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1.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959942

RESUMO

Vitamin D testing and the use of vitamin D supplements have increased substantially in recent years. Currently, the role of vitamin D supplementation, and the optimal vitamin D dose and status, is a subject of debate, because large interventional studies have been unable to show a clear benefit (in mostly vitamin D replete populations). This may be attributed to limitations in trial design, as most studies did not meet the basic requirements of a nutrient intervention study, including vitamin D-replete populations, too small sample sizes, and inconsistent intervention methods regarding dose and metabolites. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] < 50 nmol/L or 20 ng/ml) is associated with unfavorable skeletal outcomes, including fractures and bone loss. A 25(OH)D level of >50 nmol/L or 20 ng/ml is, therefore, the primary treatment goal, although some data suggest a benefit for a higher threshold. Severe vitamin D deficiency with a 25(OH)D concentration below <30 nmol/L (or 12 ng/ml) dramatically increases the risk of excess mortality, infections, and many other diseases, and should be avoided whenever possible. The data on a benefit for mortality and prevention of infections, at least in severely deficient individuals, appear convincing. Vitamin D is clearly not a panacea, and is most likely efficient only in deficiency. Given its rare side effects and its relatively wide safety margin, it may be an important, inexpensive, and safe adjuvant therapy for many diseases, but future large and well-designed studies should evaluate this further. A worldwide public health intervention that includes vitamin D supplementation in certain risk groups, and systematic vitamin D food fortification to avoid severe vitamin D deficiency, would appear to be important. In this narrative review, the current international literature on vitamin D deficiency, its relevance, and therapeutic options is discussed.

2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 501-509, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive scientific debate is ongoing about whether moderate solarium use increases melanoma risk. The authors of some recent publications demand the debate be closed and propose "actions against solarium use for skin cancer prevention" because new studies have convincingly demonstrated causality. This minireview aims to investigate whether those demands are sufficiently supported by present scientific knowledge and comply with the principles of evidence-based medicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search (through June 2019; PubMed, ISI Web of Science) to identify publications investigating how solarium use affects melanoma risk. RESULTS: We found no studies that demonstrate a causal relationship between moderate solarium use and melanoma risk. Results of cohort and case-control studies published to date, including recent investigations, do not prove causality, and randomized controlled trials providing unequivocal proof are still lacking. Moreover, the overall quality of observational studies is low as a result of severe limitations (including unobserved or unrecorded confounding), possibly leading to bias. We also disagree with recent claims that Hill's criteria for the epidemiological evidence of a causal relationship between a potential causal factor and an observed effect are fulfilled in regard to the conclusion that moderate solarium use per se would increase melanoma risk Conclusion: Current scientific knowledge does not demonstrate a causal relationship between moderate solarium use and melanoma risk. Therefore, the debate is not closed.


Assuntos
Melanoma/epidemiologia , Banho de Sol , Animais , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Raios Ultravioleta
3.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 108: 110425, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923935

RESUMO

Beta-type Ti-based alloys are promising new materials for bone implants owing to their excellent mechanical biofunctionality and biocompatibility. For treatment of fractures in case of systemic diseases like osteoporosis the generation of implant surfaces which actively support the problematic bone healing is a most important aspect. This work aimed at developing suitable approaches for electrodeposition of Sr-substituted hydroxyapatite (Srx-HAp) coatings onto Ti-45Nb. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements in electrolytes with 1.67 mmol/L Ca(NO3)2, which was substituted by 0, 10, 50 and 100% Sr(NO3)2, and 1 mmol/L NH4H2PO4 at 333 K revealed the basic reaction steps for OH- and PO43- formation needed for the chemical precipitation of Srx-HAp. Studies under potentiostatic control confirmed that partial or complete substitution of Ca2+- by Sr2+-ions in solution has a significant effect on the complex reaction process. High Sr2+-ion contents yield intermediate phases and a subsequent growth of more refined Srx-HAp coatings. Upon galvanostatic pulse-deposition higher reaction rates are controlled and in all electrolytes very fine needle-like crystalline coatings are obtained. With XRD the incorporation of Sr-species in the hexagonal HAp lattice is evidenced. Coatings formed in electrolytes with 10 and 50% Sr-nitrate were chemically analyzed with EDX mapping and GD-OES depth profiling. Only a fraction of the Sr-ions in solution is incorporated into the Srx-HAp coatings. Therein, the Sr-distribution is laterally homogeneous but non-homogeneous along the cross-section. Increasing Sr-content retards the coating thickness growth. Most promising coatings formed in the electrolyte with 10% Sr-nitrate were employed for Ca, P and Sr release analysis in Tris-Buffered Saline (150 mM NaCl, pH 7.6) at 310 K. At a sample surface: solution volume ratio of 1:200, after 24 h the amount of released Sr-ions was about 30-35% of that determined in the deposited Srx-HAp coating. In vitro studies with human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) revealed that the released Sr-ions led to a significantly enhanced cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation and that the Sr-HAp surface supported cell adhesion indicating its excellent cytocompatibility.

4.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 131(Suppl 6): 489-590, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792659

RESUMO

Elevated blood pressure remains a major cause of cardiovascular disease, disability, and premature death in Austria, with suboptimal rates of detection, treatment and control also in recent years. Management of hypertension is a common challenge for physicians with different spezializations. In an attempt to standardize diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and, ultimately, to increase the rate of patients with controlled blood pressure and to decrease the burden of cardiovascular disease, 13 Austrian medical societies reviewed the evidence regarding prevention, detection, workup, treatment and consequences of high blood pressure in general and in various clinical scenarios. The result is presented as the first national consensus on blood pressure. The authors and societies involved are convinced that a joint national effort is needed to decrease hypertension-related morbidity and mortality in our country.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Áustria , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Consenso , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico
5.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 199: 105568, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870913

RESUMO

Maternal vitamin D deficiency is considered to be the key determinant of the development of neonatal vitamin D deficiency at birth and during early infancy. Specific vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms have been associated with adverse pregnancy and offspring outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal and neonatal VDR polymorphisms (ApaI, TaqI, BsmI, FokI, Tru9I) on maternal and neonatal vitamin D status. VDR polymorphisms were genotyped in 70 mother-neonate pairs of Greek origin, and classified according to international thresholds for Vitamin D status. Mean neonatal and maternal 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were 35 ± 20 and 47 ± 26 nmol/l, respectively. Neonatal VDR polymorphisms were not associated with neonatal 25(OH)D concentrations. In contrast, mothers with the Fokl FF polymorphism had a 70 % lower risk of vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <30 nmol/l] compared with ff ones, after adjustment for several confounders. They were also in 73 % and 88 % lower risk of giving birth to vitamin D deficient [25(OH)D <30 nmol/l] neonates compared with Ff and ff mothers, respectively. These results suggest a protective role of maternal Fokl FF genotype against both maternal and neonatal vitamin D deficiency. Further studies are needed to clarify the complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions that determine vitamin D status at birth.

6.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 198: 105555, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783152

RESUMO

Absence of adequate maternal vitamin D supplementation and decreased maternal ultraviolet exposure during pregnancy are key determinants for the manifestation of neonatal hypovitaminosis D at birth. These parameters may vary, according to country-specific dietary patterns, health policies and sunshine exposure. We aimed to investigate differences in calcium metabolism and anthropometric profiles according to neonatal vitamin D status at birth, in a sunny region of Northern Greece. A secondary aim was to identify maternal parameters as risk factors for developing neonatal vitamin D deficiency at birth. A total of 129 mother-neonate pairs were included in the study and classified into three groups, according to neonatal 25-hydroxy-D [25(OH)D)] concentrations at birth [deficiency (<30 nmol/l), insufficiency (30-50 nmol/l) and sufficiency (>50 nmol/l)]. Neonatal biochemical and anthropometric profiles and maternal demographic, social, dietary and biochemical profiles were comparatively evaluated between the three groups. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify independent associations of maternal factors with neonatal vitamin D status. Vitamin D deficient-neonates manifested higher parathyroid hormone (7.20 ± 2.60 vs 5.50 ± 1.50 pg/ml, p = 0.01) and lower corrected calcium (10.70 ± 0.70 vs 11.30 ± 1.30 mg/dl, p = 0.02) concentrations compared with vitamin d-insufficient neonates. Mothers of vitamin D deficient and insufficient neonates had a lower total of 25(OH)D (31.7 ± 19.2 and 36.5 ± 22.3 vs 53.3 ± 39.0 nmol/l, p < 0.01) and 25(OH)D3 (27.4 ± 17.5 and 33.3 ± 19.9 vs 47.3 ± 36.7 nmol/l, p < 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively) concentrations respectively, compared with those of vitamin D-sufficient neonates. Maternal use of alcohol during pregnancy was associated with a 5.57-fold higher risk for neonatal vitamin D deficiency at birth (OR 5.57, 95 % CI1.17-26.56, p = 0.03). Newborns with vitamin D deficiency presented a 6.89-fold higher risk of having been given birth by vitamin D deficient mothers (OR 6.89, 95 % CI 3.09-15.38, p < 0.01). In conclusion, neonatal vitamin D deficiency is associated with maternal 25(OH)D concentrations at birth and maternal alcohol use. Further studies are required to replicate these findings in other regions and populations.

7.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640241

RESUMO

25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is commonly measured to assess vitamin D status. Other vitamin D metabolites such as 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D) provide additional insights into vitamin D status or metabolism. Earlier studies suggested that the vitamin D metabolite ratio (VMR), calculated as 24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D, could predict the 25(OH)D increase after vitamin D supplementation. However, the evidence for this additional value is inconclusive. Therefore, our aim was to assess whether the increase in 25(OH)D after supplementation was predicted by the VMR better than baseline 25(OH)D. Plasma samples of 106 individuals (25(OH)D < 75 nmol/L) with hypertension who completed the Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial (NC.T.02136771) were analyzed. Participants received vitamin D (2800 IU daily) or placebo for 8 weeks. The treatment effect (ANCOVA) for 25(OH)D3, 24,25(OH)2D3 and the VMR was 32 nmol/L, 3.3 nmol/L and 0.015 (all p < 0.001), respectively. Baseline 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 predicted the change in 25(OH)D3 with comparable strength and magnitude. Correlation and regression analysis showed that the VMR did not predict the change in 25(OH)D3. Therefore, our data do not support routine measurement of 24,25(OH)2D3 in order to individually optimize the dosage of vitamin D supplementation. Our data also suggest that activity of 24-hydroxylase increases after vitamin D supplementation.

8.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4627-4635, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519560

RESUMO

In the clinical setting, administration of high daily or bolus doses of vitamin D is often solely based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] testing. This review summarizes the evidence of the effect of vitamin D on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated that CVD risk markers, such as lipid parameters, inflammation markers, blood pressure, and arterial stiffness, are largely unaffected by vitamin D supplementation. Similar results have been obtained regarding CVD events and mortality from (meta)-analyses of RCTs, even in subgroups with 25(OH)D concentrations <50 nmol/l. Likewise, Mendelian randomization studies have indicated that the genetic reduction of the 25(OH)D concentration does not increase CVD risk. Some studies do not exclude the possibility of adverse vitamin D effects, such as elevated plasma calcium concentration and an increased CVD risk at a 25(OH)D concentration >125 nmol/l. Based on a conservative benefit-risk management approach, vitamin D doses beyond the nutritionally recommended amounts of 600 to 800 IE daily currently cannot be advised for the prevention of CVD events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Overdose de Drogas/complicações , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico
9.
J Endocr Soc ; 3(9): 1748-1758, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528833

RESUMO

Context: The aldosterone-to-active renin ratio (AARR) is the recommended screening test for primary aldosteronism (PA), but prospective study data on its sensitivity and specificity are sparse. Objective: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the AARR for detecting PA. Design: Prospective diagnostic accuracy study. Setting: This study was conducted from February 2009 to August 2015 at the outpatient clinic of the Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology of the Medical University of Graz, Austria. Participants: Four hundred patients with arterial hypertension who were referred to a tertiary care center for screening for endocrine hypertension. Intervention: Participants had a determination of the AARR (index test) and a second AARR determination followed by a saline infusion test (SIT) after 2 to 6 weeks. PA was diagnosed in individuals with any AARR ≥3.7 ng/dL/µU/mL [including a plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) of ≥9 ng/dL] who had a PAC ≥10 ng/dL after the SIT. We did not substantially alter antihypertensive drug intake. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome was the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the AARR in diagnosing PA. Results: A total of 382 participants were eligible for analyses; PA was diagnosed in 18 (4.7%) patients. The area under the ROC curve of the AARR in detecting PA was 0.973 (95% CI, 0.956 to 0.990). Sensitivity and specificity for a positive AARR in diagnosing PA were 100% (95% CI, 81.5% to 100.0%) and 89.6% (95% CI, 86.0% to 92.5%), respectively. Conclusions: The AARR has good diagnostic accuracy for detecting PA.

10.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416155

RESUMO

Vitamin D might play a role in metabolic processes and obesity. We therefore examined vitamin D effects on metabolic markers and obesity in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). This is a post-hoc analysis of the Graz Vitamin D&TT-RCT, a single-center, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. We included 200 healthy men with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels <75 nmol/L. Subjects received 20,000 IU of vitamin D3/week (n = 100) or placebo (n = 100) for 12 weeks. Outcome measures were metabolic markers, anthropometric measures, and body composition assessed by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. One-hundred and ninety-two men completed the study. We found a significant treatment effect on fasting glucose/fasting insulin ratio (-5.3 (-10.4 to -0.2), p = 0.040), whereas we observed no significant effect on the remaining outcome parameters. In subgroup analyses of men with baseline 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L (n = 80), we found a significant effect on waist circumference (1.6 (0.3 to 2.9) cm, p = 0.012), waist-to-hip ratio (0.019 (0.002 to 0.036), p = 0.031), total body fat (0.029 (0.004 to 0.055) %, p = 0.026), and android fat (1.18 (0.11 to 2.26) %, p = 0.010). In middle-aged healthy men, vitamin D treatment had a negative effect on insulin sensitivity. In vitamin D deficient men, vitamin D has an unfavorable effect on central obesity and body composition.

12.
Endocr Connect ; 8(5): 518-527, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959477

RESUMO

Objective: PTH can be oxidised in vivo, rendering it biologically inactive. Non-oxidised PTH (n-oxPTH) may therefore give a better image of the hormonal status of the patient. While vitamin D supplementation decreases total PTH (tPTH) concentration, the effect on n-oxPTH concentration is unexplored. We investigated the effect of vitamin D on n-oxPTH concentration in comparison to tPTH and compared the correlations between parameters of calcium, bone and lipid metabolism with n-oxPTH and tPTH. Methods: N-oxPTH was measured in 108 vitamin D-insufficient (25(OH)D <75 nmol/L) hypertensive patients, treated with vitamin D (2800 IE daily) or placebo for 8 weeks in the Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial (NCT02136771). We calculated the treatment effect and performed correlation analyses of n-oxPTH and tPTH with parameters of calcium, bone and lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. Results: After treatment, compared to placebo, 25(OH)D concentrations increased, tPTH decreased by 9% (P < 0.001), n-oxPTH by 7% (P = 0.025) and the ratio of n-oxPTH/tPTH increased (P = 0.027). Changes in phosphate and HDL concentration correlated with changes in n-oxPTH, but not tPTH. Conclusions: tPTH and n-oxPTH decrease upon vitamin D supplementation. Our study suggests that vitamin D supplementation reduces the oxidation of PTH, as we observed a small but significant increase in the non-oxidised proportion of PTH upon treatment. In addition, we found that changes in phosphate and HDL concentration showed a relationship with changes in n-oxPTH, but not tPTH. This may be explained by the biological activity of n-oxPTH. Further research should be carried out to establish the clinical relevance of n-oxPTH.

14.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Vitamin D supplementation may affect glycemic as well as hormonal regulation. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation has any significant effects on metabolic and endocrine parameters in healthy premenopausal women. Primary outcome measure was the plasma glucose area under the curve (AUCgluc). METHODS: The current study was a single-center, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial that was conducted at the Medical University of Graz, Austria, between March 2013 and October 2017. One-hundred and fifty healthy premenopausal women with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations <75 nmol/L once weekly received either 20,000 IU of cholecalciferol or placebo (2:1 ratio) over a total of 24 weeks. RESULTS: In total, 127 women [age 36.2 ± 8.7 years; BMI 25.3 ± 5.6 kg/m2; baseline 25(OH)D 55.8 ± 19.7 nmol/L] completed the study. Vitamin D supplementation had no significant effect on AUCgluc (mean treatment effect 11.70; p = 0.069), while it had a significant treatment effect on homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; mean treatment effect 0.31; p = 0.019) and quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI; mean treatment effect -0.019; p = 0.013). There was no significant effect on the remaining secondary outcome parameters. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized-controlled trial in healthy premenopausal women, there was a significant treatment effect of vitamin D supplementation on HOMA-IR and QUICKI, while there was no significant treatment effect on AUCgluc.

15.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934881

RESUMO

Vitamin D is well known for its effects on calcium and mineral metabolism. However, vitamin D effects on bone turnover markers (BTMs), which are used together with bone mineral density (BMD) to evaluate bone health, are less clear. We therefore examined vitamin D effects on BTMs (beta-cross laps (CTX) and osteocalcin (OC)) and BMD in a post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). This is a post-hoc analysis of the Graz Vitamin D&TT-RCT, a single-center, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial conducted between December 2012 and November 2017 at the endocrine outpatient clinic at the Medical University of Graz, Austria. A total of 200 healthy men with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels <75 nmol/L participated in the trial. Subjects were randomized to receive 20,000 IU of vitamin D3/week (n = 100) or placebo (n = 100) for 12 weeks. Outcome measures were BTMs, BMD, and trabecular bone score (TBS). A total of 192 men (mean age and 25(OH)D: 43 (±13) years and 54.9 (±18.3) nmol/L, respectively) completed the study. We found no significant treatment effect on BTMs, BMD, or TBS (p > 0.05 for all). In middle-aged healthy men, vitamin D treatment for 12 weeks had no significant effect on BTMs or BMD.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/metabolismo
16.
Clin Chem ; 65(7): 849-861, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia has been shown to be a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality, whereas the role of iron metabolism remains controversial. METHODS: We analyzed iron metabolism and its associations with cardiovascular death and total mortality in patients undergoing coronary angiography with a median follow-up of 9.9 years. Hemoglobin and iron status were determined in 1480 patients with stable CAD and in 682 individuals in whom significant CAD had been excluded by angiography. RESULTS: Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for total mortality in the lowest quartiles of iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin were 1.22 (95% CI, 0.96-1.60), 1.23 (95% CI, 0.97-1.56), 1.27 (95% CI, 1.02-1.58), 1.26 (95% CI, 0.97-1.65), and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.79-1.24), respectively, compared to the second or third quartile, which served as reference (1.00) because of a J-shaped association. The corresponding HRs for total mortality in the highest quartiles were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.10-1.87), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.05-1.77), 1.17 (95% CI, 0.92-1.50), 1.76 (95% CI, 1.39-2.22), and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.63-1.09). HRs for cardiovascular death were similar. For hepcidin, the adjusted HRs for total mortality and cardiovascular deaths were 0.62 (95% CI, 0.49-0.78) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.52-0.90) in the highest quartile compared to the lowest one. CONCLUSIONS: In stable patients undergoing angiography, serum iron, transferrin saturation, sTfR, and ferritin had J-shaped associations and hemoglobin only a marginal association with cardiovascular and total mortality. Hepcidin was continuously and inversely related to mortality.

17.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212973, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marinobufagenin (MBG) is an endogenous cardiotonic steroid (CTS) that inhibits the Na+/K+-ATPase. Human MBG is significantly increased in end-stage renal disease and immunization against MBG attenuates cardiovascular fibrosis in a rat model of uremic cardiomyopathy. Mineralocorticoid antagonists (MRA) block MBG binding sites and decrease proteinuria in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We therefore aimed to investigate the association of MBG and albuminuria, as a marker of renal damage, as well as MBG and decline of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). METHODS: The Graz endocrine causes of hypertension (GECOH) study is a single center study of adults routinely referred for screening of endocrine hypertension. Plasma MBG was measured by an enzyme-linked immunoassay, and in a post-hoc analysis, follow-up creatinine levels were obtained. Patients with proteinuria >3.5g/day at baseline were excluded from further evaluation. RESULTS: We measured MBG concentrations in 40 hypertensive subjects and excluded one patient due to pre-existing proteinuria. Plasma MBG was significantly correlated with albuminuria (Spearman ρ = .357; p = .028) and proteinuria (ρ = .336; p = .039). In linear regression analysis, the association remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI (ß = .306; p = .036), and for mean systolic blood pressure (ß = .352; p = .034). In follow-up analyses (N = 30), MBG was significantly associated with decline in GFR after adjustment for time-to-follow-up (ß = -.374; p = .042). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that MBG plasma concentrations were associated with albuminuria as well as decline in kidney function. Whether MBG predicts hard renal endpoints warrants further investigations.


Assuntos
Bufanolídeos/sangue , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Albuminúria/sangue , Albuminúria/fisiopatologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cardiotônicos/sangue , Inibidores Enzimáticos/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteinúria/sangue , Proteinúria/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
18.
Med Princ Pract ; 28(4): 397-400, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A conversion from Hashimoto's thyroiditis to Graves' disease and vice versa leads to diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: A 30-year-old female presented with overt hyperthyroidism and negative thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAbs). Since hashitoxicosis was assumed, the patient was treated with propranolol. Within the next few weeks, the patient developed severe overt hypothyroidism, which was treated with levothyroxine. However, after several more weeks, she presented with overt hyperthyroidism once again, this time showing elevated TRAbs. CONCLUSION: We suggest educating patients and physicians to recognize changes in thyroid function and close monitoring of unclear cases of overt hyperthyroidism.

19.
ESC Heart Fail ; 6(2): 262-270, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784226

RESUMO

AIMS: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in heart failure (HF), but its relevance in early stages of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is unknown. We tested the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] serum levels with mortality, hospitalizations, cardiovascular risk factors, and echocardiographic parameters in patients with asymptomatic diastolic dysfunction (DD) or newly diagnosed HFpEF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured 25(OH)D serum levels in outpatients with risk factors for DD or history of HF derived from the DIAST-CHF study. Participants were comprehensively phenotyped including physical examination, echocardiography, and 6 min walk test and were followed up to 5 years. Quality of life was evaluated by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. We included 787 patients with available 25(OH)D levels. Median 25(OH)D levels were 13.1 ng/mL, mean E/e' medial was 13.2, and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 59.1%. Only 9% (n = 73) showed a left ventricular ejection fraction <50%. Fifteen per cent (n = 119) of the recruited participants had symptomatic HFpEF. At baseline, participants with 25(OH)D levels in the lowest tertile (≤10.9 ng/L; n = 263) were older, more often symptomatic (oedema and fatigue, all P ≤ 0.002) and had worse cardiac [higher N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and left atrial volume index, both P ≤ 0.023], renal (lower glomerular filtration rate, P = 0.012), metabolic (higher uric acid levels, P < 0.001), and functional (reduced exercise capacity, 6 min walk distance, and SF-36 physical functioning score, all P < 0.001) parameters. Increased NT-proBNP, uric acid, and left atrial volume index and decreased SF-36 physical functioning scores were independently associated with lower 25(OH)D levels. There was a higher risk for lower 25(OH)D levels in association with HF, DD, and atrial fibrillation (all P ≤ 0.004), which remained significant after adjusting for age. Lower 25(OH)D levels (per 10 ng/mL decrease) tended to be associated with higher 5 year mortality, P = 0.05, hazard ratio (HR) 1.55 [1.00; 2.42]. Furthermore, lower 25(OH)D levels (per 10 ng/mL decrease) were related to an increased rate of cardiovascular hospitalizations, P = 0.023, HR = 1.74 [1.08; 2.80], and remained significant after adjusting for age, P = 0.046, HR = 1.63 [1.01; 2.64], baseline NT-proBNP, P = 0.048, HR = 1.62 [1.01; 2.61], and other selected baseline characteristics and co-morbidities, P = 0.043, HR = 3.60 [1.04; 12.43]. CONCLUSIONS: Lower 25(OH)D levels were associated with reduced functional capacity in patients with DD or HFpEF and were significantly predictive for an increased rate of cardiovascular hospitalizations, also after adjusting for age, NT-proBNP, and selected baseline characteristics and co-morbidities.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Precursores de Proteínas , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
20.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721411

RESUMO

PURPOSE: For the prevention of nutritional rickets, 400 IU vitamin D daily and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations > 50 nmol/L are recommended, whereas the toxicity threshold is set at 250 nmol/L. We synthesized the evidence for the effect of vitamin D supplementation on incremental 25OHD in infants up to 1 year of age. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention trials in several databases. A total of 87 records were identified for full-text review and 27 articles with 61 studies were included in the final analysis. RESULTS: The selected 61 studies included 1828 participants. Nineteen cohorts had already mean baseline 25OHD levels ≥ 50 nmol/L. The weighted mean difference in 25OHD following vitamin D supplementation was + 49.4 nmol/L (95% CI 43.6-55.3 nmol/L; P < 0.001). The increment was dose-dependent (P = 0.002), was higher in full-term than in pre-term infants (P < 0.001), was higher in infants with baseline 25OHD < 50 nmol/L as compared to ≥ 50 nmol/L (P = 0.001), and was marginally influenced by the 25OHD test procedure (P = 0.080). Vitamin D3 doses of 400 IU/day were sufficient to achieve 25OHD concentrations ≥ 50 nmol/L in most full-term infants. A 25OHD level of 250 nmol/L was not exceeded in ≥ 97.5% of infants at doses between 200 and 1200 IU/day, but potentially in ≥ 2.5% of infants at a dose of 1600 IU/day. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation of 400 IU/day is sufficient for achieving 25OHD concentrations able to prevent nutritional rickets. A more personalized vitamin D dosing strategy would require 25OHD testing, but also assay standardization.

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