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Free Radic Biol Med ; 176: 312-321, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610363


Vitamin E comprises a group of vitamers that includes tocopherols and tocotrienols. They occur in four homologues according to the number and position of methyl groups attached to the chromanol ring. Vitamin E, a liposoluble antioxidant, may participate as an adjuvant in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, neurological, and aging-related diseases. Furthermore, vitamin E has applications in the food industry as a natural additive. In this contribution, the most recent information on the dietary sources of vitamin E, including common, novel, and unexplored sources, is presented. Common edible oils, such as those of corn, olive, palm, rice bran, and peanut, represent the most prominent sources of vitamin E. However, specialty and underutilized oils such as those obtained from tree nuts, fruit seeds, and by-products, emerge as novel sources of this important micronutrient. Complementary studies should examine the tocotrienol content of vitamin E dietary sources to better understand the different biological functions of these vitamers.

Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199457


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemical compounds comprised of carbon and hydrogen molecules in a cyclic arrangement. PAHs are associated with risks to human health, especially carcinogenesis. One form of exposure to these compounds is through ingestion of contaminated food, which can occur during preparation and processing involving high temperatures (e.g., grilling, smoking, toasting, roasting, and frying) as well as through PAHs present in the soil, air, and water (i.e., environmental pollution). Differently from changes caused by microbiological characteristics and lipid oxidation, consumers cannot sensorially perceive PAH contamination in food products, thereby hindering their ability to reject these foods. Herein, the occurrence and biological effects of PAHs were comprehensively explored, as well as analytical methods to monitor their levels, legislations, and strategies to reduce their generation in food products. This review updates the current knowledge and addresses recent regulation changes concerning the widespread PAHs contamination in several types of food, often surpassing the concentration limits deemed acceptable by current legislations. Therefore, effective measures involving different food processing strategies are needed to prevent and reduce PAHs contamination, thereby decreasing human exposure and detrimental health effects. Furthermore, gaps in literature have been addressed to provide a basis for future studies.

Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Benzopirenos/efeitos adversos , Carcinogênese/genética , Carvão Vegetal/efeitos adversos , Culinária , Adutos de DNA/efeitos adversos , Análise de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos