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1.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111975, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478722

RESUMO

We used a large national cohort in Canada to assess the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke hospitalizations in association with long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3). The study population comprised 2.7 million respondents from the 2006 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC), followed for incident hospitalizations of AMI or stroke between 2006 and 2016. We estimated 10-year moving average estimates of PM2.5, NO2, and O3, annually. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the associations adjusting for various covariates. For AMI, each interquartile range (IQR) increase in exposure was found to be associated with a hazard ratio of 1.026 (95% CI: 1.007-1.046) for PM2.5, 1.025 (95% CI: 1.001-1.050) for NO2, and 1.062 (95% CI: 1.041-1.084) for O3, respectively. Similarly, for stroke, an IQR increase in exposure was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.078 (95% CI: 1.052-1.105) for PM2.5, 0.995 (95% CI: 0.965-1.030) for NO2, and 1.055 (95% CI: 1.028-1.082) for O3, respectively. We found consistent evidence of positive associations between long-term exposures to PM2.5, and O3, and to a lesser degree NO2, with incident AMI and stroke hospitalizations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Infarto do Miocárdio , Ozônio , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
2.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt C): 112344, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, several studies have reported that residential proximity to vegetation, or 'greenness', is associated with improved birth outcomes, including for term birth weight (TBW), preterm birth (PTB), and small for gestational age (SGA). However, there remain several uncertainties about these possible benefits including the role of air pollution, and the extent to they are influenced socioeconomic status. METHODS: We addressed these gaps using a national population-based study of 2.2 million singleton live births in Canadian metropolitan areas between 1999 and 2008. Exposures to greenness, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were assigned to infants using the postal code of their mother's residence at the time of birth. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to characterize greenness, while estimates of ambient PM2.5 and NO2 were estimated using remote sensing, and a national land-use regression surface, respectively. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to describe associations between residential greenness and the birth outcomes. Stratified analyses explored whether these associations were modified by neighbourhood measures of socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Mothers who lived in greener areas had a lower risk of low TBW, PTB, and SGA babies. These associations persisted after adjustment for ambient NO2 and PM2.5. Specifically, in fully adjusted models, an interquartile range (IQR = 0.16) increase in the NDVI within a residential buffer of 250 m yielded odds ratios of 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92, 0.94), 0.94 (95% CI: 0.92, 0.95), and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.95) for the outcomes of PTB, low TBW, and SGA, respectively. Similarly, an IQR increase in greenness was associated with a 16.3 g (95% CI: 15.3, 17.4) increase in TBW. We found inverse associations between greenness and the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes regardless of the socioeconomic status of the neighbourhood. INTERPRETATION: Our findings support the hypothesis that residential greenness contributes to healthier pregnancies, that these associations are independent from exposure to air pollution. , and that proximity to greenness benefits all mothers regardless of socioeconomic status.

3.
Environ Epidemiol ; 5(6): e180, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909560

RESUMO

Background: Associations between mortality and exposure to ambient air pollution are usually explored using concentrations of residential outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) to estimate individual exposure. Such studies all have an important limitation in that they do not capture data on individual mobility throughout the day to areas where concentrations may be substantially different, leading to possible exposure misclassification. We examine the possible role of outdoor PM2.5 concentrations at work for a large population-based mortality cohort. Methods: Using the 2001 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC), we created a time-weighted average that incorporates employment hours worked in the past week and outdoor PM2.5 concentration at work and home. We used a Cox proportional hazard model with a 15-year follow-up (2001 to 2016) to explore whether inclusion of workplace estimates had an impact on hazard ratios for mortality for this cohort. Results: Hazard ratios relying on outdoor PM2.5 concentration at home were not significantly different from those using a time-weighted estimate, for the full cohort, nor for those who commute to a regular workplace. When exploring cohort subgroups according to neighborhood type and commute distance, there was a notable but insignificant change in risk of nonaccidental death for those living in car-oriented neighborhoods, and with commutes greater than 10 km. Conclusions: Risk analyses performed with large cohorts in low-pollution environments do not seem to be biased if relying solely on outdoor PM2.5 concentrations at home to estimate exposure.

4.
BMJ ; 375: n2368, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between changes in long term residential exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and premature mortality in Canada. DESIGN: Population based quasi-experimental study. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 663 100 respondents to the 1996, 2001, and 2006 Canadian censuses aged 25-89 years who had consistently lived in areas with either high or low PM2.5 levels over five years preceding census day and moved during the ensuing five years. INTERVENTIONS: Changes in long term exposure to PM2.5 arising from residential mobility. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was deaths from natural causes. Secondary outcomes were deaths from any cardiometabolic cause, any respiratory cause, and any cancer cause. All outcomes were obtained from the national vital statistics database. RESULTS: Using a propensity score matching technique with numerous personal, socioeconomic, health, and environment related covariates, each participant who moved to a different PM2.5 area was matched with up to three participants who moved within the same PM2.5 area. In the matched groups that moved from high to intermediate or low PM2.5 areas, residential mobility was associated with a decline in annual PM2.5 exposure from 10.6 µg/m3 to 7.4 and 5.0 µg/m3, respectively. Conversely, in the matched groups that moved from low to intermediate or high PM2.5 areas, annual PM2.5 increased from 4.6 µg/m3 to 6.7 and 9.2 µg/m3. Five years after moving, individuals who experienced a reduction in exposure to PM2.5 from high to intermediate levels showed a 6.8% (95% confidence interval 1.7% to 11.7%) reduction in mortality (2510 deaths in 56 025 v 4925 deaths in 101 960). A greater decline in mortality occurred among those exposed to a larger reduction in PM2.5. Increased mortality was found with exposure to PM2.5 from low to high levels, and to a lesser degree from low to intermediate levels. Furthermore, the decreases in PM2.5 exposure were most strongly associated with reductions in cardiometabolic deaths, whereas the increases in PM2.5 exposure were mostly related to respiratory deaths. No strong evidence was found for the changes in PM2.5 exposure with cancer related deaths. CONCLUSIONS: In Canada, decreases in PM2.5 were associated with lower mortality, whereas increases in PM2.5 were associated with higher mortality. These results were observed at PM2.5 levels considerably lower than many other countries, providing support for continuously improving air quality.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Mortalidade Prematura , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Censos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Environ Int ; 157: 106817, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the health effects of air pollution. However, the relationships between ozone exposure and mortality attributable to neurological diseases remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess associations of long-term exposure to ozone with death from Parkinson's disease, dementia, stroke, and multiple sclerosis. METHODS: Our analyses were based on the 2001 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort. Census participants were linked with vital statistics records through 2016, resulting in a cohort of 3.5 million adults/51,045,700 person-years, with 8,500/51,300/43,300/1,300 deaths from Parkinson's/dementia/stroke/multiple sclerosis, respectively. Ten-year average ozone concentrations estimated by chemical transport models and adjusted by ground measurements were assigned to subjects based on postal codes. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for deaths from the four neurological diseases, adjusting for eight common demographic and socioeconomic factors, seven environmental indexes, and six contextual covariates. RESULTS: The fully adjusted HRs for Parkinson's, dementia, stroke, and multiple sclerosis mortalities related to one interquartile range increase in ozone (10.1 ppb), were 1.09 (95% confidence interval 1.04-1.14), 1.08 (1.06-1.10), 1.06 (1.04-1.09), and 1.35 (1.20-1.51), respectively. The covariates did not influence significance of the ozone-mortality associations, except airshed (i.e., broad region of Canada). During the period of 2001-2016, 5.66%/5.01%/ 3.77%/19.11% of deaths from Parkinson's/dementia/stroke/multiple sclerosis, respectively, were attributable to ozone exposure. CONCLUSIONS: We found positive associations between ozone exposure and mortality due to Parkinson's, dementia, stroke, and multiple sclerosis.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Canadá/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Mortalidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise
6.
Health Rep ; 32(5): 3-14, 2021 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residential greenness has been associated with health benefits, such as lower risk of mortality, cardiovascular disease, obesity, adverse birth outcomes and asthma and better psychological health. However, the variation in greenness across socioeconomic and demographic characteristics in urban areas of Canada has not been well documented. DATA AND METHODS: Respondents to the 2016 Census long-form questionnaire were assigned estimates of exposure to residential greenness based on the mean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (from 2012 or the most recent year available) within a 500 m buffer around their home, based on postal code. Census weights were used to determine differences in average exposure to greenness according to selected demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. RESULTS: Mean residential greenness among the 5.3 million census respondents in urban Canada was 0.44 units of the NDVI (standard deviation = 0.18 units). Greenness was lower among immigrants (particularly recent immigrants), some groups designated as visible minorities (particularly people of Filipino ancestry), lower-income households and tenants (i.e., NDVI values ranging from 0.40 to 0.43 units). Greenness values were highest among White non-immigrants and higher-income households (i.e., NDVI values ranging from 0.46 to 0.47 units). DISCUSSION: Given the potentially multifaceted role that greenness plays in health outcomes, the inequalities in residential greenness described here may contribute to producing or exacerbating existing health inequalities in the Canadian population.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Renda , Canadá , Censos , Humanos , Obesidade
7.
Environ Res ; 199: 111302, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019894

RESUMO

Owing to their greater outdoor activity and ongoing lung development, children are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5). However, the effects of PM2.5 components are poorly understood. This study aimed to use a longitudinal birth cohort of children with physician-diagnosed incident asthma to investigate the effect of PM2.5 components at birth on morbidity measured by health services utilization. Of 1277 Toronto Child Health Evaluation Questionnaire (T-CHEQ) participants, the study population included 362 children diagnosed with asthma who were followed for a mean of 13 years from birth until March 31, 2016, or loss-to-follow-up. Concentrations of PM2.5 and its components were assigned based on participants' postal codes at birth. Study outcomes included counts of asthma, asthma-related, and all-cause health services use. Poisson regression in single-, two-, and multi-pollutant models was used to estimate rate ratios (RR) per interquartile range (IQR) increase of exposures. Covariates were included in all models to further adjust for potential confounding. The adjusted RR for sulfate (SO4) and all-cause hospitalizations was statistically significant with RR = 2.23 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-3.96) in a multi-pollutant model with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). In multi-pollutant models with oxidants, the adjusted RRs for SO4 of all-cause hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits were also statistically significant with RR = 2.31 (95% CI: 1.32-4.03) and RR = 1.39 (95% CI: 1.02-1.90), respectively. While unadjusted single-pollutant RRs for asthma-specific and asthma-related health services use with the SO4 component of PM2.5 were above one, none were statistically significant. This study found significant associations with exposure to SO4 in PM2.5 and all-cause acute care, chiefly for hospitalizations, in children with asthma.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
8.
Environ Res ; 192: 110267, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residential proximity to greenness in urban areas has been shown to confer a number of health benefits, including improved mental health. We investigated whether greenness was associated with self-reported stress, distress, and mental health among adult participants of multiple cycles of a national Canadian health survey, and whether these associations varied by sex, age, income, and neighbourhood characteristics. METHODS: Our study population included 397,900 participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey, 18 years of age or older, who lived in census metropolitan areas between 2000 and 2015. We used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to characterize participants' exposure to greenness within 250 m, 500 m, and 1 km buffers from a representative location of their postal code. Health outcomes included: self-reported perceptions of life stress, psychological distress, and self-rated mental health. We used multiple regression models, adjusted for relevant individual and neighbourhood-level variables to estimate associations (and 95% confidence intervals) between each outcome and exposure to greenness. FINDINGS: In models with all participants, we observed 6% lower odds of poor self-rated mental health per increase in the interquartile range (i.e., 0.12) of NDVI within a 500 m buffer. Across the three outcomes, we found substantial heterogeneity in effect size across categories of sex, age, and community-level indicators of deprivation and urban form. For example, each incremental increase in greenness exposure was associated with a reduction of 0.61 (95% CI: 0.81 to -0.51) on the K10 psychological distress score among those living in the active core of cities, and with an increase of 0.07 (95% CI: 0.03-0.12) on this score among those living in the most suburban areas. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the potential benefits of residential greenness on mental health vary across personal and neighbourhood-level characteristics and are sensitive to how the outcome is measured. Additional research is needed to understand which features of greenness are most relevant to different sub-groups of the population to maximize these health benefits.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Cidades , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
9.
Health Rep ; 31(7): 3-11, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing number of epidemiological studies have linked air pollution exposure to psychological conditions. Laboratory studies indicate that air pollutants can activate the neuroendocrine stress axis and modulate stress hormone levels, which could contribute to the development or exacerbation of psychological distress. The present study examined the spatial associations between air pollutants (fine particulate matter [PM2.5], nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and ground-level ozone [O3]) and psychological distress among subjects in the most populous provinces in Canada. DATA AND METHODS: Subjects were sampled from the Canadian Community Health Survey in three regions (Quebec in 2005 [n=25,800], British Columbia and Alberta in 2005 [n=23,000], and Ontario in 2011 [n=36,000]), and were assigned estimates of annual exposure to three ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, NO2 and O3) for the same years. Individual psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), based on anxiety and depressive symptoms in the past month. Regression models (both ordinary least squares and simultaneous autoregressive models) were applied to estimate associations between K10 distress scores and each air pollutant, after adjusting for individual (demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural) and neighbourhood covariates.. RESULTS: Psychological distress was positively associated with PM2.5 and NO2 in all three regions, and with O3 in Quebec. However, after further adjusting for individual and neighbourhood covariates, the associations between distress and air pollution remained statistically significant only in Quebec. DISCUSSION: Some evidence for positive associations between psychological distress and ambient air pollution after adjusting for spatial autocorrelation was found.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Colúmbia Britânica , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Quebeque , Autorrelato , Análise Espacial
10.
Environ Res ; 191: 109973, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individual and neighbourhood-scale socioeconomic characteristics modify associations between exposure to air pollution and mortality. The role of stress, which may integrate effects of social and environmental exposures on health, is unknown. We examined whether an individual's perspective on their own well-being, as assessed using self-rated measures of stress and health, modifies the pollutant-mortality relationship. METHODS: The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)-mortality cohort includes respondents from surveys administered between 2001 and 2012 linked to vital statistics and postal codes from 1981 until 2016. Annual fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) exposure estimates were attached to a sample of cohort members aged 30-89 years (n = 398,300 respondents/3,848,400 person-years). We examined whether self-rated stress, distress, mental health, and general health modified associations between long-term exposure to each pollutant (three-year moving average with one-year lag) and non-accidental mortality using Cox survival models, adjusted for individual- (i.e. socioeconomic and behavioural) and neighbourhood-scale covariates. RESULTS: In fully-adjusted models, the relationship between exposure to pollutants and mortality was stronger among those with poor self-rated mental health, including a significant difference for NO2 (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.25 per IQR) compared to those with very good/excellent mental health (HR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.08; Cochran's Q = 4.01; p < 0.05). Poor self-rated health was similarly associated with higher pollutant-associated HRs, but only in unadjusted models. Stress and distress did not modify pollutant-mortality associations. CONCLUSIONS: Poor self-rated mental and general health were associated with increased mortality attributed to exposure to ambient pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Ozônio , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Canadá , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
11.
Health Rep ; 31(3): 3-13, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postal codes are often the only geographic identifier available to match subjects in a health dataset to census geography. This paper describes the characteristics of postal codes reported by the Canadian population on the census and, as an indicator of geocoding accuracy, the proportion that are linked to a single dissemination area (DA). DATA AND METHODS: Postal codes reported on the 2016 Census questionnaire were matched to a combination of the Postal Code Conversion File (PCCF) and the Postal Code Conversion File Plus (PCCF+ version 7B) (reference date November 2018) to calculate population-weighted counts and the number of matches to DAs by province or territory, delivery mode type (DMT), population centre or rural area size, and census metropolitan area. The number of single matches to census tracts (CTs), census subdivisions (CSDs) and census divisions (CDs) was also calculated. RESULTS: In Canada, 72.6% of the population reported postal codes that matched to a single DA. This proportion was higher in urban cores (87.1%) and among postal codes for an urban street address (DMT=A) (85.3%) or apartment building (DMT=B) (95.3%), and was lower in rural areas (26.2% to 38.1%) and among rural postal codes (13.9%). In comparison, 89.3% and 95.4% of the population reported postal codes matching to a single CSD or CD, respectively, while 92.1% of the population that live within CT boundaries were matched to a single CT. DISCUSSION: Matching postal codes to census geography is relatively accurate and frequently one to one in urban centres. In rural areas and for some types of postal code DMTs, alternative approaches to using the PCCF and PCCF+ for attaching census geography might be explored.


Assuntos
Censos , Mapeamento Geográfico , Geografia , Canadá , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Health Rep ; 31(3): 14-26, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immigrants make up 20% of the Canadian population; however, little is known about the mortality impacts of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution on immigrants compared with non-immigrants, or about how impacts may change with duration in Canada. DATA AND METHODS: This study used the 2001 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort, a longitudinal cohort of 3.5 million individuals, of which 764,000 were classified as immigrants (foreign-born). Postal codes from annual income tax files were used to account for mobility among respondents and to assign annual PM2.5 concentrations from 1998 to 2016. Exposures were estimated as a three-year moving average prior to the follow-up year. Cox survival models were used to determine hazard ratios (HRs) for cause-specific mortality, comparing the Canadian and foreign-born populations, with further stratification by year of immigration grouped into 10-year cohorts. RESULTS: Differences in urban-rural settlement patterns resulted in greater exposure to PM2.5 for immigrants compared with non-immigrants (mean = 9.3 vs. 7.5 µg/m3), with higher exposures among more recent immigrants. In fully adjusted models, immigrants had higher HRs per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration compared with Canadian-born individuals for cardiovascular mortality (HR [95% confidence interval] = 1.22 [1.12 to 1.34] vs. 1.12 [1.07 to 1.18]) and cerebrovascular mortality (HR = 1.25 [1.03 to 1.52] vs. 1.03 [0.93 to 1.15]), respectively. However, tests for differences between the two groups were not significant when Cochran's Q test was used. No significant associations were found for respiratory outcomes, except for lung cancer in non-immigrants (HR = 1.10 [1.02 to 1.18]). When stratified by year of immigration, differences in HRs across varied by cause of death. DISCUSSION: In Canada, PM2.5 is an equal-opportunity risk factor, with immigrants experiencing similar if not higher mortality risks compared with non-immigrants for cardiovascular-related causes of death. Some notable differences also existed with cerebrovascular and lung cancer deaths. Continued reductions in air pollution, particularly in urban areas, will improve the health of the Canadian population as a whole.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Censos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Canadá/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , População Urbana
13.
Epidemiology ; 31(2): 168-176, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The temporal and spatial scales of exposure assessment may influence observed associations between fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) and mortality, but few studies have systematically examined this question. METHODS: We followed 2.4 million adults in the 2001 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort for nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality between 2001 and 2011. We assigned PM2.5 exposures to residential locations using satellite-based estimates and compared three different temporal moving averages (1, 3, and 8 years) and three spatial scales (1, 5, and 10 km) of exposure assignment. In addition, we examined different spatial scales based on age, employment status, and urban/rural location, and adjustment for O3, NO2, or their combined oxidant capacity (Ox). RESULTS: In general, longer moving averages resulted in stronger associations between PM2.5 and mortality. For nonaccidental mortality, we observed a hazard ratio of 1.11 (95% CI = 1.08, 1.13) for the 1-year moving average compared with 1.23 (95% CI = 1.20, 1.27) for the 8-year moving average. Respiratory and lung cancer mortality were most sensitive to the spatial scale of exposure assessment with stronger associations observed at smaller spatial scales. Adjustment for oxidant gases attenuated associations between PM2.5 and cardiovascular mortality and strengthened associations with lung cancer. Despite these variations, PM2.5 was associated with increased mortality in nearly all of the models examined. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support a relationship between outdoor PM2.5 and mortality at low concentrations and highlight the importance of longer-exposure windows, more spatially resolved exposure metrics, and adjustment for oxidant gases in characterizing this relationship.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Exposição Ambiental , Mortalidade , Material Particulado , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Mortalidade/tendências , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Análise Espaço-Temporal
14.
Eur Respir J ; 55(2)2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806712

RESUMO

RATIONALE: There is growing evidence that air pollution may contribute to the development of childhood asthma and other allergic diseases. In this follow-up of the Toronto Child Health Evaluation Questionnaire (T-CHEQ) study, we examined associations between early life exposures to air pollution and incidence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema from birth through adolescence. METHODS: 1286 T-CHEQ participants were followed from birth until outcome (March 31, 2016) or loss to follow-up, with a mean of 17 years of follow-up. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3) and particulate matter with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm (PM2.5) from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2012 were assigned to participants based on their postal codes at birth using ground observations, chemical/meteorological models, remote sensing and land-use regression models. Study outcomes included incidence of physician-diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios per interquartile range of exposures and outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Hazard ratios of 1.17 (95% CI 1.05-1.31) for asthma and 1.07 (95% CI 0.99-1.15) for eczema were observed for total oxidants (O3 and NO2) at birth. No significant increase in risk was found for PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS: Exposures to oxidant air pollutants (O3 and NO2) but not PM2.5 were associated with an increased risk of incident asthma and eczema in children. This suggests that improving air quality may contribute to the prevention of asthma and other allergic disease in childhood and adolescence.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Eczema , Rinite Alérgica , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Criança , Eczema/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia
15.
Health Rep ; 30(12): 18-26, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851369

RESUMO

The Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohorts (CanCHECs) are population-based linked datasets of the household population at the time of census collection. The CanCHECs combine data from respondents to the long-form census or the National Household Survey between 1991 and 2011 with administrative health data (e.g., mortality, cancer incidence, hospitalizations, emergency ambulatory care) and annual mailing address postal codes. The CanCHEC datasets are rich national data resources that can be used to measure and examine health inequalities across socioeconomic and ethnocultural dimensions for different periods and locations. These datasets can also be used to examine the effects of exposure to environmental factors on human health. Because of their large size, the CanCHECs are an excellent resource for examining rare health outcomes and small population groups. They are ideally suited for environmental health research because of their geographic coverage across all regions of Canada, their long follow-up periods and their linkage to annual postal code history.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Censos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial , Adulto Jovem
16.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(10): 107008, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particulate air pollution with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) is an important contributor to the global burden of disease. Information on the shape of the concentration-response relationship at low concentrations is critical for estimating this burden, setting air quality standards, and in benefits assessments. OBJECTIVES: We examined the concentration-response relationship between PM2.5 and nonaccidental mortality in three Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohorts (CanCHECs) based on the 1991, 1996, and 2001 census cycles linked to mobility and mortality data. METHODS: Census respondents were linked with death records through 2016, resulting in 8.5 million adults, 150 million years of follow-up, and 1.5 million deaths. Using annual mailing address, we assigned time-varying contextual variables and 3-y moving-average ambient PM2.5 at a 1×1 km spatial resolution from 1988 to 2015. We ran Cox proportional hazards models for PM2.5 adjusted for eight subject-level indicators of socioeconomic status, seven contextual covariates, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and combined oxidative potential. We used three statistical methods to examine the shape of the concentration-response relationship between PM2.5 and nonaccidental mortality. RESULTS: The mean 3-y annual average estimate of PM2.5 exposure ranged from 6.7 to 8.0 µg/m3 over the three cohorts. We estimated a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.053 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.041, 1.065] per 10-µg/m3 change in PM2.5 after pooling the three cohort-specific hazard ratios, with some variation between cohorts (1.041 for the 1991 and 1996 cohorts and 1.084 for the 2001 cohort). We observed a supralinear association in all three cohorts. The lower bound of the 95% CIs exceeded unity for all concentrations in the 1991 cohort, for concentrations above 2 µg/m3 in the 1996 cohort, and above 5 µg/m3 in the 2001 cohort. DISCUSSION: In a very large population-based cohort with up to 25 y of follow-up, PM2.5 was associated with nonaccidental mortality at concentrations as low as 5 µg/m3. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5204.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade/tendências , Material Particulado , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Censos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Ozônio , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
17.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 84, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 2.9 million deaths are attributed to ambient fine particle air pollution around the world each year (PM2.5). In general, cohort studies of mortality and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations have limited information on individuals exposed to low levels of PM2.5 as well as covariates such as smoking behaviours, alcohol consumption, and diet which may confound relationships with mortality. This study provides an updated and extended analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mortality cohort: a population-based cohort with detailed PM2.5 exposure data and information on a number of important individual-level behavioural risk factors. We also used this rich dataset to provide insight into the shape of the concentration-response curve for mortality at low levels of PM2.5. METHODS: Respondents to the Canadian Community Health Survey from 2000 to 2012 were linked by postal code history from 1981 to 2016 to high resolution PM2.5 exposure estimates, and mortality incidence to 2016. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the relationship between non-accidental mortality and ambient PM2.5 concentrations (measured as a three-year average with a one-year lag) adjusted for socio-economic, behavioural, and time-varying contextual covariates. RESULTS: In total, 50,700 deaths from non-accidental causes occurred in the cohort over the follow-up period. Annual average ambient PM2.5 concentrations were low (i.e. 5.9 µg/m3, s.d. 2.0) and each 10 µg/m3 increase in exposure was associated with an increase in non-accidental mortality (HR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.04-1.18). Adjustment for behavioural covariates did not materially change this relationship. We estimated a supra-linear concentration-response curve extending to concentrations below 2 µg/m3 using a shape constrained health impact function. Mortality risks associated with exposure to PM2.5 were increased for males, those under age 65, and non-immigrants. Hazard ratios for PM2.5 and mortality were attenuated when gaseous pollutants were included in models. CONCLUSIONS: Outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were associated with non-accidental mortality and adjusting for individual-level behavioural covariates did not materially change this relationship. The concentration-response curve was supra-linear with increased mortality risks extending to low outdoor PM2.5 concentrations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco
18.
Environ Res ; 175: 108-116, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indirect adjustment via partitioned regression is a promising technique to control for unmeasured confounding in large epidemiological studies. The method uses a representative ancillary dataset to estimate the association between variables missing in a primary dataset with the complete set of variables of the ancillary dataset to produce an adjusted risk estimate for the variable in question. The objective of this paper is threefold: 1) evaluate the method for non-linear survival models, 2) formalize an empirical process to evaluate the suitability of the required ancillary matching dataset, and 3) test modifications to the method to incorporate time-varying exposure data, and proportional weighting of datasets. METHODS: We used the association between fine particle air pollution (PM2.5) with mortality in the 2001 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC, N = 2.4 million, 10-years follow-up) as our primary dataset, and the 2001 cycle of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS, N = 80,630) as the ancillary matching dataset that contained confounding risk factor information not available in CanCHEC (e.g., smoking). The main evaluation process used a gold-standard approach wherein two variables (education and income) available in both datasets were excluded, indirectly adjusted for, and compared to true models with education and income included to assess the amount of bias correction. An internal validation for objective 1 used only CanCHEC data, whereas an external validation for objective 2 replaced CanCHEC with the CCHS. The two proposed modifications were applied as part of the validation tests, as well as in a final indirect adjustment of four missing risk factor variables (smoking, alcohol use, diet, and exercise) in which adjustment direction and magnitude was compared to models using an equivalent longitudinal cohort with direct adjustment for the same variables. RESULTS: At baseline (2001) both cohorts had very similar PM2.5 distributions across population characteristics, although levels for CCHS participants were consistently 1.8-2.0 µg/m3 lower. Applying sample-weighting largely corrected for this discrepancy. The internal validation tests showed minimal downward bias in PM2.5 mortality hazard ratios of 0.4-0.6% using a static exposure, and 1.7-3% when a time-varying exposure was used. The external validation of the CCHS as the ancillary dataset showed slight upward bias of -0.7 to -1.1% and downward bias of 1.3-2.3% using the static and time-varying approaches respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The CCHS was found to be fairly well representative of CanCHEC and its use in Canada for indirect adjustment is warranted. Indirect adjustment methods can be used with survival models to correct hazard ratio point estimates and standard errors in models missing key covariates when a representative matching dataset is available. The results of this formal evaluation should encourage other cohorts to assess the suitability of ancillary datasets for the application of the indirect adjustment methodology to address potential residual confounding.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Exposição Ambiental , Mortalidade , Material Particulado , Estatística como Assunto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Estatística como Assunto/métodos
19.
Environ Int ; 128: 292-300, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with increased risks of mortality. To a lesser extent, a series of studies suggest that living in greener areas is associated with reduced risks of mortality. Only a handful of studies have examined the interplay between PM2.5, greenness, and mortality. METHODS: We investigated the role of residential greenness in modifying associations between long-term exposures to PM2.5 and non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality in a national cohort of non-immigrant Canadian adults (i.e., the 2001 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort). Specifically, we examined associations between satellite-derived estimates of PM2.5 exposure and mortality across quintiles of greenness measured within 500 m of individual's place of residence during 11 years of follow-up. We adjusted our survival models for many personal and contextual measures of socioeconomic position, and residential mobility data allowed us to characterize annual changes in exposures. RESULTS: Our cohort included approximately 2.4 million individuals at baseline, 194,270 of whom died from non-accidental causes during follow-up. Adjustment for greenness attenuated the association between PM2.5 and mortality (e.g., hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) per interquartile range increase in PM2.5 in models for non-accidental mortality decreased from 1.065 (95% CI: 1.056-1.075) to 1.041 (95% CI: 1.031-1.050)). The strength of observed associations between PM2.5 and mortality decreased as greenness increased. This pattern persisted in models restricted to urban residents, in models that considered the combined oxidant capacity of ozone and nitrogen dioxide, and within neighbourhoods characterised by high or low deprivation. We found no increased risk of mortality associated with PM2.5 among those living in the greenest areas. For example, the HR for cardiovascular mortality among individuals in the least green areas was 1.17 (95% CI: 1.12-1.23) compared to 1.01 (95% CI: 0.97-1.06) among those in the greenest areas. CONCLUSIONS: Studies that do not account for greenness may overstate the air pollution impacts on mortality. Residents in deprived neighbourhoods with high greenness benefitted by having more attenuated associations between PM2.5 and mortality than those living in deprived areas with less greenness. The findings from this study extend our understanding of how living in greener areas may lead to improved health outcomes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Meio Ambiente , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Adulto Jovem
20.
Can J Public Health ; 110(2): 149-158, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617991

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the proportion of the Canadian population that is more susceptible to adverse effects of ozone (O3) and fine particle (PM2.5) air pollution exposure and how this varies by health region alongside ambient concentrations of O3 and PM2.5. METHODS: Using data from the census, the Canadian Community Health Survey, vital statistics and published literature, we generated cross-sectional estimates for 2014 of the proportions of the Canadian population considered more susceptible due to age, chronic disease, pregnancy, outdoor work, socio-economic status, and diet. We also estimated 2010-2012 average concentrations of O3 and PM2.5. Analyses were conducted nationally and for 110 health regions. RESULTS: Restrictive criteria (age < 10 or ≥ 75; asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, or diabetes; pregnancy) suggested that approximately one third of the Canadian population is more susceptible, while inclusive criteria (restrictive plus age 10-19 and 65-74, outdoor work, less than high school education, low vitamin C intake) increased this proportion to approximately two thirds. Across health regions, estimates ranged from 24.4% to 41.2% (restrictive) and 61.2% to 87.0% (inclusive). Ten health regions were in the highest quartile of both population susceptibility and O3 or PM2.5 concentrations, all of which were outside major urban centres. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of the Canadian population exhibits at least one risk factor that increases their susceptibility to adverse effects of O3 and PM2.5 exposure. Both risk communication and management interventions need to be increasingly targeted to regions outside large urban centres in the highest quartiles of both susceptibility and exposure.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Idoso , Canadá , Criança , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , População Urbana
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