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Mol Genet Metab ; 128(4): 431-443, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757659


BACKGROUND: Organic acidemias, especially propionic acidemia (PA) and methylmalonic acidemia (MMA), may manifest clinically within the first few hours to days of life. The classic presentation in the newborn period includes metabolic acidosis, hyperlactatemia, and hyperammonemia that is precipitated by unrestricted protein intake. Implementation of newborn screening to diagnose and initiate early treatment has facilitated a reduction in neonatal mortality and improved survival. Despite early diagnosis and appropriate management, these individuals are prone to have recurrent episodes of metabolic acidosis and hyperammonemia resulting in frequent hospitalizations. Liver transplantation (LT) has been proposed as a treatment modality to reduce metabolic decompensations which are not controlled by medical management. Published reports on the outcome of LT show heterogeneous results regarding clinical and biochemical features in the post transplantation period. As a result, we evaluated the outcomes of LT in our institution and compared it to the previously published data. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of nine individuals with PA or MMA who underwent LT and two individuals with MMA who underwent LT and kidney transplantation (KT). Data including number of hospitalizations, laboratory measures, cardiac and neurological outcomes, dietary protein intake, and growth parameters were collected. RESULTS: The median age of transplantation for subjects with MMA was 7.2 years with a median follow up of 4.3 years. The median age of transplantation for subjects with PA was 1.9 years with a median follow up of 5.4 years. The survival rate at 1 year and 5 years post-LT was 100%. Most of our subjects did not have any episodes of hyperammonemia or pancreatitis post-LT. There was significant reduction in plasma glycine post-LT. One subject developed mild elevation in ammonia post-LT on an unrestricted protein diet, suggesting that protein restriction may be indicated even after LT. CONCLUSION: In a large single center study of LT in MMA and PA, we show that LT may reduce the incidence of metabolic decompensation. Moreover, our data suggest that LT may be associated with reduced number of hospitalizations and improved linear growth in individuals with PA and MMA.

Am J Med Genet A ; 179(12): 2459-2468, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520464


Hartnup disease is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by neutral aminoaciduria and behavioral problems. It is caused by a loss of B0 AT1, a neutral amino acid transporter in the kidney and intestine. CLTRN encodes the protein collectrin that functions in the transportation and activation of B0 AT1 in the renal apical brush bordered epithelium. Collectrin deficient mice have severe aminoaciduria. However, the phenotype associated with collectrin deficiency in humans has not been reported. Here we report two patients, an 11-year-old male who is hemizygous for a small, interstitial deletion on Xp22.2 that encompasses CLTRN and a 22-year-old male with a deletion spanning exons 1 to 3 of CLTRN. Both of them present with neuropsychiatric phenotypes including autistic features, anxiety, depression, compulsions, and motor tics, as well as neutral aminoaciduria leading to a clinical diagnosis of Hartnup disease and treatment with niacin supplementation. Plasma amino acids were normal in both patients. One patient had low 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels, a serotoninergic metabolite. We explored the expression of collectrin in the murine brain and found it to be particularly abundant in the hippocampus, brainstem, and cerebellum. We propose that collectrin deficiency in humans can be associated with aminoaciduria and a clinical picture similar to that seen in Hartnup disease. Further studies are needed to explore the role of collectrin deficiency in the neurological phenotypes.

Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2138-2143, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290619


Autosomal recessive COX4I1 deficiency has been previously reported in a single individual with a homozygous pathogenic variant in COX4I1, who presented with short stature, poor weight gain, dysmorphic features, and features of Fanconi anemia. COX4I1 encodes subunit 4, isoform 1 of cytochrome c oxidase. Cytochrome c oxidase is a respiratory chain enzyme that plays an important role in mitochondrial electron transport and reduces molecular oxygen to water leading to the formation of ATP. Defective production of cytochrome c oxidase leads to a variable phenotypic spectrum ranging from isolated myopathy to Leigh syndrome. Here, we describe two siblings, born to consanguineous parents, who presented with encephalopathy, developmental regression, hypotonia, pathognomonic brain imaging findings resembling Leigh-syndrome, and a novel homozygous variant on COX4I1, expanding the known clinical phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in COX4I1.

Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142436


Interstitial deletions involving chromosome region 6p21.31p21.2 have not been previously reported in the literature. Here, we present a 2 year old girl with global developmental delay, severe speech delay, dysmorphic features, laryngeal cleft, anterior descending aorta that occluded the left main bronchus and a novel de novo deletion of chromosome 6: arr[hg19] 6p21.31p21.2 (35462950-36725083)x1. The deletion, which was diagnosed by array comparative genomic hybridization and further confirmed with fluorescence in situ hybridization, was approximately 1.26 Mb and contained 28 RefSeq genes. The deleted region includes 24 protein coding genes and 4 non-coding genes. This represents a novel microdeletion that has not been previously reported in the literature.