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1.
Ann Neurol ; 2020 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418288

RESUMO

Covid-19 infection has the potential for targeting the central nervous system and several neurological symptoms have been described in patients with severe respiratory distress. Here we described the case of a 60-year old subject with SARS-CoV-2 infection but only mild respiratory abnormalities who developed an akinetic mutism due to encephalitis. MRI was negative whereas EEG showed generalized theta slowing. CSF analyses during the acute stage were negative for SARS-CoV-2, positive for pleocytosis and hyperproteinorrachia, and showed increased IL-8 and TNF-α concentrations while other infectious or autoimmune disorders were excluded. A progressive clinical improvement along with a reduction of CSF parameters was observed after high-dose steroid treatment, thus arguing for an inflammatory-mediated brain involvement related to Covid-19. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 61, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phenylketonuria (PKU; OMIM#261600) is a rare metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene resulting in high phenylalanine (Phe) in blood and brain. If not treated early this results in intellectual disability, behavioral and psychiatric problems, microcephaly, motor deficits, eczematous rash, autism, seizures, and developmental problems. There is a controversial discussion of whether patients with PKU have an additional risk for atherosclerosis due to interference of Phe with cholesterol synthesis and LDL-cholesterol regulation. Since cholesterol also plays a role in membrane structure and myelination, better insight into the clinical significance of the impact of Phe on lipoprotein metabolism is desirable. In 22 treated PKU patients (mean age 38.7 years) and 14 healthy controls (mean age 35.2 years), we investigated plasma with NMR spectroscopy and quantified 105 lipoprotein parameters (including lipoprotein subclasses) and 24 low molecular weight parameters. Analysis was performed on a 600 MHz Bruker AVANCE IVDr spectrometer as previously described. RESULTS: Concurrent plasma Phe in PKU patients showed a wide range with a mean of 899 µmol/L (50-1318 µmol/L). Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly lower in PKU patients versus controls: 179.4 versus 200.9 mg/dL (p < 0.02) and 79.5 versus 104.1 mg/dL (p < 0.0038), respectively. PKU patients also had lower levels of 22 LDL subclasses with the greatest differences in LDL2 Apo-B, LDL2 Particle Number, LDL2-phospholipids, and LDL2-cholesterol (p < 0.0001). There was a slight negative correlation of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol with concurrent Phe level. VLDL5-free cholesterol, VLDL5-cholesterol, VLDL5-phospholipids, and VLDL4-free cholesterol showed a significant (p < 0.05) negative correlation with concurrent Phe level. There was no difference in HDL and their subclasses between PKU patients and controls. Tyrosine, glutamine, and creatinine were significantly lower in PKU patients compared to controls, while citric and glutamic acids were significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS: Using NMR spectroscopy, a unique lipoprotein profile in PKU patients can be demonstrated which mimics a non-atherogenic profile as seen in patients treated by statins.

3.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(5): 462-470, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059811

RESUMO

Mobile health technologies (wearable, portable, body-fixed sensors, or domestic-integrated devices) that quantify mobility in unsupervised, daily living environments are emerging as complementary clinical assessments. Data collected in these ecologically valid, patient-relevant settings can overcome limitations of conventional clinical assessments, as they capture fluctuating and rare events. These data could support clinical decision making and could also serve as outcomes in clinical trials. However, studies that directly compared assessments made in unsupervised and supervised (eg, in the laboratory or hospital) settings point to large disparities, even in the same parameters of mobility. These differences appear to be affected by psychological, physiological, cognitive, environmental, and technical factors, and by the types of mobilities and diagnoses assessed. To facilitate the successful adaptation of the unsupervised assessment of mobility into clinical practice and clinical trials, clinicians and researchers should consider these disparities and the multiple factors that contribute to them.

4.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 45, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Motor and cognitive deficits and consequently mobility problems are common in geriatric patients. The currently available methods for diagnosis and for the evaluation of treatment in this vulnerable cohort are limited. The aims of the ComOn (COgnitive and Motor interactions in the Older populatioN) study are (i) to define quantitative markers with clinical relevance for motor and cognitive deficits, (ii) to investigate the interaction between both motor and cognitive deficits and (iii) to assess health status as well as treatment outcome of 1000 geriatric inpatients in hospitals of Kiel (Germany), Brescia (Italy), Porto (Portugal), Curitiba (Brazil) and Bochum (Germany). METHODS: This is a prospective, explorative observational multi-center study. In addition to the comprehensive geriatric assessment, quantitative measures of reduced mobility and motor and cognitive deficits are performed before and after a two week's inpatient stay. Components of the assessment are mobile technology-based assessments of gait, balance and transfer performance, neuropsychological tests, frailty, sarcopenia, autonomic dysfunction and sensation, and questionnaires to assess behavioral deficits, activities of daily living, quality of life, fear of falling and dysphagia. Structural MRI and an unsupervised 24/7 home assessment of mobility are performed in a subgroup of participants. The study will also investigate the minimal clinically relevant change of the investigated parameters. DISCUSSION: This study will help form a better understanding of symptoms and their complex interactions and treatment effects in a large geriatric cohort.

5.
Mov Disord ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Striatal dopamine deficiency and metabolic changes are well-known phenomena in dementia with Lewy bodies and can be quantified in vivo by 123 I-Ioflupane brain single-photon emission computed tomography of dopamine transporter and 18 F-fluorodesoxyglucose PET. However, the linkage between both biomarkers is ill-understood. OBJECTIVE: We used the hitherto largest study cohort of combined imaging from the European consortium to elucidate the role of both biomarkers in the pathophysiological course of dementia with Lewy bodies. METHODS: We compared striatal dopamine deficiency and glucose metabolism of 84 dementia with Lewy body patients and comparable healthy controls. After normalization of data, we tested their correlation by region-of-interest-based and voxel-based methods, controlled for study center, age, sex, education, and current cognitive impairment. Metabolic connectivity was analyzed by inter-region coefficients stratified by dopamine deficiency and compared to healthy controls. RESULTS: There was an inverse relationship between striatal dopamine availability and relative glucose hypermetabolism, pronounced in the basal ganglia and in limbic regions. With increasing dopamine deficiency, metabolic connectivity showed strong deteriorations in distinct brain regions implicated in disease symptoms, with greatest disruptions in the basal ganglia and limbic system, coincident with the pattern of relative hypermetabolism. CONCLUSIONS: Relative glucose hypermetabolism and disturbed metabolic connectivity of limbic and basal ganglia circuits are metabolic correlates of dopamine deficiency in dementia with Lewy bodies. Identification of specific metabolic network alterations in patients with early dopamine deficiency may serve as an additional supporting biomarker for timely diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies. © 2019 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

6.
Clin Ophthalmol ; 13: 2341-2352, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819359

RESUMO

Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a common retina disease and has a relative high recurrence rate, etiology, and pathogenesis of which remains largely ambiguous. The effects on the retina are usually self-limited, although some people are left with permanent vision loss due to progressive and irreversible photoreceptor damage or retinal pigment epithelium atrophy. There have been a number of interventions used in CSC, including, but not limited to, laser treatment, photodynamic therapy (PDT), intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, and subthreshold lasers. It is not clear whether there is a clinically important benefit to treating acute CSC, which often resolves spontaneously as part of its natural history. Of the interventions studied to date, PDT and micropulse laser treatment appear the most promising. .

7.
Neurol Sci ; 40(12): 2587-2594, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare rapidly progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized by falls and ocular movement disturbances. The use of health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) measures allows assessing changes in health status induced by therapeutic interventions or disease progress in neurodegenerative diseases. The PSP-QoL is a 45-item, self-administered questionnaire designed to evaluate HR-QoL in PSP. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, the PSP-QoL was translated into Italian and validated in 190 PSP (96 women and 94 men; mean age ± standard deviation, 72 ± 6.5; mean disease duration, 4.2 ± 2.3) patients diagnosed according to the Movement Disorder Society criteria and recruited in 16 third level movement disorders centers participating in the Neurecanet project. The mean PSP-QoL total score was 77.8 ± 37 (physical subscore, 46.5 ± 18.7; mental subscore, 33.6 ± 19.2). The internal consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.954); corrected item-total correlation was > 0.40 for the majority of items. The significant and moderate correlation of the PSP-QoL with other HR-QoL measures as well as with motor and disability assessments indicated adequate convergent validity of the scale. Gender and geographic location presented a significant impact on the PSP-QoL in our sample with women and patients from the South of Italy scoring higher than their counterparts. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the Italian version of the PSP-QoL is an easy, reliable and valid tool for assessment of HR-QoL in PSP.

8.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 66: 68-73, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324557

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cognitive impairment and dementia are common in PD; however, no stable marker of cognitive dysfunction is available. Transcranial sonography can evaluate global and focal brain atrophy and has been widely used in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism. METHODS: 225 consecutive PD patients were recruited in a two-center cross sectional study and underwent a standardized sonographic protocol assessing the third ventricle's width and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. All subjects were evaluated with an extensive motor and cognitive battery. RESULTS: 222 PD patients were included and classified as PD with normal cognition (PDNC; n = 130), mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI; n = 61) and dementia (PDD; n = 31). Ventricular width correlated strongly with cognitive performance in all cognitive domains (p < 0.001) while SN size did not. PDD patients had significantly wider ventricles than PD patients without dementia (p < 0.001) while differences between PD-MCI and PDNC or PDD were less strong (p < 0.05). There were no group differences in SN size. ROC analyses resulted in age-related cut-offs of third ventricular diameter for the prediction of PDD (6.0 and 7.5 mm for subjects < and ≥70 years of age, respectively). These cut-offs significantly differentiated PDD from PDNC (p < 0.001) and from all patients without dementia (PDNC + PD-MCI; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The third ventricular diameter correlated with cognitive performance in all domains and was able to differentiate PDD patients from those without dementia. Longitudinal studies are warranted to evaluate whether transcranial sonography could identify PD patients at risk for a rapid cognitive decline.

9.
Neurol Sci ; 40(10): 2163-2169, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190253

RESUMO

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare, rapidly progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized by falls and ocular movement disturbances. Caring for a partner or relative who suffers from PSP entails a strenuous and demanding task, usually lasting for years that affects carers' everyday life routines and emotional and social well-being. The 26-item Parkinsonism Carers QoL (PQoL Carer) is a self-administered, concise instrument evaluating the quality of life of caregivers of patients with atypical parkinsonism (both PSP and multiple system atrophy). Here, the PQoL Carer was translated into Italian and validated in 162 carers of PSP patients (54.3% women; mean age (standard deviation), 62.4 (15.4)) diagnosed according to the Movement Disorder Society criteria and recruited in 16 third-level movement disorders centers participating in the Neurecanet project. The mean PQoL total score was 40.66 ± 19.46. The internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.941); corrected item-total correlation was > 0.40 for all the items. A correlation with other health-related quality of life measures as well as with behavioral assessments was shown suggesting adequate convergent validity of the scale. PQoL also correlated with patients' severity of disease. The discriminant validity of the scale was evidenced by its capacity to differentiate between carers with varying levels of self-reported health (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the Italian version of the PQoL Carer is an easy, consistent, and valid tool for the assessment of the quality of life in carers of PSP patients.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/etiologia , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/complicações , Tradução
10.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(12): 2595-2602, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246717

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lactate thresholds are physiological parameters used to train athletes and monitor performance or training. Currently, the assessment of lactate thresholds in kayakers is performed in a laboratory setting utilizing specific ergometers; however, laboratory tests differ from on-water evaluation for several reasons. The aim of this study was to assess reliability and validity of a new on-water incremental test for the assessment of blood lactate response to exercise in flat-water kayakers. Maximal lactate steady state test (MLSS) was used as criterion measurement. METHODS: Eleven junior (16.5 ± 1.9 yr) élite flat-water kayakers performed: i) an incremental cardiopulmonary test up to voluntary exhaustion on a stationary kayak ergometer to determine peak oxygen uptake; ii) an on-water 1000-m distance trial (T1000) to record best performance time and average speed (S1000); iii) two repetitions of on-water incremental kayaking test (WIK test); iv) several repetitions of on-water constant speed tests to determine MLSS. Speed, HR, and blood lactate concentrations were determined during on-water tests. RESULTS: The best performance time in T1000 was 262 ± 13 s, corresponding to an S1000 of 3.82 ± 0.19 m·s. Lactate threshold determined by modified Dmax method (LTDmod) during WIK test was 2.78 ± 1.02 mmol·L and the corresponding speed (SLT) was 3.34 ± 0.16 m·s. Test-retest reliability, calculated on SLT, was strong (ICC = 0.95 and r = 0.93). MLSS test corresponded to 3.06 ± 0.68 mmol·L and was reached at a speed (SMLSS) of 3.36 ± 0.14 m·s. Correlation coefficient between SLT and SMLSS was 0.90 (P = 0.0001). Interestingly, a significant correlation (r = 0.96, P < 0.0001) was observed between SLT and S1000. CONCLUSIONS: The WIK test showed good reliability and validity for the assessment of speed corresponding to LTDmod in flat-water kayakers and it could be a useful tool to monitor athletic performance. The speed value at LTDmod nicely predicted performance on 1000 m.

11.
Mov Disord ; 34(7): 1069-1073, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with dementia with Lewy bodies reveal a variable pathology including alpha-synuclein, amyloid-beta, and Tau. Mutations in GBA1 are specifically associated with synucleinopathies. PD patients with GBA1 mutations show reduced CSF levels of total alpha-synuclein. OBJECTIVE: Whether GBA1 mutations are associated with a CSF alpha-synuclein profile in dementia with Lewy bodies. METHODS: Screening of the GBA1 gene and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in SNCA rs356220, APOE rs429358, and MAPT rs1052587 as well as CSF levels of total alpha-synuclein, amyloid-beta1-42 , total-Tau, phospho-Tau, and neurofilament light chain were assessed in 100 dementia with Lewy bodies and 39 controls cross-sectionally. RESULTS: Severity of GBA1 mutations was associated with a younger age at onset and higher prevalence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. CSF levels of total alpha-synuclein were lowest in DLBGBA_pathogenic compared to DLBGBA_mild and DLBGBA_wildtype . CONCLUSION: Similar to PD, pathogenic GBA1 mutations seem to be associated with CSF alpha-synuclein profiles in dementia with Lewy bodies. That might be useful for patient stratification for specific alpha-synuclein-lowering compounds. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

12.
Brain Stimul ; 12(5): 1290-1297, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155302

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether motor cortex inhibition by stimulation over the cerebellum with a figure-of eight coil (MISC8) may be reduced in patients with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP). METHODS: Paired pulse TMS was used to evaluate MISC8, in patients with different forms of parkinsonism and dementia. The primary outcome measures were sensitivity and specificity of motor cortex inhibition, derived from receiver operator curve analysis, in discriminating PSP from other neurodegenerative disorders. RESULTS: A total of 150 participants met inclusion criteria. According to clinical criteria, the study population included 19 PSP, 26 Parkinson's disease, 25 dementia with Lewy bodies, 15 corticobasal syndrome, 25 frontotemporal dementia and 15 Alzheimer's disease patients, and 25 healthy controls. PSP patients were characterized by a specific impairment of MISC8 (0.99 ±â€¯0.08) compared to the healthy control group and to other neurodegenerative disorders (mean range = 0.63-0.80, all p-values<0.001). Using the best cut-off index, MISC8 differentiated PSP from other diagnoses with an overall sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 94%, and an accuracy of 97%. CONCLUSIONS: TMS is a non-invasive procedure which reliably distinguishes PSP from other neurodegenerative disorders. MISC8 could represent a useful additional diagnostic tool to be used in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/diagnóstico , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/psicologia
13.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 46(8): 1642-1651, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098748

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to evaluate extrastriatal dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) using 123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging. METHODS: The study groups comprised 56 PD patients without dementia, 41 DLB patients and 54 controls. Each patient underwent a standardized neurological examination and 123I-FP-CIT SPECT. Binding in nigrostriatal and extrastriatal regions of interest was calculated in each patient from spatially normalized images. The occipital-adjusted specific to nondisplaceable binding ratio (SBR) in the different regions was compared among the PD patients, DLB patients and controls adjusting for the effects of age, sex, disease duration and serotonergic/dopaminergic treatment. Covariance analysis was used to determine the correlates of local and long-distance regions with extrastriatal 123I-FP-CIT deficits. RESULTS: Both PD and DLB patients showed lower 123I-FP-CIT SPECT SBR in several regions beyond the nigrostriatal system, especially the insula, cingulate and thalamus. DLB patients showed significantly lower 123I-FP-CIT SBR in the thalamus than controls and PD patients. Thalamic and cingulate 123I-FP-CIT SBR deficits were correlated, respectively, with limbic serotonergic and widespread cortical monoaminergic projections only in DLB patients but exhibited only local correlations in PD patients and controls. CONCLUSION: PD and DLB patients both showed insular dopamine deficits, whereas impairment of thalamic serotonergic pathways was specifically associated with DLB. Longitudinal studies are necessary to determine the clinical value of the assessment of extrastriatal 123I-FP-CIT SPECT.

14.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 90(11): 1257-1263, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Review the effect of orthostatic hypotension (OH) and rapid-eye-movement sleep behavioural disorder (RBD) on survival, cognitive impairment and postural stability, and discuss pathogenic mechanisms involved in the association of these two common non-motor features with relevant clinical outcomes in α-synucleinopathies. METHODS: We searched PubMed (January 2007-February 2019) for human studies of OH and RBD evaluating cognitive impairment, postural instability, and survival in Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and pure autonomic failure (PAF). Included studies were analysed for design, key results and limitations as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. RESULTS: OH and RBD showed a positive association with cognitive impairment in PD and DLB, conflicting association in PAF, and no association in MSA. OH was correlated with incident falls and postural instability in PD and DLB but not in MSA. The association between RBD and postural instability was inconclusive; positive in five studies, negative in seven. OH, but not RBD, correlated with reduced survival in PD, DLB and MSA. The combination of OH and RBD was associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid progression of postural instability. CONCLUSIONS: OH and RBD yielded individual and combined negative effects on disability in α-synucleinopathies, reflecting a 'malignant' phenotype of PD with early cognitive impairment and postural instability. Underlying mechanisms may include involvement of selected brainstem cholinergic and noradrenergic nuclei.

15.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(3): 398-406, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706953

RESUMO

Biogenic amines synthesis in phenylketonuria (PKU) patients with high phenylalanine (Phe) concentration is thought to be impaired due to inhibition of tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylases and competition with amino acids at the blood-brain barrier. Dopamine and serotonin deficits might explain brain damage and progressive neuropsychiatric impairment in adult PKU patients. Ten early treated adult PKU patients (mean age 38.2 years) and 15 age-matched controls entered the study. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Phe, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (l-DOPA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were analyzed. Voxel-based morphometry statistical nonparametric mapping was used to test the age-corrected correlation between gray matter atrophy and CSF biogenic amines levels. 5-HIAA and 5-HTP were significantly reduced in PKU patients compared to controls. Significant negative correlations were found between CSF 5-HIAA, HVA, and 5-HTP and Phe levels. A decrease in 5-HIAA and 5-HTP concentrations correlated with precuneus and frontal atrophy, respectively. Lower HVA levels correlated with occipital atrophy. Biogenic amines deficits correlate with specific brain atrophy patterns in adult PKU patients, in line with serotonin and dopamine projections. These findings may support a more rigorous Phe control in adult PKU to prevent neurotransmitter depletion and accelerated brain damage due to aging.

16.
Ann Neurol ; 85(5): 715-725, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify brain regions whose metabolic impairment contributes to dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) clinical core features expression and to assess the influence of severity of global cognitive impairment on the DLB hypometabolic pattern. METHODS: Brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and information on core features were available in 171 patients belonging to the imaging repository of the European DLB Consortium. Principal component analysis was applied to identify brain regions relevant to the local data variance. A linear regression model was applied to generate core-feature-specific patterns controlling for the main confounding variables (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE], age, education, gender, and center). Regression analysis to the locally normalized intensities was performed to generate an MMSE-sensitive map. RESULTS: Parkinsonism negatively covaried with bilateral parietal, precuneus, and anterior cingulate metabolism; visual hallucinations (VH) with bilateral dorsolateral-frontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and parietal metabolism; and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) with bilateral parieto-occipital cortex, precuneus, and ventrolateral-frontal metabolism. VH and RBD shared a positive covariance with metabolism in the medial temporal lobe, cerebellum, brainstem, basal ganglia, thalami, and orbitofrontal and sensorimotor cortex. Cognitive fluctuations negatively covaried with occipital metabolism and positively with parietal lobe metabolism. MMSE positively covaried with metabolism in the left superior frontal gyrus, bilateral-parietal cortex, and left precuneus, and negatively with metabolism in the insula, medial frontal gyrus, hippocampus in the left hemisphere, and right cerebellum. INTERPRETATION: Regions of more preserved metabolism are relatively consistent across the variegate DLB spectrum. By contrast, core features were associated with more prominent hypometabolism in specific regions, thus suggesting a close clinical-imaging correlation, reflecting the interplay between topography of neurodegeneration and clinical presentation in DLB patients. Ann Neurol 2019;85:715-725.


Assuntos
Doença por Corpos de Lewy/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 11(1): 20, 2019 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: [18F]FDG-PET hypometabolism patterns are indicative of different neurodegenerative conditions, even from the earliest disease phase. This makes [18F]FDG-PET a valuable tool in the diagnostic workup of neurodegenerative diseases. The utility of [18F]FDG-PET in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) needs further validation by considering large samples of patients and disease comparisons and applying state-of-the-art statistical methods. Here, we aimed to provide an extensive validation of the [18F]FDG-PET metabolic signatures in supporting DLB diagnosis near the first clinical assessment, which is characterized by high diagnostic uncertainty, at the single-subject level. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included N = 72 patients with heterogeneous clinical classification at entry (mild cognitive impairment, atypical parkinsonisms, possible DLB, probable DLB, and other dementias) and an established diagnosis of DLB at a later follow-up. We generated patterns of [18F]FDG-PET hypometabolism in single cases by using a validated voxel-wise analysis (p < 0.05, FWE-corrected). The hypometabolism patterns were independently classified by expert raters blinded to any clinical information. The final clinical diagnosis at follow-up (2.94 ± 1.39 [0.34-6.04] years) was considered as the diagnostic reference and compared with clinical classification at entry and with [18F]FDG-PET classification alone. In addition, we calculated the diagnostic accuracy of [18F]FDG-PET maps in the differential diagnosis of DLB with Alzheimer's disease dementia (ADD) (N = 60) and Parkinson's disease (PD) (N = 36). RESULTS: The single-subject [18F]FDG-PET hypometabolism pattern, showing temporo-parietal and occipital involvement, was highly consistent across DLB cases. Clinical classification at entry produced several misclassifications with an agreement of only 61.1% with the diagnostic reference. On the contrary, [18F]FDG-PET hypometabolism maps alone accurately predicted diagnosis of DLB at follow-up (88.9%). The high power of the [18F]FDG-PET hypometabolism signature in predicting the final clinical diagnosis allowed a ≈ 50% increase in accuracy compared to the first clinical assessment alone. Finally, [18F]FDG-PET hypometabolism maps yielded extremely high discriminative power, distinguishing DLB from ADD and PD conditions with an accuracy of > 90%. CONCLUSION: The present validation of the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of the disease-specific brain metabolic signature in DLB at the single-subject level argues for the consideration of [18F]FDG-PET in the early phase of the DLB diagnostic flowchart. The assessment of the [18F]FDG-PET hypometabolism pattern at entry may shorten the diagnostic time, resulting in benefits for treatment options and management of patients.

18.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 8(3): 455-462, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Falls are common among people with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and are suggested to be associated with white matter hyperintensities (WMH) of the brain. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the contribution of brain area-specific WMH to the risk of falls in IPD. METHODS: In fifty participants with IPD, occurrence and severity of WMH in specific brain areas were determined using Scheltens (without lateralization) and Age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) (with lateralization) scores. Falls were evaluated with the fall item of the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS). Correlations between area-specific WMH and falls were tested with stepwise backward regression and multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: In this cohort of participants with IPD, left temporal WMH were associated with occurrence of falls. Frontal WMH of both hemispheres showed tendencies towards significance for the association with falls. CONCLUSION: According to our study, WMH in the left temporal area are significantly associated with falls in IPD. Potential reasons for this association could be deficits in memory, navigation, orientation, auditory processing, and fear conditioning, which are all associated with pathologies of the left temporal lobe.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 45(13): 2387-2395, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008111

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cognitive impairment (CI) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a widespread reduction in cortical glucose metabolism and relative increases in the cerebellum and brainstem as measured using 18F-fluorodesoxyglucose (FDG) PET. We separately analysed CI-related hypermetabolism and hypometabolism in comparison with neuropsychological test performance and investigated whether increased FDG uptake is a true feature of the disease or a normalization effect. METHODS: The study included 29 subjects (12 patients with PD, 10 patients with PD dementia and 7 healthy controls") who underwent FDG PET and comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Test performance across various cognitive domains was summarized in a cognitive staging score. Metabolic indices reflecting associated changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) were calculated: index(-) for CI-related hypometabolism, and index(+) for CI-related hypermetabolism. We tested whether index(+) offered additional value in predicting the severity of CI in multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: At higher stages of CI, increased rCGM was found in the posterior cerebellar vermis and pons, associated with impaired attention, executive function and memory. Reduced rCGM was found in various cortical regions in agreement with the literature. In multiple regression analysis, both indices independently predicted the severity of CI with a whole-model R2 of 0.68 (index(-), p = 0.0006; index(+), p = 0.013), confirmed by alternative analyses combining different reference tissues in the multiple regression. CONCLUSION: We found CI-related hypermetabolism in cerebellar regions that are known to be involved in several cognitive functions and in the pons. These alterations may represent compensatory activation of cognitive networks including cerebropontocerebellar tracts.


Assuntos
Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Tronco Encefálico/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
20.
Neurology ; 90(12): e1029-e1037, 2018 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the statistical parametric mapping (SPM) procedure for fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET imaging as a possible single-subject marker of progression to dementia in Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: Fifty-four consecutive patients with PD without dementia (age at onset of 59.9 ± 10.1 years, disease duration of 5.3 ± 3.4 years) entered the study. The patients underwent an extensive motor and cognitive assessment and a single-subject FDG-PET SPM evaluation at baseline. A 4-year follow-up provided disease progression and dementia diagnosis. RESULTS: The FDG-PET SPM was evaluated by 2 expert raters allowing the identification of a "typical PD pattern" in 29 patients, whereas 25 patients presented with "atypical patterns," namely, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)-like (n = 12), Alzheimer disease (AD)-like (n = 6), corticobasal syndrome (CBS)-like (n = 5), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD)-like (n = 2). At 4-year follow-up, 13 patients, all showing atypical brain metabolic patterns at baseline, progressed to dementia (PD dementia). The DLB- and AD-like SPM patterns were the best predictor for incident dementia (p < 0.005, sensitivity 85%, specificity 88%), independently from demographics or cognitive baseline classification. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that FDG-PET SPM at the single-subject level might help in identifying patients with PD at risk of developing dementia.


Assuntos
Demência/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Demência/etiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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