Haloplex enrichment technology. Results: The complementary use of the two custom-made targeted sequencing approaches allowed the identification of causative variants in 28.6% (n = 30) of patients. Twenty-two out of 73 (34.6%) patients were diagnosed by Ion Torrent. In this group 20 were included in the SCID/CID category. Eight out of 50 (16%) patients were diagnosed by Haloplex workflow. Ion Torrent method was highly successful for those cases with well-defined phenotypes for immunological and clinical presentation. The Haloplex approach was able to diagnose 4 SCID/CID patients and 4 additional patients with complex and extended phenotypes, embracing all three PID categories in which this approach was more efficient. Both technologies showed good gene coverage. Conclusions: NGS technology represents a powerful approach in the complex field of rare disorders but its different application should be weighted. A relatively small NGS target panel can be successfully applied for a robust diagnostic suspicion, while when the spectrum of clinical phenotypes overlaps more than one PID an in-depth NGS analysis is required, including also whole exome/genome sequencing to identify the causative gene.

9.
World Allergy Organ J ; 12(3): 100018, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937141

RESUMO

Background: X-linked agammaglobulinemia is an inherited immunodeficiency recognized since 1952. In spite of seven decades of experience, there is still a limited understanding of regional differences in presentation and complications. This study was designed by the Primary Immunodeficiencies Committee of the World Allergy Organization to better understand regional needs, challenges and unique patient features. Methods: A survey instrument was designed by the Primary Immunodeficiencies Committee of the World Allergy Organization to collect both structured and semi-structured data on X-linked agammaglobulinemia. The survey was sent to 54 centers around the world chosen on the basis of World Allergy Organization participation and/or registration in the European Society for Immunodeficiencies. There were 40 centers that responded, comprising 32 countries. Results: This study reports on 783 patients from 40 centers around the world. Problems with diagnosis are highlighted by the reported delays in diagnosis>24 months in 34% of patients and the lack of genetic studies in 39% of centers Two infections exhibited regional variation. Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis was seen only in countries with live polio vaccination and two centers reported mycobacteria. High rates of morbidity were reported. Acute and chronic lung diseases accounted for 41% of the deaths. Unusual complications such as inflammatory bowel disease and large granular lymphocyte disease, among others were specifically enumerated, and while individually uncommon, they were collectively seen in 20.3% of patients. These data suggest that a broad range of both inflammatory, infectious, and autoimmune conditions can occur in patients. The breadth of complications and lack of data on management subsequently appeared as a significant challenge reported by centers. Survival above 20 years of age was lowest in Africa (22%) and reached above 70% in Australia, Europe and the Americas. Centers were asked to report their challenges and responses (n = 116) emphasized the difficulties in access to immunoglobulin products (16%) and reflected the ongoing need for education of both patients and referring physicians. Conclusions: This is the largest study of patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and emphasizes the continued morbidity and mortality of XLA despite progress in diagnosis and treatment. It presents a world view of the successes and challenges for patients and physicians alike. A pivotal finding is the need for education of physicians regarding typical symptoms suggesting a possible diagnosis of X-linked agammaglobulinemia and sharing of best practices for the less common complications.

10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(7): 2369-2376, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) may develop severe thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic anemia. There are no reliable predictors for the development of hematologic autoimmunity (HA) in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To describe the peculiar B and T subpopulation defects in patients with 22q11DS who have developed HA and test if these defects precede the development of HA. METHODS: We performed a case-control multicenter study. Patients with HA were compared with a control population of 22q11.2DS without HA (non-HA). A complete immunological evaluation was performed at diagnosis and at the last follow-up including extensive T and B phenotypes. RESULTS: Immunophenotype at the last follow-up was available in 23 HA and 45 non-HA patients. HA patients had significantly decreased percentage of naïve CD4+ cells (26.8% vs 43.2%, P = .003) and recent thymic emigrants (48.6% vs 80.5%, P = .046); decreased class-switched B cells (2.0% vs 5.9%, P = .04) and increased naive B cells (83.5% vs 71.4%, P = .02); increased CD16+/56+ both in absolute number (312 vs 199, P = .009) and percentage (20.0% vs 13.0%, P = .03). Immunophenotype was performed in 36 patients (11 HA and 25 non-HA) at diagnosis. Odds ratio (OR) of immune cytopenia were estimated for both CD4 naïve ≤30% (OR 14.0, P = .002) and switched memory B cells ≤2% (OR 44.0, P = .01). The estimated survival curves reached statistical significance, respectively, P = .0001 and P = .002. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with 22q11.2DS, those with HA have characteristic lymphocyte anomalies that appear considerably before HA onset. Systematic immunophenotyping of patients with 22q11.2DS at diagnosis is advisable for early identification of patients at risk for this severe complication.

11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(3): 825-838, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia is a serious issue for all patients with classical Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) and X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT) because it causes severe and life-threatening bleeding. Lentiviral gene therapy (GT) for WAS has shown promising results in terms of immune reconstitution. However, despite the reduced severity and frequency of bleeding events, platelet counts remain low in GT-treated patients. OBJECTIVE: We carefully investigated platelet defects in terms of phenotype and function in untreated patients with WAS and assessed the effect of GT treatment on platelet dysfunction. METHODS: We analyzed a cohort of 20 patients with WAS/XLT, 15 of them receiving GT. Platelet phenotype and function were analyzed by using electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and an aggregation assay. Platelet protein composition was assessed before and after GT by means of proteomic profile analysis. RESULTS: We show that platelets from untreated patients with WAS have reduced size, abnormal ultrastructure, and a hyperactivated phenotype at steady state, whereas activation and aggregation responses to agonists are decreased. GT restores platelet size and function early after treatment and reduces the hyperactivated phenotype proportionally to WAS protein expression and length of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the coexistence of morphologic and multiple functional defects in platelets lacking WAS protein and demonstrates that GT normalizes the platelet proteomic profile with consequent restoration of platelet ultrastructure and phenotype, which might explain the observed reduction of bleeding episodes after GT. These results are instrumental also from the perspective of a future clinical trial in patients with XLT only presenting with microthrombocytopenia.

13.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(1): 51-60, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269248

RESUMO

Selective IgA deficiency is defined as absolute or partial when serum IgA level is < 7 mg/dl or 2 SD below normal for age, respectively. Few data are available on partial selective IgA deficiency, as probably most children with low serum IgA are seldom referred to a specialist clinic in common pediatric practice. The aim of our study was to better define the profile of both symptomatic forms and their clinical outcome in a pediatric immunology setting. Thus, clinical and immunological data from 103 symptomatic patients with selective IgA deficiency (53 absolute and 50 partial), 4-18 years of age, were collected at diagnosis and 80 patients (44 absolute and 36 partial) were monitored for a mean period of 5 years. Also, the prevalence of TNFRSF13B mutations has been assessed in 56 patients. The most common clinical features were infections (86/103; 83%), allergy (39/103; 38%), and autoimmunity (13/103; 13%). No significative differences were observed between absolute and partial selective IgA deficiency patients. However, a significative difference in the rate of IgA normalization between partial and absolute selective IgA deficiency patients (33 vs 9%, p = 0.01) was detected. Furthermore, a lower incidence of infections was associated to a normalization reversal compared to a final absolute or partial defect status (12 vs 53 and 64% respectively, p < 0.01).Conclusions: Regardless of a diagnosis of absolute or partial defect, monitoring of symptomatic patients with selective IgA deficiency is recommended overtime for prompt identification and treatment of associated diseases. Further, diagnostic workup protocols should be revisited in children with IgA deficiency. What is Known: ● Selective IgA Deficiency is the most common primary immunodeficiency and is usually asymptomatic. ● Symptomatic pediatric patients with selective IgA deficiency mostly suffer with respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. What is New: ● Symptomatic children with partial IgA defect may have similar clinical, immunological, and genetic features than symptomatic children with absolute IgA deficiency. ● Symptomatic children with partial IgA deficiency deserve accurate monitoring for associated diseases as per children with absolute IgA deficiency.


Assuntos
Deficiência de IgA/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Proteína Transmembrana Ativadora e Interagente do CAML/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Deficiência de IgA/complicações , Deficiência de IgA/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Prevalência
14.
Clin Drug Investig ; 38(10): 955-965, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Italy, there is scarce evidence on the epidemiological and economic burden induced by primary antibody deficiencies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to elaborate the available epidemiological and cost data in order to estimate the annual expenditure induced by the management of patients affected by the common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) requiring immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy. METHODS: A probabilistic cost-of-illness model was developed to estimate the number of patients with CVID and XLA, and the economic burden associated with their therapy in terms of direct or indirect costs. A systematic literature review was carried out to reveal both epidemiological and economic data. Furthermore, a probabilistic sensitivity analysis with 5000 Monte Carlo simulations was performed. RESULTS: The epidemiological model allowed us to estimate the number of prevalent patients affected by XLA and CVID in Italy in 2017, corresponding to 1885 (95% confidence interval [CI] 944-3145) and 133 (95% CI 115-152) patients, respectively. The estimated total expenditure for the treatment and management of patients with CVID and XLA requiring Ig replacement therapy amounts to €42.68 million (95% CI €14.38-€86.1 million). CONCLUSIONS: This information provides a comprehensive perspective of the economic issues, and facilitates better-informed public health decision making, in the management of CVID and XLA in Italy.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Agamaglobulinemia/economia , Agamaglobulinemia/epidemiologia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/economia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/economia , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/economia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método de Monte Carlo , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2128-2134, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207636

RESUMO

Otorhinolaryngologic manifestations are common in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), but poorly described. This study aimed to better define the ear-nose-throat (ENT) phenotype of 22q11.2DS patients, in the attempt to best detect subjects requiring subspecialist intervention. We enrolled 25 patients affected with 22q11.2DS. Anatomic and functional ENT findings were investigated using clinical, laboratory, and instrumental data. Immunophenotype and frequency of infections were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. ENT anomalies were found in 88% of patients, and in 20% congenital palate defects required surgery. Adenoid or palatine tonsil hypertrophy was noted in 80% and 48%. Forty-eight percent of subjects had rhinolalia/phonia, severe in half of these. We also found nasal regurgitation or laryngeal penetration/aspiration in 20% and 16%, respectively. Instrumental exams revealed a mild conductive hearing loss in 32% (bilateral in most cases), tympanometric anomalies in 28%, and swallowing abnormalities in 16%. Statistical univariate analysis showed a direct association between rhinolalia/phonia and episodes of laryngeal aspiration (p = .016) and between tympanometric anomalies and increased adenoid volume (p = .044). No association between episodes of food aspiration and palatal anomalies was found. Moreover, no statistically significant association was observed between the number of airway infections and the ENT findings. This study contributes to better define the ENT phenotype in patients with 22q11.2DS, helpful to prevent potential complications. Furthermore, the identification of a subcategory of patients may allow the early adoption of specific speech therapy programs to improve the clinical outcome of 22q11.2DS patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome de DiGeorge/fisiopatologia , Orelha/anormalidades , Nariz/anormalidades , Faringe/anormalidades , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(5): 602-609, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29951948

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) replacement therapy is a standard treatment for patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). Hizentra®, a 20% human subcutaneous IgG (SCIG), is approved for biweekly administration for PIDs. The aim of the multicenter IBIS study was to prospectively investigate the efficacy of biweekly Hizentra® compared with previous IVIG or SCIG treatment regimens in patients with PIDs. The study consisted of a 12-month retrospective period followed by 12-month prospective observational period. The main endpoints included pre-infusion IgG concentrations, proportion of patients with serious bacterial infections (SBIs), other infections, hospitalizations due to PID-related illnesses, and days with antibiotics during the study periods. Of the 36 patients enrolled in the study, 35 patients continued the study (mean age 26.1 ± 14.4 years; 68.6% male). The mean pre-infusion IgG levels for prior immunoglobulin regimens during the retrospective period (7.84 ± 2.09 g/L) and the prospective period (8.55 ± 1.76 g/L) did not show any significant variations (p = 0.4964). The mean annual rate of SBIs/patient was 0.063 ± 0.246 for both prospective and retrospective periods. No hospitalizations related to PIDs were reported during the prospective period versus one in the retrospective period. All patients were either very (76.5%) or quite (23.5%) satisfied with biweekly Hizentra® at the end of the study. In conclusion, the IBIS study provided real-world evidence on the efficacy of biweekly Hizentra® in patients with PIDs, thus verifying the data generated by the pharmacometric modeling and simulation study in a normal clinical setting.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G/administração & dosagem , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Masculino , Satisfação do Paciente , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Front Immunol ; 9: 544, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651287

RESUMO

Anti-cytokine autoantibodies (ACAAs) have been described in a growing number of primary immunodeficiencies with autoimmune features, including autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS-1), a prototypical disease of defective T cell-mediated central tolerance. Whether defects in peripheral tolerance lead to similar ACAAs is unknown. Immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked (IPEX) is caused by mutations in FOXP3, a master regulator of T regulatory cells (Treg), and consequently results in defective T cell-mediated peripheral tolerance. Unique autoantibodies have previously been described in IPEX. To test the hypothesis that ACAAs are present in IPEX, we designed and fabricated antigen microarrays. We discovered elevated levels of IgG ACAAs against interferon-α (IFN-α) in a cohort of IPEX patients. Serum from IPEX patients blocked IFN-α signaling in vitro and blocking activity was tightly correlated with ACAA titer. To show that blocking activity was mediated by IgG and not other serum factors, we purified IgG and showed that blocking activity was contained entirely in the immunoglobulin fraction. We also screened for ACAAs against IFN-α in a second geographically distinct cohort. In these samples, ACAAs against IFN-α were elevated in a post hoc analysis. In summary, we report the discovery of ACAAs against IFN-α in IPEX, an experiment of nature demonstrating the important role of peripheral T cell tolerance.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/imunologia , Criança , Humanos , Lactente
19.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(8): 751-758, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28932937

RESUMO

Since the discovery of FOXN1 deficiency, the human counterpart of the nude mouse, a growing body of evidence investigating the role of FOXN1 in thymus and skin, has been published. FOXN1 has emerged as fundamental for thymus development, function, and homeostasis, representing the master regulator of thymic epithelial and T cell development. In the skin, it also plays a pivotal role in keratinocytes and hair follicle cell differentiation, although the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain to be fully elucidated. The nude severe combined immunodeficiency phenotype is indeed characterized by the clinical hallmarks of athymia with severe T cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries in the field and give interesting perspective about new and promising therapeutic approaches for disorders of immune system with athymia.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/deficiência , Folículo Piloso/fisiologia , Unhas/patologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Pele/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Timo/fisiologia , Alopecia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Repressão Epigenética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Fenótipo
20.
Haematologica ; 102(8): 1304-1313, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28550188

RESUMO

Hereditary hemolytic anemias are a group of disorders with a variety of causes, including red cell membrane defects, red blood cell enzyme disorders, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, thalassemia syndromes and hemoglobinopathies. As damaged red blood cells passing through the red pulp of the spleen are removed by splenic macrophages, splenectomy is one possible therapeutic approach to the management of severely affected patients. However, except for hereditary spherocytosis for which the effectiveness of splenectomy has been well documented, the efficacy of splenectomy in other anemias within this group has yet to be determined and there are concerns regarding short- and long-term infectious and thrombotic complications. In light of the priorities identified by the European Hematology Association Roadmap we generated specific recommendations for each disorder, except thalassemia syndromes for which there are other, recent guidelines. Our recommendations are intended to enable clinicians to achieve better informed decisions on disease management by splenectomy, on the type of splenectomy and the possible consequences. As no randomized clinical trials, case control or cohort studies regarding splenectomy in these disorders were found in the literature, recommendations for each disease were based on expert opinion and were subsequently critically revised and modified by the Splenectomy in Rare Anemias Study Group, which includes hematologists caring for both adults and children.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Congênita/cirurgia , Guias como Assunto/normas , Esplenectomia/normas , Humanos , Esplenectomia/efeitos adversos , Esplenectomia/métodos , Trombose/etiologia
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