Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 9 de 9
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4489, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301952

RESUMO

Ancient polyploidization events have had a lasting impact on vertebrate genome structure, organization and function. Some key questions regarding the number of ancient polyploidization events and their timing in relation to the cyclostome-gnathostome divergence have remained contentious. Here we generate de novo long-read-based chromosome-scale genome assemblies for the Japanese lamprey and elephant shark. Using these and other representative genomes and developing algorithms for the probabilistic macrosynteny model, we reconstruct high-resolution proto-vertebrate, proto-cyclostome and proto-gnathostome genomes. Our reconstructions resolve key questions regarding the early evolutionary history of vertebrates. First, cyclostomes diverged from the lineage leading to gnathostomes after a shared tetraploidization (1R) but before a gnathostome-specific tetraploidization (2R). Second, the cyclostome lineage experienced an additional hexaploidization. Third, 2R in the gnathostome lineage was an allotetraploidization event, and biased gene loss from one of the subgenomes shaped the gnathostome genome by giving rise to remarkably conserved microchromosomes. Thus, our reconstructions reveal the major evolutionary events and offer new insights into the origin and evolution of vertebrate genomes.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Vertebrados/genética , Animais , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lampreias/genética , Filogenia , Poliploidia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tubarões/genética , Sintenia , Vertebrados/classificação
3.
Sci Adv ; 7(1)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523858

RESUMO

The rules underlying the structure of antigen receptor repertoires are not yet fully defined, despite their enormous importance for the understanding of adaptive immunity. With current technology, the large antigen receptor repertoires of mice and humans cannot be comprehensively studied. To circumvent the problems associated with incomplete sampling, we have studied the immunogenetic features of one of the smallest known vertebrates, the cyprinid fish Paedocypris sp. "Singkep" ("minifish"). Despite its small size, minifish has the key genetic facilities characterizing the principal vertebrate lymphocyte lineages. As described for mammals, the frequency distributions of immunoglobulin and T cell receptor clonotypes exhibit the features of fractal systems, demonstrating that self-similarity is a fundamental property of antigen receptor repertoires of vertebrates, irrespective of body size. Hence, minifish achieve immunocompetence via a few thousand lymphocytes organized in robust scale-free networks, thereby ensuring immune reactivity even when cells are lost or clone sizes fluctuate during immune responses.

4.
Sci Signal ; 12(584)2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164478

RESUMO

The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a nuclear receptor and part of a large and diverse family of transcription factors that also includes receptors for glucocorticoids, progesterone, androgens, and estrogens. The corticosteroid aldosterone is the physiological activator of the MR in humans and other terrestrial vertebrates; however, its activator is not known in cartilaginous fish, the oldest group of extant jawed vertebrates. Here, we analyzed the ability of corticosteroids and progesterone to activate the full-length MR from the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). On the basis of their measured activities, aldosterone, cortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxcortisol, progesterone, and 19-norprogesterone are potential physiological mineralocorticoids. However, aldosterone, the physiological mineralocorticoid in humans and other terrestrial vertebrates, is not found in cartilaginous or ray-finned fish. Although progesterone activates MRs in ray-finned fish, progesterone does not activate MRs in humans, amphibians, or alligator, suggesting that during the transition to terrestrial vertebrates, progesterone lost the ability to activate the MR. Both elephant shark MR and human MR are expressed in the brain, heart, ovary, testis, and other nonepithelial tissues, suggesting that MR expression in diverse tissues evolved in the common ancestor of jawed vertebrates. Our data suggest that 19-norprogesterone- and progesterone-activated MR may have unappreciated functions in reproductive physiology.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/farmacologia , Proteínas de Peixes/biossíntese , Progesterona/farmacologia , Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/biossíntese , Tubarões/metabolismo , Espironolactona/farmacologia , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Humanos , Especificidade de Órgãos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/genética , Tubarões/genética
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 284(1863)2017 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931746

RESUMO

Studies of the voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels of extant gnathostomes have made it possible to deduce that ancestral gnathostomes possessed four voltage-gated sodium channel genes derived from a single ancestral chordate gene following two rounds of genome duplication early in vertebrates. We investigated the Nav gene family in two species of lampreys (the Japanese lamprey Lethenteron japonicum and sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus) (jawless vertebrates-agnatha) and compared them with those of basal vertebrates to better understand the origin of Nav genes in vertebrates. We noted six Nav genes in both lamprey species, but orthology with gnathostome (jawed vertebrate) channels was inconclusive. Surprisingly, the Nav2 gene, ubiquitously found in invertebrates and believed to have been lost in vertebrates, is present in lampreys, elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii) and coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae). Despite repeated duplication of the Nav1 family in vertebrates, Nav2 is only in single copy in those vertebrates in which it is retained, and was independently lost in ray-finned fishes and tetrapods. Of the other five Nav channel genes, most were expressed in brain, one in brain and heart, and one exclusively in skeletal muscle. Invertebrates do not express Nav channel genes in muscle. Thus, early in the vertebrate lineage Nav channels began to diversify and different genes began to express in heart and muscle.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Lampreias/genética , Canais de Sódio Disparados por Voltagem/genética , Animais , Filogenia
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(34): 9146-9151, 2017 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28784804

RESUMO

ParaHox genes (Gsx, Pdx, and Cdx) are an ancient family of developmental genes closely related to the Hox genes. They play critical roles in the patterning of brain and gut. The basal chordate, amphioxus, contains a single ParaHox cluster comprising one member of each family, whereas nonteleost jawed vertebrates contain four ParaHox genomic loci with six or seven ParaHox genes. Teleosts, which have experienced an additional whole-genome duplication, contain six ParaHox genomic loci with six ParaHox genes. Jawless vertebrates, represented by lampreys and hagfish, are the most ancient group of vertebrates and are crucial for understanding the origin and evolution of vertebrate gene families. We have previously shown that lampreys contain six Hox gene loci. Here we report that lampreys contain only two ParaHox gene clusters (designated as α- and ß-clusters) bearing five ParaHox genes (Gsxα, Pdxα, Cdxα, Gsxß, and Cdxß). The order and orientation of the three genes in the α-cluster are identical to that of the single cluster in amphioxus. However, the orientation of Gsxß in the ß-cluster is inverted. Interestingly, Gsxß is expressed in the eye, unlike its homologs in jawed vertebrates, which are expressed mainly in the brain. The lamprey Pdxα is expressed in the pancreas similar to jawed vertebrate Pdx genes, indicating that the pancreatic expression of Pdx was acquired before the divergence of jawless and jawed vertebrate lineages. It is likely that the lamprey Pdxα plays a crucial role in pancreas specification and insulin production similar to the Pdx of jawed vertebrates.


Assuntos
Genes Homeobox/genética , Lampreias/genética , Família Multigênica , Vertebrados/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/classificação , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Filogenia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Vertebrados/classificação
7.
Mol Biol Evol ; 33(2): 311-5, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26545918

RESUMO

The brain, comprising billions of neurons and intricate neural networks, is arguably the most complex organ in vertebrates. The diversity of individual neurons is fundamental to the neuronal network complexity and the overall function of the vertebrate brain. In jawed vertebrates, clustered protocadherins provide the molecular basis for this neuronal diversity, through stochastic and combinatorial expression of their various isoforms in individual neurons. Based on analyses of transcriptomes from the Japanese lamprey brain and sea lamprey embryos, genome assemblies of the two lampreys, and brain expressed sequence tags of the inshore hagfish, we show that extant jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes) lack the clustered protocadherins. Our findings indicate that the clustered protocadherins originated from a nonclustered protocadherin in the jawed vertebrate ancestor, after the two rounds of whole-genome duplication. In the absence of clustered protocadherins, cyclostomes might have evolved novel molecules or mechanisms for generating neuronal diversity which remains to be discovered.


Assuntos
Caderinas/genética , Lampreias/anatomia & histologia , Lampreias/genética , Família Multigênica , Animais , Caderinas/química , Ordem dos Genes , Genoma , Humanos , Arcada Osseodentária , Vertebrados
8.
Genome Biol Evol ; 7(11): 3009-21, 2015 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26475318

RESUMO

The genes in the Myb superfamily encode for three related transcription factors in most vertebrates, A-, B-, and c-Myb, with functionally distinct roles, whereas most invertebrates have a single Myb. B-Myb plays an essential role in cell division and cell cycle progression, c-Myb is involved in hematopoiesis, and A-Myb is involved in spermatogenesis and regulating expression of pachytene PIWI interacting RNAs, a class of small RNAs involved in posttranscriptional gene regulation and the maintenance of reproductive tissues. Comparisons between teleost fish and tetrapods suggest that the emergence and functional divergence of the Myb genes were linked to the two rounds of whole-genome duplication early in vertebrate evolution. We combined phylogenetic, synteny, structural, and gene expression analyses of the Myb paralogs from elephant shark and lampreys with data from 12 bony vertebrates to reconstruct the early evolution of vertebrate Mybs. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses suggest that the elephant shark and Japanese lamprey have copies of the A-, B-, and c-Myb genes, implying their origin could be traced back to the common ancestor of lampreys and gnathostomes. However, structural and gene expression analyses suggest that their functional roles diverged between gnathostomes and cyclostomes. In particular, we did not detect A-Myb expression in testis suggesting that the involvement of A-Myb in the pachytene PIWI interacting RNA pathway is probably a gnathostome-specific innovation. We speculate that the secondary loss of a central domain in lamprey A-Myb underlies the functional differences between the cyclostome and gnathostome A-Myb proteins.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Genes myb/genética , Lampreias/genética , Filogenia , Tubarões/genética , Sintenia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Funções Verossimilhança , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vertebrados/genética
9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 23(25): 6916-26, 2014 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25070946

RESUMO

Previous studies have emphasized ethnically heterogeneous human leukocyte antigen (HLA) classical allele associations to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk. We fine-mapped RA risk alleles within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in 2782 seropositive RA cases and 4315 controls of Asian descent. We applied imputation to determine genotypes for eight class I and II HLA genes to Asian populations for the first time using a newly constructed pan-Asian reference panel. First, we empirically measured high imputation accuracy in Asian samples. Then we observed the most significant association in HLA-DRß1 at amino acid position 13, located outside the classical shared epitope (Pomnibus = 6.9 × 10(-135)). The individual residues at position 13 have relative effects that are consistent with published effects in European populations (His > Phe > Arg > Tyr ≅ Gly > Ser)--but the observed effects in Asians are generally smaller. Applying stepwise conditional analysis, we identified additional independent associations at positions 57 (conditional Pomnibus = 2.2 × 10(-33)) and 74 (conditional Pomnibus = 1.1 × 10(-8)). Outside of HLA-DRß1, we observed independent effects for amino acid polymorphisms within HLA-B (Asp9, conditional P = 3.8 × 10(-6)) and HLA-DPß1 (Phe9, conditional P = 3.0 × 10(-5)) concordant with European populations. Our trans-ethnic HLA fine-mapping study reveals that (i) a common set of amino acid residues confer shared effects in European and Asian populations and (ii) these same effects can explain ethnically heterogeneous classical allelic associations (e.g. HLA-DRB1*09:01) due to allele frequency differences between populations. Our study illustrates the value of high-resolution imputation for fine-mapping causal variants in the MHC.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/etnologia , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Cadeias beta de HLA-DP/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Alelos , Aminoácidos/genética , Aminoácidos/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Autoanticorpos/biossíntese , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Citrulina/imunologia , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Antígenos HLA-B/imunologia , Cadeias beta de HLA-DP/imunologia , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/imunologia , Humanos , Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...