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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239788

RESUMO

Hydrogenolysis of alkyl-substituted cyclopentadienyl (CpR ) ligated thorium tribenzyl complexes [(CpR )Th(p-CH2 -C6 H4 -Me)3 ] (1-6) afforded the first examples of molecular thorium trihydrido complexes [(CpR )Th(µ-H)3 ]n (CpR =C5 H2 (t Bu)3 or C5 H2 (SiMe3 )3 , n=5; C5 Me4 SiMe3 , n=6; C5 Me5 , n=7; C5 Me4 H, n=8; 7-10 and 12) and [(Cp# )12 Th13 H40 ] (Cp# =C5 H4 SiMe3 ; 13). The nuclearity of the metal hydride clusters depends on the steric profile of the cyclopentadienyl ligands. The hydrogenolysis intermediate, tetra-nuclear octahydrido thorium dibenzylidene complex [(Cpttt )Th(µ-H)2 ]4 (µ-p-CH-C6 H4 -Me)2 (Cpttt =C5 H2 (t Bu)3 ) (11) was also isolated. All of the complexes were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray analysis. Hydride positions in [(CpMe4 )Th(µ-H)3 ]8 (CpMe4 =C5 Me4 H) were further precisely confirmed by single-crystal neutron diffraction. DFT calculations strengthen the experimental assignment of the hydride positions in the complexes 7 to 12.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(22): 6973-6982, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633355

RESUMO

The coupling of the crystallographic refinement technique Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) with the recently constructed libraries of extremely localized molecular orbitals (ELMOs) gives rise to the new quantum-crystallographic method HAR-ELMO. This method is significantly faster than HAR but as accurate and precise, especially concerning the free refinement of hydrogen atoms from X-ray diffraction data, so that the first fully quantum-crystallographic refinement of a protein is presented here. However, the promise of HAR-ELMO exceeds large molecules and protein crystallography. In fact, it also renders possible electron-density investigations of heavy elements in small molecules and facilitates the detection and isolation of systematic errors from physical effects.

3.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(30): 10255-10259, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136063

RESUMO

The observation of an unusual crystal habit in the common diuretic drug hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), and identification of its subtle conformational chirality, has stimulated a detailed investigation of its crystalline forms. Enantiomeric conformers of HCT resolve into an unusual structure of conjoined enantiomorphic twin crystals comprising enantiopure domains of opposite chirality. The purity of the domains and the chiral molecular conformation are confirmed by spatially revolved synchrotron micro-XRD experiments and neutron diffraction, respectively. Macroscopic inversion twin symmetry observed between the crystal wings suggests a pseudoracemic structure that is not a solid solution or a layered crystal structure, but an unusual structural variant of conglomerates and racemic twins. Computed interaction energies for molecular pairs in the racemic and enantiopure polymorphs of HCT, and the observation of large opposing unit-cell dipole moments for the enantiopure domains in these twin crystals, suggest a plausible crystal nucleation mechanism for this unusual crystal habit.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(9): 3965-3976, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761898

RESUMO

High-resolution synchrotron and neutron single-crystal diffraction data of 18-crown-6/(pentakis)urea measured at 30 K are combined, with the aim of better appreciating the electrostatics associated with intermolecular interactions in condensed matter. With two 18-crown-6 molecules and five different urea molecules in the crystal, this represents the most ambitious combined X-ray/synchrotron and neutron experimental charge density analysis to date on a cocrystal or host-guest system incorporating such a large number of unique molecules. The dipole moments of the five urea guest molecules in the crystal are enhanced considerably compared to values determined for isolated molecules, and 2D maps of the electrostatic potential and electric field show clearly how the urea molecules are oriented with dipole moments aligned along the electric field exerted by their molecular neighbors. Experimental electric fields in the range of 10-19 GV m-1, obtained for the five different urea environments, corroborate independent measurements of electric fields in the active sites of enzymes and provide an important experimental reference point for recent discussions focused on electric-field-assisted catalysis.

5.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3079, 2018 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082681

RESUMO

Boron hydride clusters are an extremely diverse compound class, which are of enormous importance to many areas of chemistry. Despite this, stable aluminium hydride analogues of these species have remained staunchly elusive to synthetic chemists. Here, we report that reductions of an amidinato-aluminium(III) hydride complex with magnesium(I) dimers lead to unprecedented examples of stable aluminium(I) hydride complexes, [(ArNacnac)Mg]2[Al6H6(Fiso)2] (ArNacnac = [HC(MeCNAr)2]-, Ar = C6H2Me3-2,4,6 Mes; C6H3Et2-2,6 Dep or C6H3Me2-2,6 Xyl; Fiso = [HC(NDip)2]-, Dip = C6H3Pri2-2,6), which crystallographic and computational studies show to possess near neutral, octahedral hypercloso-hexaalane, Al6H6, cluster cores. The electronically delocalised skeletal bonding in these species is compared to that in the classical borane, [B6H6]2-. Thus, the chemistry of classical polyhedral boranes is extended to stable aluminium hydride clusters for the first time.

6.
Chemistry ; 24(62): 16576-16581, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30095193

RESUMO

The anisotropy of the magnetic properties of molecular magnets is a key descriptor in the search for improved magnets. Herein, it is shown how an analytical approach using single-crystal polarized neutron diffraction (PND) provides direct access to atomic magnetic susceptibility tensors. The technique was applied for the first time to two Dy-based single-molecule magnets and showed clear axial atomic susceptibility for both DyIII ions. For the triclinic system, bulk magnetization methods are not symmetry-restricted, and the experimental magnetic easy axes from both PND, angular-resolved magnetometry (ARM), and theoretical approaches all match reasonably well. ARM curves simulated from the molecular susceptibility tensor determined with PND show strong resemblance with the experimental ones. For the monoclinic compound, comparison can only be made with the theoretically calculated magnetic anisotropy, and in this case PND yields an easy-axis direction that matches that predicted by electrostatic methods. Importantly, this technique allows the determination of all elements of the magnetic susceptibility tensor and not just the easy-axis direction, as is available from electrostatic predictions. Furthermore, it has the capacity to provide each of the anisotropic magnetic susceptibility tensors for all independent magnetic ions in a molecule and thus allows studies on polynuclear complexes and compounds of higher crystalline symmetry than triclinic.

7.
Dalton Trans ; 45(19): 8278-83, 2016 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27109447

RESUMO

Tris(acetylacteonate) iron(iii) is a relatively ubiquitous mononuclear inorganic coordination complex. The bidentate nature of the three acetylacteonate ligands coordinating around a single centre inevitably leads to structural isomeric forms, however whether or not this relates to chirality in the solid state has been questioned in the literature. Variable temperature neutron diffraction data down to T = 3 K, highlights the dynamic nature of the ligand environment, including the motions of the hydrogen atoms. The Fourier transform of the molecular dynamics simulation based on the experimentally determined structure was shown to closely reproduce the low temperature vibrational density of states obtained using inelastic neutron scattering.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(13): 4468-83, 2016 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27015162

RESUMO

Rare earth silicate apatites are one-dimensional channel structures that show potential as electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) due to their high ionic conductivity at intermediate temperatures (500-700 °C). This advantageous property can be attributed to the presence of both interstitial oxygen and cation vacancies, that create diffusion paths which computational studies suggest are less tortuous and have lower activation energies for migration than in stoichiometric compounds. In this work, neutron diffraction of Nd(28+x)/3AlxSi6-xO26 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5) single crystals identified the locations of oxygen interstitials, and allowed the deduction of a dual-path conduction mechanism that is a natural extension of the single-path sinusoidal channel trajectory arrived at through computation. This discovery provides the most thorough understanding of the O(2-) transport mechanism along the channels to date, clarifies the mode of interchannel motion, and presents a complete picture of O(2-) percolation through apatite. Previously reported crystallographic and conductivity measurements are re-examined in the light of these new findings.

9.
Acta Crystallogr B Struct Sci Cryst Eng Mater ; 71(Pt 6): 679-87, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26634724

RESUMO

The Type II phase in the Bi1 - xWxO1.5 + 1.5x system is shown to have a (3 + 3)-dimensional modulated δ-Bi2O3-related structure, in which the modulation vector ℇ `locks in' to a commensurate value of 1/3. The structure was refined in a 3 × 3 × 3 supercell against single-crystal Laue neutron diffraction data. Ab initio calculations were used to test and optimize the local structure of the oxygen sublattice around a single mixed Bi/W site. The underlying crystal chemistry was shown to be essentially the same as for the recently refined (3 + 3)-dimensional modulated structure of Type II Bi1 - xNbxO1.5 + x (Ling et al., 2013), based on a transition from fluorite-type to pyrochlore-type via the appearance of W4O18 `tetrahedra of octahedra' and chains of corner-sharing WO6 octahedra along 〈110〉F directions. The full range of occupancies on this mixed Bi/W site give a hypothetical solid-solution range bounded by Bi23W4O46.5 (x = 0.148) and Bi22W5O48 (x = 0.185), consistent with previous reports and with our own synthetic and analytical results.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(8): 4693-8, 2015 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25654641

RESUMO

DAST (4-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate) is the most commercially successful organic nonlinear optical (NLO) material for frequency-doubling, integrated optics, and THz wave applications. Its success is predicated on its high optical nonlinearity with concurrent sufficient thermal stability. Many chemical derivatives of DAST have therefore been developed to optimize their properties; yet, to date, none have surpassed the overall superiority of DAST for NLO photonic applications. This is perhaps because DAST is an ionic salt wherein its NLO-active cation is influenced by multiple types of subtle intermolecular forces that are hard to quantify, thus, making difficult the molecular engineering of better functioning DAST derivatives. Here, we establish a model parameter, ηinter, that isolates the influence of intermolecular interactions on second-order optical nonlinearity in DAST and its derivatives, using second-harmonic generation (SHG) as a qualifier; by systematically mapping intercorrelations of all possible pairs of intermolecular interactions to ηinter, we uncover a relationship between concerted intermolecular interactions and SHG output. This correlation reveals that a sixfold gain in the intrinsic second-order NLO performance of DAST is possible, by eliminating the identified interactions. This prediction offers the first opportunity to systematically design next-generation DAST-based photonic device nanotechnology to realize such a prospect.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 53(17): 9416-23, 2014 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25140442

RESUMO

A single-crystal structure determination of Nd8Sr2Si6O26 apatite, a prototype intermediate-temperature electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells grown by the floating-zone method, was completed using the combination of Laue neutron diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. While neutron diffraction was in good agreement with P63/m symmetry, the possibility of P63 could not be convincingly excluded. This ambiguity was removed by the collection of orientation-dependent Raman spectra that could only be consistent with P63/m. The composition of Nd8Sr2Si6O26 was independently verified by powder X-ray diffraction in combination with electron probe microanalysis, with the latter confirming a homogeneous distribution of Sr and the absence of chemical zonation commonly observed in apatites. This comprehensive crystallochemical description of Nd8Sr2Si6O26 provides a baseline to quantify the efficacy of cation vacancies, oxygen superstoichiometry, and symmetry modification for promoting oxygen-ion mobility.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 53(28): 7214-8, 2014 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24803070

RESUMO

The syntheses of the first rhombicuboctahedral copper polyhydride complexes [Cu28 (H)15 (S2 CNR)12 ]PF6 (NR=N(n) Pr2 or aza-15-crown-5) are reported. These complexes were analyzed by single-crystal X-ray and one by neutron diffraction. The core of each copper hydride nanoparticle comprises one central interstitial hydride and eight outer-triangular-face-capping hydrides. A further six face-truncating hydrides form an unprecedented bridge between the inner and outer copper atom arrays. The irregular inner Cu4 tetrahedron is encapsulated within the Cu24 rhombicuboctahedral cage, which is further enclosed by an array of twelve dithiocarbamate ligands that subtends the truncated octahedron of 24 sulfur atoms, which is concentric with the Cu24 rhombicuboctahedron and Cu4 tetrahedron about the innermost hydride. For these compounds, an intriguing, albeit limited, H2 evolution was observed at room temperature, which is accompanied by formation of the known ion [Cu8 (H)(S2 CNR)6 ](+) upon exposure of solutions to sunlight, under mild thermolytic conditions, and on reaction with weak (or strong) acids.

13.
Dalton Trans ; 42(6): 1996-2007, 2013 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23044752

RESUMO

Complementary experimental techniques and ab initio calculations were used to determine the origin and nature of negative thermal expansion (NTE) in the archetype metal-organic framework MOF-5 (Zn(4)O(1,4-benzenedicarboxylate)(3)). The organic linker was probed by inelastic neutron scattering under vacuum and at a gas pressure of 175 bar to distinguish between the pressure and temperature responses of the framework motions, and the local structure of the metal centers was studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Multi-temperature powder- and single-crystal X-ray and neutron diffraction was used to characterize the polymeric nature of the sample and to quantify NTE over the large temperature range 4-400 K. Ab initio calculations complement the experimental data with detailed information on vibrational motions in the framework and their correlations. A uniform and comprehensive picture of NTE in MOF-5 has been drawn, and we provide direct evidence that the main contributor to NTE is translational transverse motion of the aromatic ring, which can be dampened by applying a gas pressure to the sample. The linker motion is highly correlated rather than local in nature. The relative energies of different framework vibrations populated in MOF-5 are suggested by analysis of neutron diffraction data. We note that the lowest-energy motion is a librational motion of the aromatic ring which does not contribute to NTE. The libration is followed by transverse motion of the linker and the carboxylate group. These motions result in unit-cell contraction with increasing temperature.

14.
J Phys Chem A ; 110(28): 8763-76, 2006 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16836439

RESUMO

The molecular dipole moment of MNA in the crystal has been critically reexamined, to test the conclusion from an earlier experimental charge density analysis that it was substantially enhanced due to a combination of strong intermolecular interactions and crystal field effects. X-ray and neutron diffraction data have been carefully measured at 100 K and supplemented with ab initio crystal Hartree-Fock calculations. Considerable care taken in the measurement and reduction of the experimental data excluded most systematic errors, and sources of error and their effects on the experimental electron density have been carefully investigated. The electron density derived from a fit to theoretical structure factors assisted in the determination of the scale and thermal motion model. The dipole moment enhancement for MNA in the crystal is much less than that reported previously and only on the order of 30-40% (approximately 2.5 D). In addition to the dipole moment, experimental deformation electron density maps, bond critical point data, electric field gradients at hydrogen nuclei, and atomic and group charges all agree well with theoretical results and trends. Anisotropic modeling of the motion of hydrogen atoms, integral use of periodic ab initio calculations, and improved data quality are all aspects of this study that represent a considerable advance over previous work.

15.
Org Biomol Chem ; 1(7): 1191-8, 2003 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12926394

RESUMO

The total experimental charge density in 1-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)ethanone (1) has been determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction data in combination with neutron diffraction data measured at 100 K. Multipole refinement was carried out in terms of the rigid pseudoatom model. Multipole refinement converged at R = 0.026 for 5415 reflections with I > 2 sigma(I). Topological analysis of the total experimental charge density rho(r) and its Laplacian, -[symbol: see text]2 rho(r) together with a comparison against high level theoretical gas-phase calculations reveals fine details of intra- and intermolecular bonding features, in particular the extent of the pi-delocalisation throughout the molecule.

16.
Org Biomol Chem ; 1(6): 1034-40, 2003 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12929644

RESUMO

The total experimental charge density in (Z)-N-methyl-C-phenylnitrone (1) has been determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction data in combination with neutron diffraction data measured at 100 K in terms of the rigid pseudoatom model. Multipole refinement converged at R = 0.03 for 7163 reflections with I > 2 sigma(I). Topological analysis of the total experimental charge density rho(r) and its Laplacian, -[symbol: see text]2 rho(r) and a comparison with high level theoretical gas-phase calculations reveals an unexpected electron distribution in the N-O group, both atoms having negative atomic charges, contrary to that commonly assumed in nitrone species. This observation is confirmed on examination of both the theoretical charges and the molecular electrostatic potential. Compound 1 contains a large number of hydrogen bonds and these are analysed using the atoms in molecules approach leading to quantitative values for bond strength, ranging from medium to very weak.

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