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1.
Echocardiography ; 38(3): 402-409, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523543

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Strain derived from speckle-tracking echocardiography is emerging as a useful tool in the assessment of single ventricle function. The purpose of this study is to compare layer-specific longitudinal strain values in children with single, systemic right ventricles (sRV) using two commercially available software platforms (GE EchoPAC (EP) and TomTec (TT)). METHODS: Two readers analyzed two-dimensional longitudinal strain on EP (v 202) and TT (v 2.21.25) in 40 pediatric sRV patients. Intravendor reproducibility and intervendor agreement between layer-specific measurements were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. Absolute difference (AbΔ) and relative mean errors (RME) were calculated. Subgroup comparisons (stratified by age, heart rate (HR), and frames per second (FPS): HR ratio) were made. RESULTS: Median age was 4.4 years. 32 (80%) patients had hypoplastic left heart syndrome; 19 (48%) were post-Fontan. Intravendor reproducibility was excellent with high ICC (0.86-0.97). AbΔ between readers was small (1.2%-1.5%) with interobserver RME slightly higher for TT (11%-12% vs 8%-9% for EP). Layer-specific intervendor agreement was poor (ICC 0.45-0.62). Default layer comparisons (EP mid vs TT endo) showed good agreement (ICC 0.72-0.77) and less variability (AbΔ 2%, RME 15%) than layer-to-layer. There were no differences in ICC for groups dichotomized by age, HR, or FPS:HR ratio. sRV strain values are more negative when using EP. CONCLUSION: Intravendor reproducibility for sRV peak longitudinal strain in children is excellent with acceptable variability between experienced users. Intervendor, layer-specific strain agreement is poor. Vendor default layer strain values show better agreement but are not interchangeable.

2.
Echocardiography ; 38(2): 189-196, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diastolic dysfunction (DD) and pulmonary hypertension (PH) are common causes of mortality for sickle cell disease (SCD) patients in developed countries. We hypothesized that left and right atrial strain (LAS-Ɛ, RAS-rƐ) are decreased in SCD adolescents, and that worsening values correlate with laboratory markers of disease severity. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of patients with HbSS genotype of SCD was compared with healthy controls. LAS and RAS were measured from 4- and 2-chamber views by a blinded reader. Peak strain and strain rate values were obtained for atrial contraction (ac), reservoir (res), and conduit (con) phases. Mitral/tricuspid Doppler velocities, left atrial volume, right atrial area were obtained. Laboratory variables were obtained from the electronic record with the three prior values being averaged. Differences in variables were assessed with Wilcoxon rank sum test, and correlations assessed with Spearman's coefficient. RESULTS: There were 33 SCD patients compared to 35 healthy controls of similar age, gender, and size. SCD patients had increased left atrial volume and right atrial area. For LAS, Ɛres was significantly lower in SCD patients. For RAS, RƐcon was significantly lower. Neither measurement correlated with clinical markers. The majority of SCD patients had relatively normal atrial strain values. Those with markedly lower values had similar atrial size. CONCLUSIONS: A sub-set of SCD patients have markedly low Ɛres and rƐcon. No correlation with clinical markers was identified. Larger, longitudinal studies may determine utility of atrial strain as a screening tool in this at-risk population.

4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(4): 720-775, out. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1131346
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803485

RESUMO

Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk of cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD) characterized by systolic impairment, with little known about diastolic function. Left atrial strain (LAS) is a surrogate measure of left ventricular filling. We hypothesized that survivors (1) have lower LAS versus controls, and (2) survivors exposed to higher anthracycline dosage have even lower LAS. Cross-sectional study of 45 survivors exposed to anthracyclines ≥ 1 year after chemotherapy and 45 healthy controls. Echo variables included mitral spectral and tissue Doppler, left ventricular ejection fraction (LV EF), LV dimension, LA volume, LV global longitudinal strain (GLS), and LAS. Peak strain (Ɛ) and strain rate (SR) at three phases were obtained: atrial contraction (ac), reservoir (res), and conduit (con). Two sub-analyses of cancer survivors were performed: (1) those with anthracycline dosage ≥ 250 mg/m2, and (2) those with Ɛres in the lowest quartile. On the whole, survivors had lower Ɛres and Ɛcon values. The majority of survivors had relatively normal LAS, while a subset had very low LAS values and were more likely to be older. Survivors exposed to ≥ 250 mg/m2 anthracycline also had lower Ɛres than those < 250 mg/m2. There were no differences in mitral spectral/tissue Doppler, LV dimension, left atrial volume, or GLS. A subset of childhood cancer survivors have lower LAS than their healthy counterparts, while most are essentially normal. Those exposed to higher anthracycline dosage have even lower Ɛres. Longitudinal study of LAS may prove useful in monitoring for CTRCD.

6.
Int J Cardiol ; 320: 133-138, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Changes in 2D echocardiography (2DE) speckle tracking imaging (STI) derived left ventricular (LV) strain (S) and strain rate (SR) precedes diminution of LV ejection fraction (LVEF) in adult valvular aortic stenosis (AS). We prospectively examined whether 2DE-STI derived multidirectional LV S and SR correlate with AS severity in children using LV mass index (MI) as the principal outcome variable. METHODS: 52 children (10.4 ± 7.3 years) with isolated congenital AS were included; 13 mild (2.5 m/s < Vmax < 3.0 m/s), 25 moderate (3.0 m/s < Vmax < 4.0 m/s), and 14 severe (Vmax > 4.0 m/s). 2DE including Doppler and STI longitudinal strain (LS), strain rate (LSR), circumferential strain (CS), and strain rate (CSR) were measured. Univariate and multivariable linear regressions identified correlations between LVMI and strain indices. RESULTS: Three clinical and 2DE variables, and four strain indices were independently associated with LVMI. LVMI correlated positively with systolic blood pressure and aortic regurgitation, and negatively with LVEF. LVMI correlated positively with LSR (four-chamber) and CSR (basal), and negatively with segmental CS in the inferior (basal) and anteroseptal (distal) segments. LVMI showed significant inverse association with LS (P = .05), LSR (P < .001), CS (P < .005), and CSR (P < .0001), independent of AS severity. CONCLUSIONS: Independent of clinical and 2DE findings including contemporaneous Doppler estimates of AS gradient, both longitudinal and circumferential strain indices correlate with LVMI as a measure of cumulative hemodynamic burden. This association implies subclinical LV dysfunction.

8.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 33(4): 504-511.e1, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive assessment of diastolic function in pediatric heart transplantation (PHTx) patients is important for monitoring of rejection, cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and nonspecific graft failure. We hypothesized that left atrial strain (LAS) would correlate with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) and that cutoff values to identify elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressure could be derived for clinical practice and future testing. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a prospectively collected cohort of PHTx patients undergoing same-day cardiac catheterization with biopsy and transthoracic echo. There were 70 patients with 85 clinical encounters. Traditional mitral inflow Doppler, LAS, LV diastolic strain and strain rate, and ratios for mitral E to LV diastolic strain and strain rate were assessed. Correlation with PCWP was performed, and receiver operator characteristic curves were generated for an elevated mean PCWP, acute rejection, and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. RESULTS: Decreased LAS during the atrial reservoir phase (Ɛres) correlated with higher invasively measured PCWP (r = -0.40, P < .001). An Ɛres cutoff of 14.5% had good discriminatory ability for an elevated PCWP (sensitivity 75%, specificity 82%), and Ɛres > 22.0% had 100% negative predictive value; Ɛres was superior to other measures of diastolic function. Subanalyses for recent acute rejection (n = 9) showed good discriminatory ability for Ɛres of 14.5% (sensitivity 89%, specificity 74%). CONCLUSIONS: LAS correlates with invasively measured PCWP and can identify elevated pressures better than traditional and other advanced diastolic function parameters. Use of LAS in PHTx patients may aid in noninvasive monitoring for rejection and nonspecific graft dysfunction.

9.
J Card Fail ; 25(12): 1004-1008, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) has been associated with left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) in children. Little is known about the prevalence of this association, clinical outcomes, and treatment options. METHODS: Retrospective review of subjects with LVNC. LVNC was defined by established criteria; those with congenital heart disease were excluded. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were reviewed for presence of pre-excitation. Outcomes were compared between those with isolated LVNC and those with WPW and LVNC. RESULTS: A total of 348 patients with LVNC were identified. Thirty-eight (11%) were found to have WPW pattern on ECG, and 84% of those with WPW and LVNC had cardiac dysfunction. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, there was significantly lower freedom from significant dysfunction (ejection fraction ≤ 40%) among those with WPW and LVNC (P < .001). Further analysis showed a higher risk of developing significant dysfunction in patients with WPW and LVNC versus LVNC alone (hazard ratio 4.64 [2.79, 9.90]). Twelve patients underwent an ablation procedure with an acute success rate of 83%. Four patients with cardiac dysfunction were successfully ablated, 3 having improvement in function. CONCLUSION: WPW is common among children with LVNC and is associated with cardiac dysfunction. Ablation therapy can be safely and effectively performed and may result in improvement in function.


Assuntos
Miocárdio Ventricular não Compactado Isolado/diagnóstico , Miocárdio Ventricular não Compactado Isolado/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Miocárdio Ventricular não Compactado Isolado/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White/fisiopatologia
10.
Congenit Heart Dis ; 14(6): 1024-1031, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099489

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Children with Kawasaki disease (KD) with persistent coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) can develop chronic vasculopathy and subsequent myocardial ischemia. Early detection of this process is challenging. Myocardial deformation analysis can detect early alterations in myocardial performance. We aim to determine whether there are differences in myocardial deformation between KD patients with and without CAAs. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study of 123 echocardiograms performed on 103 children with KD. Myocardial deformation was measured with two-dimensional speckle tracking (2DSTE). The echocardiograms were divided into groups according to the KD phase in which they were performed: acute, subacute, and convalescent/chronic. The convalescent/chronic phase group was then divided based on the presence or absence of CAAs. Left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS), global longitudinal strain rate (GLSSR), global circumferential strain (GCS), global circumferential systolic strain rate (GCSSR), peak torsion, and torsion rate were measured. RESULTS: The numbers of echocardiograms analyzed in each of the KD phase groups were: 31 acute, 25 subacute, and 67 convalescent/chronic. Myocardial deformation was within normal limits in all groups. However, GLSSR, GCSSR, peak torsion, and torsion rate were lower in the convalescent/chronic phase group than in the acute phase group (mean, -1.37 ± 0.24 vs -1.55 ± 0.21 1/s; -1.63 ± 0.27 vs -1.84 ± 0.35 1/s; 2.49 ± 1.13 vs 3.41 ± 2.60 °/cm, and 21.97 ± 8.36 vs 26.69 ± 10.86 °/cm/s; P < .05 for all). The convalescent/chronic phase subgroup with CAAs had lower GLSSR and GCSSR than the subgroup without CAAs (mean, -1.23 ± 0.22 vs -1.42 ± 0.22 1/s; -1.46 ± 0.25 vs -1.68 ± 0.26 1/s, P < .05 for both). CONCLUSIONS: Children in the convalescent/chronic phase of KD have a subtle decrease in strain rate when compared to the acute phase, although within the normal range. This decrease is more pronounced in children with CAAs than those without CAAs. Longitudinal studies are needed to discern whether low-normal strain rate predicts decreased myocardial function in the long term.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Coronário/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/complicações , Contração Miocárdica , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Fatores Etários , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Aneurisma Coronário/etiologia , Aneurisma Coronário/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
11.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 32(5): 643-650, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Validated, objective measures of right ventricular (RV) function assessment in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) are needed. In other populations, speckle-tracking echocardiography-derived strain is a sensitive measure that outperforms conventional parameters of RV function. We hypothesized that speckle-tracking echocardiography-derived measures of RV function would be worse in patients with HLHS who have a poor cardiac outcome. METHODS: Prospective serial echocardiography was performed in 35 infants with HLHS during the first 6 months of life. Patients not undergoing staged palliation or with other variants of single RV were excluded. Traditional RV measurements and strain analysis were performed from standard apical and basal views. The primary outcome of cardiac death, heart transplantation, or persistent ≥ moderate RV dysfunction was examined using Cox regression analysis, and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to derive cutoff values. RESULTS: At median follow-up of 10.9 months (interquartile range 5.6, 15.2), eight patients reached the outcome and demonstrated worse RV strain measures compared with those without the outcome. A post-Norwood global longitudinal strain (GLS) of > -16% (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.76; P = .04) and pre-Glenn GLS > -13% (AUC, 0.98; P ≤ .01) were highly sensitive and specific for poor outcome. Other thresholds included post-Norwood GLS rate (GLSr) > -1.15 %/s (AUC, 0.78; P = .03), pre-Glenn GLSr = -0.85%/sec (AUC, 0.89; P < .01), post-Glenn circumferential strain rate > -0.85%/sec (AUC, 0.92; P < .01), and GLSr > -0.85%/sec (AUC, 0.84; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Strain analysis may help identify at-risk HLHS infants. In this pilot study, interstage strain indices were worse in infants with HLHS who had a poor cardiac outcome.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/mortalidade , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/cirurgia , Lactente , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Congenit Heart Dis ; 13(1): 5-15, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29226596

RESUMO

Chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity in adults and children is a topic with a growing interest in the cardiology literature. The ability to detect cardiac dysfunction in a timely manner is essential in order to begin adequate treatment and prevent further deterioration. This article aims to provide a review on the myocardial injury process, chemotherapeutic agents that lead to cardiotoxicity, the definition of cardiotoxicity, and the methods of timely detection and treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Cardiopatias , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotoxicidade , Criança , Saúde Global , Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência
13.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 32(5): 529-540, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28678047

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pulmonary valve is the least imaged of the cardiac valves in adults. This review will address the strengths and the limitations of various imaging modalities that are commonly used for evaluation of pulmonary valve diseases in the adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Valvular pulmonary stenosis is mostly congenital and pulmonary regurgitation is usually an acquired pulmonary valve disease. Combined pulmonary stenosis and pulmonary regurgitation as sequel to previous surgeries for congenital heart diseases is the most common form of pulmonary valve disease in the adults. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the first-line imaging for the pulmonary valve, however, TTE pose considerable technical limitations in adults secondary to the body habitus, previous surgeries, and imaging artifacts by the interposed foreign tissue. Transesophageal echocardiography is infrequently used because of farther location of the imaging probe from the pulmonary valve precluding optimal imaging. Cardiac computerized tomography (CT) and cardiac MRI are fast emerging as the most preferred imaging modalities for pulmonary valve diseases in the adults.CT is used to obtain precise anatomic information about the pulmonary valve and the contiguous anatomy such as the right ventricular outflow tract, the distal pulmonary arteries including the coronary arteries. MRI by virtue of its high temporal resolution has the unique advantage of obtaining hemodynamic information related to the pulmonary valve; such as quantification of the pulmonary regurgitation, the right ventricle volumes, mass, and the systolic function. Combined imaging with CT and MRI provide anatomic and hemodynamic information in a variety of pulmonary valve diseases; is useful for understanding of the right ventricle adaptive mechanism and remodeling process, for preprocedure planning during percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation and for surveillance of different pulmonary valve diseases. SUMMARY: Multimodality imaging involving a combination of TTE, CT, and (or) MRI are useful to delineate the anatomic and hemodynamic abnormalities associated with different pulmonary valve diseases in the adults.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/tendências , Valva Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/tendências , Adulto , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas , Humanos , Valva Pulmonar/anatomia & histologia , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Pulmonar
15.
Early Hum Dev ; 104: 39-44, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28042971

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Left ventricular cardiac twist and torsion values have been described in premature and term neonates, but not in early infancy. Early and late peak untwist rates and time to peak (TTP) values have not been described in infants. METHODS: 53 term infants were enrolled prospectively. The following parameters were obtained by two blinded observers at 1-2months postnatal age: peak twist and torsion (twist indexed to LV length), peak twist rate and torsion rate, TTP twist, early peak untwist rate, TTP early untwist rate, late peak untwist rate, TTP late untwist rate. Reproducibility was assessed using intraclass correlation and Bland Altman analysis. RESULTS: Intraclass correlation was ≥0.87 for all peak rotational mechanics values. Measures of TTP values had intraclass correlation (ICC) values ≤0.77, with TTP twist rate demonstrating the lowest ICC (0.69). The only measure which demonstrated significant bias was TTP twist rate. Peak twist demonstrated modest correlation (R=0.52, p<0.001) with global circumferential strain, and no correlation with ejection fraction, global longitudinal strain, or left ventricular myocardial performance index. CONCLUSIONS: Measurements of rotational mechanics and timing to peak values have acceptable reproducibility. Peak twist, twist rate, and early untwist rate values in early infancy are similar to those reported in premature neonates, and higher than those reported in older children. Twist indexed to LV length (torsion) is lower in early infancy than in premature neonates, but higher than in term neonates.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/normas , Eletroencefalografia/normas , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidade Torcional/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tempo , Torção Mecânica
16.
Cardiol Young ; 27(4): 697-705, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27456367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Shone's syndrome is a complex consisting of mitral valve stenosis in addition to left ventricle outflow obstruction. There are a few studies evaluating the long-term outcomes in this population. We sought to determine the long-term outcomes in our paediatric population with Shone's syndrome and the factors associated with left heart growth. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with Shone's syndrome with biventricular circulation treated between 1978 and 2010 were reviewed. Baseline echocardiograms and data from catheterisations were also reviewed. Number of interventions (surgical+transcatheter), incidence of mitral valve replacement, and incidence of heart transplantation were tracked. Survival of the population and left heart structural growth were also reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 121 patients with Shone's syndrome presented at a median age of 28 days (0-17.3 years) and were followed-up for 7.2 years (0.01-35.5 years). These patients underwent 258 interventions during the study period, and the presence of coarctation was associated with repeat left heart interventions. The 10-year, transplant-free survival was 86%. Presence of pulmonary hypertension was associated with mortality. Left heart structural growth was seen for mitral and aortic valve annuli and left ventricular end-diastolic dimension over time. CONCLUSIONS: Shone's syndrome patients undergo a number of left heart interventions. Coarctation of the aorta is associated with an increased likelihood for repeat interventions. Survival appears to be more favourable than expected. Significant left heart growth will occur in the population. Pulmonary hypertension is associated with an increased risk of mortality.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Estenose da Valva Mitral/epidemiologia , Valva Mitral/anormalidades , Adolescente , Coartação Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/congênito , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Georgia/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Mitral/congênito , Estenose da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Reoperação , Análise de Sobrevida , Síndrome
17.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 29(7): 663-9, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27049665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Normative fetal diastolic strain rate values have not been comprehensively reported. The aims of this study were to report normative data for diastolic strain rate parameters across gestation and upon delivery, determine the effect of advancing gestational age on these measures, and compare interobserver variability at multiple gestational age time points. METHODS: Sixty gravid women were enrolled before 20 weeks' gestation. The following measures were obtained by two blinded observers at five time points across gestation and at 4 to 8 weeks' postnatal age: global left ventricular circumferential strain rate peak E and A waves, global left and right ventricular longitudinal strain rate peak E and A waves, and mitral and tricuspid valve E/A ratios. Reproducibility was assessed using intraclass correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. Least square means analysis was used to evaluate for changes across gestational age. RESULTS: Left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential diastolic strain rate values decreased across gestation, while right ventricular longitudinal values remained stable. With delivery, left ventricular values remained fairly stable, while right ventricular values increased. Intraclass correlations for diastolic strain rate values were 0.68 to 0.94 at ≥24 weeks' gestation and 0.25 to 0.82 for values at 20 to 21 weeks' gestation. Intraclass correlations ranged from 0.49 to 0.90 for mitral valve and tricuspid valve E/A ratios across gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal measures of diastolic strain rate have acceptable reproducibility after 24 weeks' gestation. The described changes across gestation likely reflect intrinsic myocardial adaptation to loading conditions. These reference ranges can be used to assess effects of various disease states on fetal myocardial deformation.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/normas , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/embriologia , Gravidez/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/normas , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Módulo de Elasticidade/fisiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estresse Mecânico , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Resistência à Tração/fisiologia , Texas , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos
18.
Am J Cardiol ; 117(8): 1349-54, 2016 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26952271

RESUMO

The association between systolic cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmia development in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) or Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is generally assumed but has not been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to describe arrhythmias in patients with DMD and BMD in the present era and determine whether arrhythmia development is associated with cardiac dysfunction. This is a single-center retrospective review of 237 Holters from 91 patients with DMD (mean = 17 ± 4 years, range 3 to 27 years) and 64 Holters from 21 patients with BMD (mean = 18 ± 7 years, range 4 to 31 years) with corresponding echocardiography. Holters were stratified by age of patient at the time of study and ejection fraction: normal (≥55%), mild (<55% and ≥45%), moderate (<45% and ≥30%), and severe (<30%). Arrhythmias included frequent atrial and ventricular premature complexes (>10/hr), couplets, and runs of supraventricular and ventricular tachycardias. Arrhythmias occurred in 44% of DMD and 57% of BMD patients and were significantly associated with decrease in cardiac function. Clinically significant arrhythmias (supraventricular tachycardia and ventricular tachycardia) occurred in 10% of all Holters obtained in patients with DMD and 25% of all Holters obtained in patients with BMD. Subgroup analysis of Holters from patients with DMD demonstrated that arrhythmias increased with decreasing ejection fraction regardless of age, but that age was also a significant predictor of arrhythmia development. In conclusion, among patients with DMD or BMD, arrhythmias increase with development of cardiac dysfunction.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/complicações , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/diagnóstico por imagem , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Congenit Heart Dis ; 11(2): 199-207, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26879728

RESUMO

Speckle tracking echocardiography measures myocardial strain and allows for the quantification of regional and global left and right ventricular function. A growing body of literature is supporting its transition from research into clinical practice. This article aims to provide a practical review of strain imaging as it applies to congenital and pediatric heart disease, with the goals of increasing literacy and advocating for greater clinical integration.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular/fisiologia , Criança , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 29(4): 341-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26797677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Normative data for fetal myocardial deformation values have not been comprehensively described in a longitudinal cohort. The effect of gestational age on these values and on interobserver variability require further investigation. METHODS: Sixty gravid women were prospectively enrolled before 20 weeks' gestation. The following measures were obtained by two blinded observers at five time points across gestation and also at 4 to 8 weeks' postnatal age: global circumferential strain and strain rate, global longitudinal left ventricular strain and strain rate, global longitudinal right ventricular strain and strain rate, and left and right ventricular myocardial performance indices. Optimal myocardial visualization and frame rate (≥100 frames/sec) were ensured. RESULTS: For gestational age groups ≥24 weeks, intraclass correlation coefficients between observers were >0.70 for all measures and >0.85 for the majority of measures of myocardial deformation. At 20 to 21 weeks' gestation, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.35 to 0.52 for longitudinal measures and 0.74 to 0.82 for circumferential measures. Myocardial performance index intraclass correlation coefficients were <0.80 at all time points and <0.70 for most time points. Global longitudinal left ventricular strain and global circumferential strain values remained stable across gestational age groups. Global longitudinal right ventricular strain values remained stable across gestation and increased after birth. Global circumferential strain rate, global longitudinal left ventricular strain rate, and global longitudinal right ventricular strain rate decreased from 20 to 21 weeks' gestation to the remainder of gestation and then remained stable until delivery. Upon delivery, global circumferential strain rate and global longitudinal left ventricular strain rate decreased, and global longitudinal right ventricular strain rate increased. CONCLUSIONS: Interobserver variability of fetal strain and strain rate measured at ≥24 weeks' gestation was lower in comparison with values obtained at 20 to 21 weeks' gestation and lower in comparison with left ventricular and right ventricular myocardial performance indices using the described protocol. Gestational changes in fetal myocardial deformation values likely reflect changes in preload and/or afterload on the fetal heart.


Assuntos
Coração Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Coração Fetal/fisiologia , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Miocárdio , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sístole , Fatores de Tempo
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