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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 319, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949159

RESUMO

Optimal functioning of neuronal networks is critical to the complex cognitive processes of memory and executive function that deteriorate in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we use cellular and animal models as well as human biospecimens to show that AD-related stressors mediate global disturbances in dynamic intra- and inter-neuronal networks through pathologic rewiring of the chaperome system into epichaperomes. These structures provide the backbone upon which proteome-wide connectivity, and in turn, protein networks become disturbed and ultimately dysfunctional. We introduce the term protein connectivity-based dysfunction (PCBD) to define this mechanism. Among most sensitive to PCBD are pathways with key roles in synaptic plasticity. We show at cellular and target organ levels that network connectivity and functional imbalances revert to normal levels upon epichaperome inhibition. In conclusion, we provide proof-of-principle to propose AD is a PCBDopathy, a disease of proteome-wide connectivity defects mediated by maladaptive epichaperomes.

2.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165385

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sigma-1 receptors (S1Rs) are overexpressed in almost all human cancers, especially in breast cancers. 1-(4-Iodophenyl)-3-(2-adamantyl)guanidine (IPAG) is a validated high-affinity S1R antagonist. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the potential of iodine-124-labeled IPAG ([124I]IPAG) to image S1R-overexpressing tumors. PROCEDURES: [124I]IPAG was synthesized from a tributyltin precursor dissolved in ethanol using chloramine-T as oxidant. Purity was analyzed using HPLC. In vitro and in vivo studies were performed using the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Competitive inhibition studies were performed using haloperidol and cold IPAG. Tumors were established in athymic nude mice by injecting 107 cells subcutaneously. Mice were imaged on micro-positron emission tomography (PET) at 4, 24, 48, 72, and 144 h post i.v. injection. Biodistribution studies were performed at same time points. In vivo tracer dilution studies were performed using excess of IPAG and haloperidol. The efficacy of [124I]IPAG to image tumors was evaluated in LNCaP tumor-bearing mice as well. RESULTS: [124I]IPAG was synthesized in quantitative yield and in vitro studies indicated that [124I]IPAG binding was specific to S1R. PET imaging studies in MCF7 tumor-bearing mice reveal that [124I]IPAG accumulates in tumor and is preferentially retained while clearing from non-target organs. The tumor to background increases with time, and tumors could be clearly visualized starting from 24 h post administration. Similar results were obtained in mice bearing LNCaP tumors. In vivo tracer dilution studies showed that the uptake of [124I]IPAG could be competitively inhibited by excess of IPAG and haloperidol. CONCLUSIONS: [124I]IPAG was synthesized successfully in high yields, and in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate specificity of [124I]IPAG. [124I]IPAG shows specific accumulation in tumors with increasing tumor to background ratio at later time points and therefore has high potential for imaging S1R-overexpressing cancers.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936118

RESUMO

Cancer is often associated with alterations in the chaperome, a collection of chaperones, cochaperones, and other cofactors. Changes in the expression levels of components of the chaperome, in the interaction strength among chaperome components, alterations in chaperome constituency, and in the cellular location of chaperome members, are all hallmarks of cancer. Here we aim to provide an overview on how chemical biology has played a role in deciphering such complexity in the biology of the chaperome in cancer and in other diseases. The focus here is narrow and on pathologic changes in the chaperome executed by enhancing the interaction strength between components of distinct chaperome pathways, specifically between those of HSP90 and HSP70 pathways. We will review chemical tools and chemical probe-based assays, with a focus on HSP90. We will discuss how kinetic binding, not classical equilibrium binding, is most appropriate in the development of drugs and probes for the chaperome in disease. We will then present our view on how chaperome inhibitors may become potential drugs and diagnostics in cancer.

4.
EJNMMI Res ; 8(1): 87, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30155674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The folate receptor α (FRα)-targeting antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), IMGN853, shows great antitumor activity against FRα-expressing tumors in vivo, but patient selection and consequently therapy outcome are based on immunohistochemistry. The aim of this study is to develop an antibody-derived immuno-PET imaging agent strategy for targeting FRα in ovarian cancer as a predictor of treatment success. METHODS: We developed [89Zr]Zr-DFO-M9346A, a humanized antibody-based radiotracer targeting tumor-associated FRα in the preclinical setting. [89Zr]Zr-DFO-M9346A's binding ability was tested in an in vitro uptake assay using cell lines with varying FRα expression levels. The diagnostic potential of [89Zr]Zr-M9346A was evaluated in KB and OV90 subcutaneous xenografts. Following intravenous injection of [89Zr]Zr-DFO-M9346A (~90 µCi, 50 µg), PET imaging and biodistribution studies were performed. We determined the blood half-life of [89Zr]Zr-DFO-M9346A and compared it to the therapeutic, radioiodinated ADC [131I]-IMGN853. Finally, in vivo studies using IMG853 as a therapeutic, paired with [89Zr]Zr-DFO-M9346A as a companion diagnostic were performed using OV90 xenografts. RESULTS: DFO-M9346A was labeled with Zr-89 at 37 °C within 60 min and isolated in labeling yields of 85.7 ± 5.7%, radiochemical purities of 98.0 ± 0.7%, and specific activities of 3.08 ± 0.43 mCi/mg. We observed high specificity for binding FRα positive cells in vitro. For PET and biodistribution studies, [89Zr]Zr-M9346A displayed remarkable in vivo performance in terms of excellent tumor uptake for KB and OV xenografts (45.8 ± 29.0 %IA/g and 26.1 ± 7.2 %IA/g), with low non-target tissue uptake in other organs such as kidneys (4.5 ± 1.2 %IA/g and 4.3 ± 0.7 %IA/g). A direct comparison of the blood half life of [89Zr]Zr-M9346A and [131I]-IMGN853 corroborated the equivalency of the radiopharmaceutical and the ADC, paving the way for a companion PET imaging study. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a new folate receptor-targeted 89Zr-labeled PET imaging agent with excellent pharmacokinetics in vivo. Good tumor uptake in subcutaneous KB and OV90 xenografts were obtained, and ADC therapy studies were performed with the precision predictor.

5.
EJNMMI Res ; 8(1): 53, 2018 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29916085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitative imaging can facilitate patient stratification in clinical trials. The hypoxia-activated prodrug evofosfamide recently failed a phase III trial in pancreatic cancer. However, the study did not attempt to select for patients with hypoxic tumors. We tested the ability of 18F-fluoromisonidazole to predict evofosfamide uptake in an orthotopic xenograft model (BxPC3). METHODS: Two forms of evofosfamide were used: (1) labeled on the active moiety (3H) and (2) on the hypoxia targeting nitroimidazole group (14C). Tumor uptake of evofosfamide and 18F-fluoromisonidazole was counted ex vivo. Autoradiography of 14C and 18F coupled with pimonidazole immunohistochemistry revealed the spatial distributions of prodrug, radiotracer, and hypoxia. RESULTS: There was significant individual variation in 18F-fluoromisonidazole uptake, and a significant correlation between normalized 18F-fluoromisonidazole and both 3H-labeled and 14C-labeled evofosfamide. 18F-fluoromisonidazole and 14C-evofosfamide both localized in hypoxic regions as identified by pimonidazole. CONCLUSION: 18F-fluoromisonidazole predicts evofosfamide uptake in a preclinical pancreatic tumor model.

6.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0196784, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29715301

RESUMO

[18F]FAC (2'-deoxy-2'-[18F]fluoro-ß-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, 1) is a versatile probe for imaging deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) expression levels in vivo. dCK is responsible for phosphorylation of deoxycytidine (dC, 2) and other nucleoside analogs, plays a key role in immune activation and has demonstrated to be one of the key enzymes in activating nucleoside based drugs including gemcitabine. Reported synthesis of [18F]FAC is high yielding but is quite challenging requiring bromination using HBr and careful drying of excess HBr which is critical for successful synthesis. Here in we report a simplified trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf) assisted synthesis of [18F]FAC eliminating the need of bromination and drying. [18F]FAC (ß-anomer) was synthesized with average isolated decay corrected yield of 10.59 + 4.2% (n = 6) with radiochemical purity of >98% and total synthesis time of 158 + 19 min.


Assuntos
Citarabina/química , Radioisótopos de Flúor/química , Mesilatos/química , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/química , Compostos de Trimetilsilil/química , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/química , Desoxicitidina Quinase/química , Radioquímica/métodos
7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 176, 2018 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330466

RESUMO

Insufficient chemotherapy response and rapid disease progression remain concerns for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Oncologists rely on serial CT scanning to guide treatment decisions, but this cannot assess in vivo target engagement of therapeutic agents. Biomarker assessments in biopsy material do not assess contemporaneous target expression, intratumoral drug exposure, or drug-target engagement. Here, we report the use of PARP1/2-targeted imaging to measure target engagement of PARP inhibitors in vivo. Using a panel of clinical PARP inhibitors, we show that PARP imaging can quantify target engagement of chemically diverse small molecule inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. We measure PARP1/2 inhibition over time to calculate effective doses for individual drugs. Using patient-derived xenografts, we demonstrate that different therapeutics achieve similar integrated inhibition efficiencies under different dosing regimens. This imaging approach to non-invasive, quantitative assessment of dynamic intratumoral target inhibition may improve patient care through real-time monitoring of drug delivery.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Ftalazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/enzimologia
8.
EJNMMI Res ; 7(1): 95, 2017 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pretargeting-based approaches are being investigated for radioimmunoimaging and therapy applications to reduce the effective radiation burden to the patient. To date, only a few studies have used short-lived radioisotopes for pretargeting of antibodies, and such examples with internalizing antibodies are even rarer. Herein, we have investigated pretargeting methodology using inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) for tracing two clinically relevant, internalizing monoclonal antibodies, cetuximab and trastuzumab. RESULTS: Bioorthogonal reaction between tetrazine and trans-cyclooctene (TCO) was used for tracing cetuximab and trastuzumab in vivo with a fluorine-18 (t ½ = 109.8 min) labelled tracer. TCO-cetuximab or TCO-trastuzumab was administered 24, 48, or 72 h prior to the injection of tracer to A431 or BT-474 tumour-bearing mice, respectively. With cetuximab, the highest tumour-to-blood ratios were achieved when the lag time between antibody and tracer injections was 72 h. With trastuzumab, no difference was observed between different lag times. For both antibodies, the tumour could be clearly visualized in the PET images with the highest tumour uptake of 3.7 ± 0.1%ID/g for cetuximab and 1.5 ± 0.1%ID/g for trastuzumab as quantified by ex vivo biodistribution. In vivo IEDDA reaction was observed in the blood for both antibodies, but with trastuzumab, this was to a much lower degree than with cetuximab. CONCLUSIONS: We could successfully visualize the tumours by using cetuximab and trastuzumab in pretargeted PET imaging despite the challenging circumstances where the antibody is internalized and there is still some unbound antibody circulating in the blood flow. This clearly demonstrates the potential of a pretargeted approach for targeting internalizing antigens and warrants development of pharmacokinetic optimization of the biorthogonal reactants to this end.

10.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 19(6): 944-951, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28534214

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We studied the effect of varying specific activity of [68Ga]DKFZ-PSMA11 ([68Ga]DP11) on repeated imaging of prostate-specific membrane antigen-positive (PSMA+) xenograft tumors. PROCEDURES: Athymic nude mice bearing PC3-PIP (PSMA+) and PC3 (PSMA-) bilateral flank tumors were assessed to study intra- and inter-day repeatability of [68Ga]DP11 imaging in mice administered [68Ga]DP11 or [67Ga]DP11 (as a dilution tracer) using imaging and biodistribution studies. RESULTS: Region of interest (ROI) analysis of the [68Ga]DP11 imaging study indicated that the uptake was constant on the same day or consecutive days. Prior imaging with [68Ga]DP11 did not significantly influence the subsequent uptake of [68Ga]DP11. Uptake of [68Ga]DP11 (60 min) and [67Ga]DP11 (24 h) in PC3-PIP tumors was 12.37 ± 4.19 %ID/g and 12.49 ± 6.88 %ID/g, respectively; [68Ga]DP11 was 13.83 ± 3.77 and 17.76 ± 1.84 on same-day and 15.98 ± 5.82 %ID/g on second-day imaging. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that [68Ga]DP11, in a given PSMA+ lesion, is constant under several same-day or serial-day imaging conditions.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Gálio/química , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/síntese química , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Distribuição Tecidual , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
Nucl Med Biol ; 43(12): 781-787, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27694056

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bone marrow is the soft tissue compartment inside the bones made up of hematopoietic cells, adipocytes, stromal cells, phagocytic cells, stem cells, and sinusoids. While [18F]-FLT has been utilized to image proliferative marrow, to date, there are no reports of particle based positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents for imaging bone marrow. We have developed copper-64 labeled liposomal formulation that selectively targets bone marrow and therefore serves as an efficient PET probe for imaging bone marrow. METHODS: Optimized liposomal formulations were prepared with succinyl PE, DSPC, cholesterol, and mPEG-DSPE (69:39:1:10:0.1) with diameters of 90 and 140nm, and were doped with DOTA-Bn-DSPE for stable 64Cu incorporation into liposomes. RESULTS: PET imaging and biodistribution studies with 64Cu-labeled liposomes indicate that accumulation in bone marrow was as high as 15.18±3.69%ID/g for 90nm liposomes and 7.01±0.92%ID/g for 140nm liposomes at 24h post-administration. In vivo biodistribution studies in tumor-bearing mice indicate that the uptake of 90nm particles is approximately 0.89±0.48%ID/g in tumor and 14.22±8.07%ID/g in bone marrow, but respective values for Doxil® like liposomes are 0.83±0.49%ID/g and 2.23±1.00%ID/g. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that our novel PET labeled liposomes target bone marrow with very high efficiency and therefore can function as efficient bone marrow imaging agents.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Radioisótopos de Cobre , Lipossomos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Animais , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Composição de Medicamentos , Marcação por Isótopo , Lipossomos/síntese química , Lipossomos/química , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Lipossomos/farmacocinética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Distribuição Tecidual
12.
Nucl Med Biol ; 43(10): 606-11, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27485481

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4, fusin, CD184) is expressed on several tissues involved in immune regulation and is upregulated in many diseases including malignant gliomas. A radiolabeled small molecule that readily crosses the blood-brain barrier can aid in identifying CXCR4-expressing gliomas and monitoring CXCR4-targeted therapy. In the current work, we have synthesized and evaluated an [(18)F]-labeled small molecule based on a pyrimidine-pyridine amine for its ability to target CXCR4. EXPERIMENTAL: The nonradioactive standards and the nitro precursor used in this study were prepared using established methods. An HPLC method was developed to separate the nitro-precursor from the nonradioactive standard and radioactive product. The nitro-precursor was radiolabeled with (18)F under inert, anhydrous conditions using the [(18)F]-kryptofix 2.2.2 complex to form the desired N-(4-(((6-[(18)F]fluoropyridin-2-yl)amino)methyl)benzyl)pyrimidin-2-amine ([(18)F]-3). The purified radiolabeled compound was used in serum stability, partition coefficient, cellular uptake, and in vivo cancer targeting studies. RESULTS: [(18)F]-3 was synthesized in 4-10% decay-corrected yield (to start of synthesis). [(18)F]-3 (tR ≈ 27 min) was separated from the precursor (tR ≈ 30 min) using a pentafluorophenyl column with an isocratic solvent system. [(18)F]-3 displayed acceptable serum stability over 2 h. The amount of [(18)F]-3 bound to the plasma proteins was determined to be > 97%. The partition coefficient (LogD7.4) is 1.4 ± 0.5. Competitive in vitro inhibition indicated 3 does not inhibit uptake of (67)Ga-pentixafor. Cell culture media incubation and ex vivo urine analysis indicate rapid metabolism of [(18)F]-3 into hydrophilic metabolites. Thus, in vitro uptake of [(18)F]-3 in CXCR4 overexpressing U87 cells (U87 CXCR4) and U87 WT indicated no specific binding. In vivo studies in mice bearing U87 CXCR4 and U87 WT tumors on the left and right shoulders were carried out using [(18)F]-3 and (68)Ga-pentixafor on consecutive days. The CXCR4 positive tumor was clearly visualized in the PET study using (68)Ga-pentixafor, but not with [(18)F]-3. CONCLUSIONS: We have successfully synthesized both a radiolabeled analog to previously reported CXCR4-targeting molecules and a nitro precursor. Our in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that [(18)F]-3 is rapidly metabolized and, therefore, does not target CXCR4-expressing tumors. Optimization of the structure to improve the in vivo (and in vitro) stability, binding, and solubility could lead to an appropriate CXCR4-targeted radiodiagnositic molecule.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Radioisótopos de Flúor , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Piridinas/química , Pirimidinas/química , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Aminas/síntese química , Aminas/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Halogenação , Humanos , Marcação por Isótopo , Masculino , Camundongos , Radioquímica
13.
J Labelled Comp Radiopharm ; 59(3): 129-32, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26806023

RESUMO

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an ATP dependent molecular chaperone protein whose function is critical for maintaining several key proteins involved in survival and proliferation of cancer cells. PU-H71 (1), is a potent purine-scaffold based ATP pocket binding Hsp90 inhibitor which has been shown to have potent activity in a broad range of in vivo cancer models and is currently in Phase I clinical trials in patients with advanced solid malignancies, lymphomas, and myeloproliferative neoplasms. In this report, we describe the radiosynthesis of [(124)I]-PU-H71(5); this was synthesized from the corresponding Boc-protected stannane precursor 3 by iododestannylation with [(124)I]-NaI using chloramine-T as an oxidant for 2 min, followed by Boc deprotection with 6 N HCl at 50 °C for 30 min to yield the final compound. The final product 5 was purified using HPLC and was isolated with an overall yield of 55 ± 6% (n = 6, isolated) from 3, and >98% purity and an average specific activity of 980 mCi/µmol. Our report sets the stage for the introduction of [(124)I]-PU-H71 as a potential non-invasive probe for understanding biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of PU-H71 in living subjects using positron emission tomography imaging.


Assuntos
Benzodioxóis/química , Radioisótopos do Iodo/química , Purinas/química , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/síntese química , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/antagonistas & inibidores
14.
Bioconjug Chem ; 27(2): 298-301, 2016 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26479967

RESUMO

A first-of-its-kind (18)F pretargeted PET imaging approach based on the bioorthogonal inverse electron demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) reaction between tetrazine (Tz) and trans-cyclooctene (TCO) is presented. As proof-of-principle, a TCO-bearing immunoconjugate of the anti-CA19.9 antibody 5B1 and an Al[(18)F]NOTA-labeled tetrazine radioligand were harnessed for the visualization of CA19.9-expressing BxPC3 pancreatic cancer xenografts. Biodistribution and (18)F-PET imaging data clearly demonstrate that this methodology effectively delineates tumor mass with activity concentrations up to 6.4 %ID/g at 4 h after injection of the radioligand.


Assuntos
Ciclo-Octanos/química , Radioisótopos de Flúor/química , Imunoconjugados/química , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Animais , Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores/análise , Química Click/métodos , Reação de Cicloadição/métodos , Ciclo-Octanos/farmacocinética , Radioisótopos de Flúor/farmacocinética , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/farmacocinética , Camundongos , Pâncreas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/química , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacocinética
15.
Eur J Med Chem ; 86: 769-81, 2014 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25240701

RESUMO

Type II topoisomerase (Topo-II) is an ATP-dependent enzyme that is essential in the transcription, replication, and chromosome segregation processes and, as such, represents an attractive target for cancer therapy. Numerous studies indicate that the response to treatment with Topo-II inhibitors is highly dependent on both the levels and the activity of the enzyme. Consequently, a non-invasive assay to measure tumoral Topo-II levels has the potential to differentiate responders from non-responders. With the ultimate goal of developing a radiofluorinated tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, we have designed, synthesized, and evaluated a set of fluorinated compounds based on the structure of the ATP-competitive Topo-II inhibitor QAP1. Compounds 18 and 19b showed inhibition of Topo-II in in vitro assays and exhibited moderate, Topo-II level dependent cytotoxicity in SK-BR-3 and MCF-7 cell lines. Based on these results, (18)F-labeled analogs of these two compounds were synthesized and evaluated as PET probes for imaging Topo-II overexpression in mice bearing SK-BR-3 xenografts. [(18)F]-18 and [(18)F]-19b were synthesized from their corresponding protected tosylated derivatives by fluorination and subsequent deprotection. Small animal PET imaging studies indicated that both compounds do not accumulate in tumors and exhibit poor pharmacokinetics, clearing from the blood pool very rapidly and getting metabolized over. The insights gained from the current study will surely aid in the design and construction of future generations of PET agents for the non-invasive delineation of Topo-II expression.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/síntese química , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/análise , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Radioisótopos de Flúor , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/enzimologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/análise , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/química , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
16.
Nat Chem ; 6(7): 635-43, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24950335

RESUMO

Adjuvants are materials added to vaccines to enhance the immunological response to an antigen. QS-21 is a natural product adjuvant under investigation in numerous vaccine clinical trials, but its use is constrained by scarcity, toxicity, instability and an enigmatic molecular mechanism of action. Herein we describe the development of a minimal QS-21 analogue that decouples adjuvant activity from toxicity and provides a powerful platform for mechanistic investigations. We found that the entire branched trisaccharide domain of QS-21 is dispensable for adjuvant activity and that the C4-aldehyde substituent, previously proposed to bind covalently to an unknown cellular target, is also not required. Biodistribution studies revealed that active adjuvants were retained preferentially at the injection site and the nearest draining lymph nodes compared with the attenuated variants. Overall, these studies have yielded critical insights into saponin structure-function relationships, provided practical synthetic access to non-toxic adjuvants, and established a platform for detailed mechanistic studies.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Saponinas/química , Vacinas/síntese química , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Saponinas/imunologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Vacinas/química
17.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 41(2): 322-32, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24173571

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Both (131)I- and (123)I-labeled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) have been widely used in the clinic for targeted imaging of the norepinephrine transporter (NET). The human NET (hNET) gene has been imaged successfully with (124)I-MIBG positron emission tomography (PET) at time points of >24 h post-injection (p.i.). (18)F-labeled MIBG analogs may be ideal to image hNET expression at time points of <8 h p.i. We developed improved methods for the synthesis of known MIBG analogs, [(18)F]MFBG and [(18)F]PFBG and evaluated them in hNET reporter gene-transduced C6 rat glioma cells and xenografts. METHODS: [(18)F]MFBG and [(18)F]PFBG were synthesized manually using a three-step synthetic scheme. Wild-type and hNET reporter gene-transduced C6 rat glioma cells and xenografts were used to comparatively evaluate the (18)F-labeled analogs with [(123)I]/[(124)I]MIBG. RESULTS: The fluorination efficacy on benzonitrile was predominantly determined by the position of the trimethylammonium group. The para-isomer afforded higher yields (75 ± 7%) than meta-isomer (21 ± 5%). The reaction of [(18)F]fluorobenzylamine with 1H-pyrazole-1-carboximidamide was more efficient than with 2-methyl-2-thiopseudourea. The overall radiochemical yields (decay-corrected) were 11 ± 2% (n = 12) for [(18)F]MFBG and 41 ± 12% (n = 5) for [(18)F]PFBG, respectively. The specific uptakes of [(18)F]MFBG and [(18)F]PFBG were similar in C6-hNET cells, but 4-fold less than that of [(123)I]/[(124)I]MIBG. However, in vivo [(18)F]MFBG accumulation in C6-hNET tumors was 1.6-fold higher than that of [(18)F]PFBG at 1 h p.i., whereas their uptakes were similar at 4 h. Despite [(18)F]MFBG having a 2.8-fold lower affinity to hNET and approximately 4-fold lower cell uptake in vitro compared to [(123)I]/[(124)I]MIBG, PET imaging demonstrated that [(18)F]MFBG was able to visualize C6-hNET xenografts better than [(124)I]MIBG. Biodistribution studies showed [(18)F]MFBG and (123)I-MIBG had a similar tumor accumulation, which was lower than that of no-carrier-added [(124)I]MIBG, but [(18)F]MFBG showed a significantly more rapid body clearance and lower uptake in most non-targeting organs. CONCLUSION: [(18)F]MFBG and [(18)F]PFBG were synthesized in reasonable radiochemical yields under milder conditions. [(18)F]MFBG is a better PET ligand to image hNET expression in vivo at 1-4 h p.i. than both [(18)F]PFBG and [(123)I]/[(124)I]MIBG.


Assuntos
Fluorbenzenos/síntese química , Guanidinas/síntese química , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/síntese química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fluorbenzenos/farmacocinética , Fluorbenzenos/farmacologia , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Guanidinas/farmacocinética , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacocinética , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Nucl Med Biol ; 40(4): 524-8, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23454248

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The antilipolytic drug Acipimox reduces free fatty acid (FFA) levels in the blood stream. We examined the effect of reduced FFAs on glucose metabolism in androgen-dependent (CWR22Rv1) and androgen-independent (PC3) prostate cancer (PCa) xenografts. METHODS: Subcutaneous tumors were produced in nude mice by injection of PC3 and CWR22Rv1 PCa cells. The mice were divided into two groups (Acipimox vs. controls). Acipimox (50mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage 1h before injection of tracers. 1h after i.v. co-injection of 8.2MBq (222 ± 6.0 µCi) (18)F-FDG and~0.0037 MBq (0.1 µCi) (14)C-acetate, (18)F-FDG imaging was performed using a small-animal PET scanner. Counting rates in reconstructed images were converted to activity concentrations. Quantification was obtained by region-of-interest analysis using dedicated software. The mice were euthanized, and blood samples and organs were harvested. (18)F radioactivity was measured in a calibrated γ-counter using a dynamic counting window and decay correction. (14)C radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillation counting using external standard quench corrections. Counts were converted into activity, and percentage of the injected dose per gram (%ID/g) tissue was calculated. RESULTS: FDG biodistribution data in mice with PC3 xenografts demonstrated doubled average %ID/g tumor tissue after administration of Acipimox compared to controls (7.21 ± 1.93 vs. 3.59 ± 1.35, P=0.02). Tumor-to-organ ratios were generally higher in mice treated with Acipimox. This was supported by PET imaging data, both semi-quantitatively (mean tumor FDG uptake) and visually (tumor-to-background ratios). In mice with CWR22Rv1 xenografts there was no effect of Acipimox on FDG uptake, either in biodistribution or PET imaging. (14)C-acetate uptake was unaffected in PC3 and CWR22Rv1 xenografts. CONCLUSIONS: In mice with PC3 PCa xenografts, acute administration of Acipimox increases tumor uptake of (18)F-FDG with general improvements in tumor-to-background ratios. Data indicate that administration of Acipimox prior to (18)F-FDG PET scans has potential to improve sensitivity and specificity in patients with castration-resistant advanced PCa.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/farmacocinética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Distribuição Tecidual/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Bioconjug Chem ; 23(8): 1557-66, 2012 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22784215

RESUMO

Solid tumors often develop an acidic microenvironment, which plays a critical role in tumor progression and is associated with increased level of invasion and metastasis. The 37-residue pH (low) insertion peptide (pHLIP) is under study as an imaging platform because of its unique ability to insert into cell membranes at a low extracellular pH (pH(e) < 7). Labeling of peptides with [(18)F]-fluorine is usually performed via prosthetic groups using chemoselective coupling reactions. One of the most successful procedures involves the alkyne-azide copper(I) catalyzed cycloaddition (CuAAC). However, none of the known "click" methods have been applied to peptides as large as pHLIP. We designed a novel prosthetic group and extended the use of the CuAAC "click chemistry" for the simple and efficient (18)F-labeling of large peptides. For the evaluation of this labeling approach, a D-amino acid analogue of WT-pHLIP and an L-amino acid control peptide K-pHLIP, both functionalized at the N-terminus with 6-azidohexanoic acid, were used. The novel 6-[(18)F]fluoro-2-ethynylpyridine prosthetic group, was obtained via nucleophilic substitution on the corresponding bromo-precursor after 10 min at 130 °C with a radiochemical yield of 27.5 ± 6.6% (decay corrected) with high radiochemical purity ≥98%. The subsequent Cu(I)-catalyzed "click" reaction with the azido functionalized pHLIP peptides was quantitative within 5 min at 70 °C in a mixture of water and ethanol using Cu-acetate and sodium L-ascorbate. [(18)F]-D-WT-pHLIP and [(18)F]-L-K-pHLIP were obtained with total radiochemical yields of 5-20% after HPLC purification. The total reaction time was 85 min including formulation. In vitro stability tests revealed high stability of the [(18)F]-D-WT-pHLIP in human and mouse plasma after 120 min, with the parent tracer remaining intact at 65% and 85%, respectively. PET imaging and biodistribution studies in LNCaP and PC-3 xenografted mice with the [(18)F]-D-WT-pHLIP and the negative control [(18)F]-L-K-pHLIP revealed pH-dependent tumor retention. This reliable and efficient protocol promises to be useful for the (18)F-labeling of large peptides such as pHLIP and will accelerate the evaluation of numerous [(18)F]-pHLIP analogues as potential PET tracers.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Flúor , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Caproatos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Química Click , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Marcação por Isótopo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/sangue , Proteínas de Membrana/farmacocinética , Camundongos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Radioquímica
20.
Nucl Med Biol ; 39(8): 1182-8, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22819195

RESUMO

The expression of the herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene can be imaged efficaciously using a variety of 2'-[(18)F]fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-b-D-arabinofuranosyl-uracil derivatives [[(18)F]-FXAU, X=I(iodo), E(ethyl), and M(methyl)]. However, the application of these derivatives in clinical and translational studies has been impeded by their complicated and long syntheses (3-5h). To remedy these issues, in the study at hand we have investigated whether microwave or combined catalysts could facilitate the coupling reaction between sugar and nucleobase and, further, have probed the feasibility of establishing a novel approach for [(18)F]-FXAU synthesis. We have demonstrated that the rate of the trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf)-catalyzed coupling reaction between the 2-deoxy-sugar and uracil derivatives at 90 °C can be significantly accelerated by microwave-driven heating or by the addition of Lewis acid catalyst (SnCl(4)). Further, we have observed that the stability of the α- and ß-anomers of [(18)F]-FXAU derivatives differs during the hydrolysis step. Using the microwave-driven heating approach, overall decay-corrected radiochemical yields of 19%-27% were achieved for [(18)F]-FXAU in 120min at a specific activity of >22MBq/nmol (595Ci/mmol). Ultimately, we believe that these high yielding syntheses of [(18)F]-FIAU, [(18)F]-FMAU and [(18)F]-FEAU will facilitate routine production for clinical applications.


Assuntos
Arabinonucleosídeos/química , Arabinonucleosídeos/síntese química , Radioisótopos de Flúor/química , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Hidrólise , Cinética , Micro-Ondas , Uracila/química
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