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1.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4681, 2018 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549266

RESUMO

Friction force microscopy (FFM) in aqueous environments has recently proven to be a very effective method for lattice-resolution imaging of crystal surfaces. Here we demonstrate the use of ethanol for similar measurements on water-soluble materials. Lattice resolved frictional stick-slip traces of a cleaved NaCl(100) surface submerged in ethanol are compared with previous obtained FFM results in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). We use the Prandtl-Tomlinson framework to estimate the amplitude of the corrugation potential and the contact stiffness. The surface potential amplitude scales with the applied normal loads are in good agreement with data obtained for NaCl measured under UHV conditions, but demonstrates deviations from the ideal periodic potential given by the Prandtl-Tomlinson model. An additional finding is that the use of ethanol allows us to explore higher load ranges without detectable evidence of surface wear. The contact stiffness does not vary significantly with the normal load up to 38 nN, while above it a sudden increase by almost one order of magnitude was observed. Comparing this to previous results suggests that considerable atom rearrangements may occur in the contact region, although the (100) surface structure is preserved by ethanol-assisted diffusion of Na and Cl ions.

2.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 12728, 2017 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28983081

RESUMO

Currently a basic tenet in biomineralization is that biominerals grow by accretion of amorphous particles, which are later transformed into the corresponding mineral phase. The globular nanostructure of most biominerals is taken as evidence of this. Nevertheless, little is known as to how the amorphous-to-crystalline transformation takes place. To gain insight into this process, we have made a high-resolution study (by means of transmission electron microscopy and other associated techniques) of immature tablets of nacre of the gastropod Phorcus turbinatus, where the proportion of amorphous calcium carbonate is high. Tablets displayed a characteristic nanoglobular structure, with the nanoglobules consisting of an aragonite core surrounded by amorphous calcium carbonate together with organic macromolecules. The changes in composition from the amorphous to the crystalline phase indicate that there was a higher content of organic molecules within the former phase. Within single tablets, the crystalline cores were largely co-oriented. According to their outlines, the internal transformation front of the tablets took on a complex digitiform shape, with the individual fingers constituting the crystalline cores of nanogranules. We propose that the final nanogranular structure observed is produced during the transformation of ACC into aragonite.

3.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 28(13): 134002, 2016 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26931487

RESUMO

Organic semiconductors (OSC) are attracting much interest for (opto)electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, LEDs, sensors or solid state lasers. In particular, crystals formed by small π-conjugated molecules have shown to be suitable for constructing OSC devices. However, the (opto)electronic properties are complex since they depend strongly on both the mutual orientation of molecules as well as the perfection of bulk crystal surfaces. Hence, there is an urgent need to control nano-topographic OSC features in real space. Here we show that friction force microscopy in water is a very suitable technique to image the free surface morphology of an OSC single crystal (TDDCS) with sub-nanometer resolution. We demonstrate the power of the method by direct correlation to the structural information extracted from combined single crystal (SC-) and specular (s-) XRD studies, which allows us to identify the pinning centers encountered in the stick-slip motion of the probing tip with the topmost methyl groups on the TDDCS surface.

4.
ACS Nano ; 10(4): 4288-93, 2016 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26982997

RESUMO

The sliding of a sharp nanotip on graphene completely immersed in water is investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) and atomic force microscopy. MD simulations predict that the atomic-scale stick-slip is almost identical to that found in ultrahigh vacuum. Furthermore, they show that water plays a purely stochastic role in sliding (solid-to-solid) friction. These observations are substantiated by friction measurements on graphene grown on Cu and Ni, where, oppositely of the operation in air, lattice resolution is readily achieved. Our results promote friction force microscopy in water as a robust alternative to ultra-high-vacuum measurements.

5.
Acta Crystallogr A Found Adv ; 72(Pt 1): 81-4, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26697870

RESUMO

A careful inspection of the drawings and baked clay models created by the mineralogist Romé de L'Isle in the 18th century has revealed the existence of a number of intriguing forms with pentagonal symmetries. These forms cannot be classified in any of the 32 crystal classes. They can thus be considered the first crystallographic descriptions of polyhedral forms found in quasicrystals two centuries later. This paper presents a symmetry analysis of the fascinating drawings and clay models with pentagonal symmetries described in the book Cristallographie published in 1783 by Romé de L'Isle, as well as a comparison with quasicrystals recently synthesized. The paper also briefly discusses what could induce Romé de L'Isle to consider forms with pentagonal symmetries as plausible crystal forms.

6.
Nanoscale ; 6(14): 8334-9, 2014 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24932960

RESUMO

The reliability of ultrathin organic layers as active components for molecular electronic devices depends ultimately on an accurate characterization of the layer morphology and ability to withstand mechanical stresses on the nanoscale. To this end, since the molecular layers need to be electrically decoupled using thick insulating substrates, the use of AFM becomes mandatory. Here, we show how friction force microscopy (FFM) in water allows us to identify the orientation of copper(ii)phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules previously self-assembled on a dolomite (104) mineral surface in ultra-high vacuum. The molecular features observed in the friction images show that the CuPc molecules are stacked in parallel rows with no preferential orientation with respect to the dolomite lattice, while the stacking features resemble well the single CuPc crystal structure. This proves that the substrate induction is low and makes friction force microscopy in water a suitable alternative to more demanding dynamic AFM techniques in ultra-high vacuum.

8.
J Struct Biol ; 183(3): 368-376, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23933391

RESUMO

Nacre tablets of mollusks develop two kinds of features when either the calcium carbonate or the organic portions are removed: (1) parallel lineations (vermiculations) formed by elongated carbonate rods, and (2) hourglass patterns, which appear in high relief when etched or in low relief if bleached. In untreated tablets, SEM and AFM data show that vermiculations correspond to aligned and fused aragonite nanogloblules, which are partly surrounded by thin organic pellicles. EBSD mapping of the surfaces of tablets indicates that the vermiculations are invariably parallel to the crystallographic a-axis of aragonite and that the triangles are aligned with the b-axis and correspond to the advance of the {010} faces during the growth of the tablet. According to our interpretation, the vermiculations appear because organic molecules during growth are expelled from the a-axis, where the Ca-CO3 bonds are the shortest. In this way, the subunits forming nacre merge uninterruptedly, forming chains parallel to the a-axis, whereas the organic molecules are expelled to the sides of these chains. Hourglass patterns would be produced by preferential adsorption of organic molecules along the {010}, as compared to the {100} faces. A model is presented for the nanostructure of nacre tablets. SEM and EBSD data also show the existence within the tablets of nanocrystalline units, which are twinned on {110} with the rest of the tablet. Our study shows that the growth dynamics of nacre tablets (and bioaragonite in general) results from the interaction at two different and mutually related levels: tablets and nanogranules.


Assuntos
Bivalves/ultraestrutura , Nácar/química , Animais , Bivalves/metabolismo , Cristalização , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nácar/metabolismo , Propriedades de Superfície
9.
J R Soc Interface ; 10(86): 20130425, 2013 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23804442

RESUMO

The calcitic prismatic units forming the outer shell of the bivalve Pinctada margaritifera have been analysed using scanning electron microscopy-electron back-scatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In the initial stages of growth, the individual prismatic units are single crystals. Their crystalline orientation is not consistent but rather changes gradually during growth. The gradients in crystallographic orientation occur mainly in a direction parallel to the long axis of the prism, i.e. perpendicular to the shell surface and do not show preferential tilting along any of the calcite lattice axes. At a certain growth stage, gradients begin to spread and diverge, implying that the prismatic units split into several crystalline domains. In this way, a branched crystal, in which the ends of the branches are independent crystalline domains, is formed. At the nanometre scale, the material is composed of slightly misoriented domains, which are separated by planes approximately perpendicular to the c-axis. Orientational gradients and splitting processes are described in biocrystals for the first time and are undoubtedly related to the high content of intracrystalline organic molecules, although the way in which these act to induce the observed crystalline patterns is a matter of future research.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto/metabolismo , Exoesqueleto/ultraestrutura , Carbonato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Pinctada/metabolismo , Pinctada/ultraestrutura , Animais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/métodos
10.
Nanotechnology ; 24(5): 055702, 2013 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23307038

RESUMO

We have investigated the morphology and structure of dolomite MgCa(CO(3))(2)(104) surfaces by bimodal dynamic force microscopy with flexural and torsional resonance modes in ultra-high vacuum at room temperature. We found that the surface slowly decomposes by degassing CO(2) in a vacuum and becomes covered by amorphous clusters, presumably MgO and CaO. By choosing an optimal sample preparation procedure (i.e. cleaving in a vacuum and mild annealing for stabilizing clusters for a short time), atomically clean surfaces were obtained. The complex tip-sample interaction, arising from carbonate groups and Mg and Ca atoms of the surface, induces a large variety of atomic-scale imaging features.

11.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 361(1804): 615-31; discussion 632, 2003 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12662457

RESUMO

The study of nucleation and growth mechanisms of salts from aqueous solutions, as a function of supersaturation, is described using both macroscopic and microscopic experiments. In situ observations in a fluid cell in an atomic force microscope (AFM) reveal phenomena not accounted for in standard crystal-growth theories, specifically on the role of the crystal structure of the substrate in controlling spiral growth and two-dimensional nucleation. As a model example, the crystallization of two isostructural salts, BaSO(4) and SrSO(4), is described. The growth of solid-solution crystals is considerably more complex. The supersaturation of a given aqueous solution relative to a solid solution is different with respect to each solid composition, and it leads to the possibility that different compositions can simultaneously grow by different mechanisms on the same crystal face. Oscillatory compositional zoning is another consequence of the interplay between the thermodynamics and the kinetics of nucleation. The factors which control nucleation and growth of the solid solution (Ba,Sr)SO(4) from an aqueous solution are described. The predictions made from the theory are compared with direct observations of crystal growth in an AFM.


Assuntos
Cristalização , Água/química , Sulfato de Bário/química , Cinética , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Fenômenos Físicos , Física , Estrôncio/química , Sulfatos/química , Termodinâmica
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