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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882280

RESUMO

Microalgal species growing in marine and aquaculture environments can be responsible for harmful events because of their ability to produce potent natural toxins that can accumulate in edible mollusc species. Their consumption can cause severe illness and even be lethal. The European Union provides comprehensive regulations covering various general food safety aspects to manage the risk of contamination in shellfish farms. Many analytical methods have been proposed to evaluate algal toxins presence in the environment and in food products, for conducting surveillance studies of the main molluscs production sites and, where necessary, immediate monitoring of possible contamination of shellfish. In this work, a one-year analytical surveillance study was carried out to verify the possible presence of algal biotoxins in molluscs from a Mediterranean breeding area. Water and molluscs were sampled from a district of the North-East coast of Sicily, consisting of a unique brackish ecosystem of two lakes connected to each other and to the sea by narrow canals. Water samples were collected to investigate phytoplankton i by microscope analysis to assess the presence of potentially toxin-producing species, such as Pseudo-nitzschia spp, Alexandrium spp and Gonyaulax spinifera, although the presence of toxic phytoplankton has never reached alert levels. Mussels and clams samples were submitted to analysis of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, amnesic shellfish poisoning toxins and lipophilic toxins by liquid chromatography-based methods Only a few yessotoxins were detected, having concentrations always below the regulation limits. An existing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based multiresidue method for lipophilic biotoxins was adopted and extended to cover emerging biotoxins such as cyclic imines. The performance of the analytical method for Gymnodimine A and Spirolide 13-desMeC was assessed, obtaining respective quantitation limits of 20 and 10 µg kg-1, a precision always lower than 13% and trueness in the 81-120% range. Method applicability was confirmed using certified materials and a naturally contaminated sample.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Análise de Alimentos , Itália , Região do Mediterrâneo , Frutos do Mar
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 147: 133-149, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014124

RESUMO

The zooplankton community was analyzed in ten Adriatic ports as part of the port biological baseline surveys carried out within the framework of the BALMAS project. We provide the first inventory of resident zooplankton taxa and five detected non-indigenous zooplankton species (NIS), and their spatial and seasonal distribution patterns. Copepoda and meroplankton larvae, particularly of Mollusca, dominated the zooplankton in all sampled ports. We recorded a total of 76 indigenous copepod species and five NIS, among which Parvocalanus crassirostris detected in Sibenik and Rijeka ports and Oithona davisae in Venice port, are new for the Adriatic. All detected NIS were widely distributed within the recipient ports. Co-occurrences of NIS were observed in the ports of Venice, Bari, Ancona and Trieste. The results are expected to contribute to the quality of practical monitoring of zooplankton NIS and facilitate the synchronization of efforts in creating NIS-related policies for the Adriatic sub-region.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Espécies Introduzidas , Zooplâncton/classificação , Animais , Croácia , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Navios
3.
Microorganisms ; 5(4)2017 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29144421

RESUMO

Harmful algal blooms represent a severe issue worldwide. They affect ecosystem functions and related services and goods, with consequences on human health and socio-economic activities. This study reports new data on paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) from Sardinia and Sicily (Italy), the largest Mediterranean islands where toxic events, mainly caused by Alexandrium species (Dinophyceae), have been ascertained in mussel farms since the 2000s. The toxicity of the A. minutum, A. tamarense and A. pacificum strains, established from the isolation of vegetative cells and resting cysts, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analyses indicated the highest toxicity for A. pacificum strains (total PSTs up to 17.811 fmol cell-1). The PSTs were also assessed in a strain of A. tamarense. The results encourage further investigation to increase the knowledge of toxic species still debated in the Mediterranean. This study also reports new data on microcystins (MCs) and ß-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) from a Sardinian artificial lake (Lake Bidighinzu). The presence of MCs and BMAA was assessed in natural samples and in cell cultures by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). BMAA positives were found in all the analysed samples with a maximum of 17.84 µg L-1. The obtained results added further information on cyanotoxins in Mediterranean reservoirs, particularly BMAA, which have not yet been thoroughly investigated.

4.
Mar Drugs ; 10(1): 140-62, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22363227

RESUMO

The Northern Adriatic Sea is the area of the Mediterranean Sea where eutrophication and episodes related to harmful algae have occurred most frequently since the 1970s. In this area, which is highly exploited for mollusk farming, the first occurrence of human intoxication due to shellfish consumption occurred in 1989, nearly 10 years later than other countries in Europe and worldwide that had faced similar problems. Until 1997, Adriatic mollusks had been found to be contaminated mostly by diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e., okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) that, along with paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e., saxitoxins), constitute the most common marine biotoxins. Only once, in 1994, a toxic outbreak was related to the occurrence of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in the Adriatic coastal waters. Moreover, in the past 15 years, the Adriatic Sea has been characterized by the presence of toxic or potentially toxic algae, not highly widespread outside Europe, such as species producing yessotoxins (i.e., Protoceratium reticulatum, Gonyaulax spinifera and Lingulodinium polyedrum), recurrent blooms of the potentially ichthyotoxic species Fibrocapsa japonica and, recently, by blooms of palytoxin-like producing species of the Ostreopsis genus. This review is aimed at integrating monitoring data on toxin spectra and levels in mussels farmed along the coast of the Emilia-Romagna region with laboratory studies performed on the species involved in the production of those toxins; toxicity studies on toxic or potentially toxic species that have recently appeared in this area are also reviewed. Overall, reviewed data are related to: (i) the yessotoxins producing species P. reticulatum, G. spinifera and L. polyedrum, highlighting genetic and toxic characteristics; (ii) Adriatic strains of Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii and Prorocentrum lima whose toxic profiles are compared with those of strains of different geographic origins; (iii) F. japonica and Ostreopsis cf. ovata toxicity. Moreover, new data concerning domoic acid production by a Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata strain, toxicity investigations on a Prorocentrum cf. levis, and on presumably ichthyotoxic species, Heterosigma akashiwo and Chattonella cf. subsalsa, are also reported.


Assuntos
Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Microalgas/química , Aerossóis , Animais , Aquicultura , Bivalves/química , Ecossistema , Humanos , Mar Mediterrâneo , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/patogenicidade , Ácido Okadáico/análise , Oxocinas/análise , Saxitoxina/análise , Frutos do Mar/análise , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Molecules ; 16(1): 888-99, 2011 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21258296

RESUMO

Dinophysis spp. blooms and related shellfish toxicity events of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) have been the most reported toxicity event through the Croatian National monitoring program. With the aim to characterize the DSP toxin profile in shellfish farmed in Croatia, for the first time a complete analysis of the toxin profile of Croatian mussels has been carried out using the LC-MS/MS technique. The obtained results showed okadaic acid (OA) as the main toxin contaminating Croatian mussels at that time. The maximum concentration of OA in shellfish tissue was recorded 12 days after the Dinophysis fortii bloom, thus suggesting that rapid growth of the toxin level in the shellfish occurred in the first week after the bloom while it was slower in the second week. Furthermore, the presence of only OA at concentrations which could endanger human health suggests D. fortii as the main organism responsible for the toxic event that occurred in Lim Bay. The presence of gymnodimine and spirolides in Croatian mussel has been detected for the first time, while the presence of yessotoxin and pectenotoxin-2 is confirmed.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Mytilus/química , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Mar Drugs ; 8(3): 460-70, 2010 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20411109

RESUMO

With the aim of investigating whether yessotoxin (YTX) is responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) events in Croatian waters, three different methods were combined: a modified mouse bioassay (MBA) that discriminates YTX from other DSP toxins, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method (ELISA) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Among 453 samples of mussels and seawater analyzed in 2007, 10 samples were DSP positive. Results obtained by the modified MBA method revealed that most of the samples were positive for YTX, with the exception of samples from Lim Bay (LB 1) The ELISA method also identified the presence of YTX in these samples. DSP toxin profiles showed the presence of okadaic acid (OA) in three, and YTX in four out of nine samples that were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The phytoplankton community structure pattern revealed Lingulodinium polyedrum (Stein) Dodge, which was present in the water prior to and/or during toxicity events at low concentrations (80 to 1440 cells L(-1)), as a potential YTX producing species. It is proposed that L. polyedrum cells accumulated in mussels and the subsequently observed toxicity may be related to metabolism after ingestion, resulting in carboxy YTX as the major analog in the mussel.


Assuntos
Bivalves/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Oxocinas/análise , Água do Mar/química , Animais , Bioensaio , Cromatografia Líquida , Croácia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Eucariotos/química , Eucariotos/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos
7.
Toxicon ; 55(2-3): 280-8, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19660488

RESUMO

This paper reports on the determination of toxin profile of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected in November-December 2003 along the Emilia Romagna coasts (Italy) when a high concentration of Alexandrium ostenfeldii cells was detected in seawater. Detailed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses were performed on the crude extracts in both selected ion monitoring (SIM) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes. They revealed that M. galloprovincialis had accumulated the three major spirolides produced by the alga, namely 13-desMethyl spirolide C, 13,19-didesMethyl spirolide C and 27-hydroxy-13,19-didesMethyl spirolide C, which fully accounted for toxicity of lipophilic extracts shown in mouse bioassay. Interestingly, yessotoxin (YTX) and its analogues were still present in mussel polar extracts but YTX itself was not the major toxin contained in mussels. The presence of pectenotoxin-2 seco acid (PTX-2sa) and its putative epimer was also assessed. The presence of azaspiracids, never reported from the Adriatic sea, as well as of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins (okadaic acid, dinophysistoxins and OA esters) and domoic acid, long known as contaminants of Adriatic mussels, was also investigated.


Assuntos
Toxinas Marinhas/química , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Mytilus/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Eutrofização , Furanos/química , Furanos/toxicidade , Hidrólise , Indicadores e Reagentes , Itália , Espectrometria de Massas , Mar Mediterrâneo , Camundongos , Ácido Okadáico/química , Ácido Okadáico/toxicidade , Oxocinas/química , Oxocinas/toxicidade , Fitoplâncton/química , Piranos/química , Piranos/toxicidade , Estações do Ano , Solventes , Compostos de Espiro/química , Compostos de Espiro/toxicidade
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