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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515871


Infant acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL) are rare hematological malignancies occurring in children younger than 1 year of age, most frequently associated with KMT2A rearrangements (KMT2A-r). The smaller subset without KMT2A-r, which represents 20% of infant ALL cases, is poorly characterized. Here we report two cases of chemotherapy-sensitive non-KMT2A-r infant ALL. Transcriptome analyses revealed identical ACIN1-NUTM1 gene fusions in both cases, derived from cryptic chromosomal rearrangements undetected by standard cytogenetic approaches. Two isoforms of the gene fusion, joining exons 3 or 4 of ACIN1 to exon 3 of NUTM1, were identified. Both fusion transcripts contained the functional DNA-binding SAP (SAF-A/B, Acinus, and PIAS) domain of ACIN1 and most of NUTM1. The detection of the ACIN1-NUTM1 fusion by RT-PCR allowed the molecular monitoring of minimal residual disease in a clinical setting. Based on publicly available genomic datasets and literature review, we predict that NUTM1 gene fusions are recurrent events in infant ALL. As such, we propose two clinically relevant assays to screen for NUTM1 rearrangements in bone marrow cells, independent of the fusion partner: NUMT1 immunohistochemistry and NUTM1 RNA expression. In sum, our study identifies ACIN1-NUTM1 as a recurrent and possibly cryptic fusion in non-KMT2A-r infant ALL, provides clinical tools to screen for NUTM1-rearranged leukemia and contributes to the refinement of this new subgroup.

J Clin Immunol ; 39(2): 171-181, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671780


PURPOSE: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) are associated in the definition of Evans syndrome (ES). The occurrence of neurological involvement in this population is poorly described and suggests an underlying primary immunodeficiency (PID). We aimed to describe the clinical manifestations, evolution, and PID profiles of these patients. METHODS: OBS'CEREVANCE is a French, nationwide prospective cohort that includes children with chronic ITP, AIHA, and ES. Patients with a neurological involvement were described. Centralized radiological and pathological reviews and genetic analyses were performed. RESULTS: On October 2016, eight patients (7/181 ES, 1/371 AIHA, and 0/615 ITP) were identified, all male, with a median age (range) at cytopenia onset of 11.5 years (1.6-15.8). Neurological symptoms appeared with a median delay of 6 years (2.5-18) after cytopenia and were polymorphic: seizures (n = 4), cranial nerve palsy (n = 2), Brown-Sequard syndrome (n = 2), intracranial pressure (n = 2), vertigo (n = 1), and/or sensory neuropathy (n = 1). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed inflammatory lesions, confirmed by pathology for five patients with macrophagic or lymphoplasmocytic infiltrates. All patients had other relevant immunopathological manifestations: pulmonary nodules (n = 6), lymphoproliferation (n = 4), abnormal immunophenotype (n = 8), and hypogammaglobulinemia (n = 7). Treatment consisted of steroids that improved symptomatology and MRI. Five patients relapsed and three had an asymptomatic radiological progression. A PID was identified in 3/8 patients: 22q11.2 microdeletion (n = 1) and CTLA deficiency (n = 2). CONCLUSION: Neurological involvement is a rare and severe late event in the course of childhood ES, which can reveal an underlying PID. Imaging and pathology examination highlight a causative immune dysregulation that may guide targeted therapeutic strategies.

Transplantation ; 101(11): 2713-2721, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28230645


BACKGROUND: Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) after BK virus reactivation in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) can compromise graft survival. Lowering immunosuppression is the only established approach to prevent or treat PVAN but nonspecifically increasing host immune competence also augments rejection risk. Ex vivo T cell stimulation/expansion offers the possibility to generate BK-specific T cell lines for adoptive immunotherapy. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a clinical-scale protocol to generate BK-specific T cell lines from viremic KTR. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy controls and viremic KTR were stimulated using BK virus peptide libraries loaded or not on monocytes-derived dendritic cells. Cell counts, flow cytometry, and next-generation sequencing were used to assess T cell expansion, differentiation, and clonal diversity. Enzyme-linked immunospots, cytotoxicity assays as well as adoptive transfer in NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ mice were used to assess for pathogen-specificity and evidence of nonspecific alloreactivity. RESULTS: T cell lines from KTR and healthy control showed similar characteristics, implying that ongoing immunosuppression and chronic virus exposure do not compromise the differentiation, specificity, or clonal diversity of T cell lines after ex vivo production. Using antigen-loaded dendritic cells improved T cell expansion and favored central memory T cell differentiation. The T cell lines were antigen-specific and showed no nonspecific alloreactivity in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Using a rapid, clinically compliant culture system, we show that autologous BK virus-specific T cell lines can be reliably generated from viremic KTR. Our results pave the way for the treatment or prevention of PVAN with adoptive immunotherapy.

Transferência Adotiva/métodos , Vírus BK/imunologia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Polyomavirus/terapia , Linfócitos T/transplante , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/terapia , Animais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Separação Celular , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/virologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Memória Imunológica , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/deficiência , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Fenótipo , Infecções por Polyomavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/virologia , Fatores de Tempo , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/imunologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia , Ativação Viral
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 64(6)2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27896933


BACKGROUND: The role of tumor molecular profiling in directing targeted therapy utilization remains to be defined for pediatric tumors. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a sequencing and molecular biology tumor board (MBB) program, and its clinical impact on children with solid tumors. PROCEDURE: We report on a single-center MBB experience of 60 pediatric patients with a poor prognosis or relapsed/refractory solid tumors screened between October 2014 and November 2015. Tumor molecular profiling was performed with panel-based next-generation sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridization. RESULTS: Mean age was 12 ± 5.7 years (range 0.1-21.5); main tumor types were high-grade gliomas (n = 14), rare sarcomas (n = 9), and neuroblastomas (n = 8). The indication was a poor prognosis tumor at diagnosis for 16 patients and relapsed (n = 26) or refractory disease (n = 18) for the remaining 44 patients. Molecular profiling was feasible in 58 patients. Twenty-three patients (40%) had a potentially actionable finding. Patients with high-grade gliomas had the highest number of targetable alterations (57%). Six of the 23 patients subsequently received a matched targeted therapy for a period ranging from 16 days to 11 months. The main reasons for not receiving targeted therapy were poor general condition (n = 5), pursuit of conventional therapy (n = 6), or lack of pediatric trial (n = 4). CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric molecular profiling is feasible, with more than a third of patients being eligible to receive targeted therapy, yet only a small proportion were treated with these therapies. Analysis at diagnosis may be useful for children with very poor prognosis tumsors.

Glioma/genética , Glioma/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Sarcoma/genética , Sarcoma/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Glioma/terapia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neuroblastoma/terapia , Sarcoma/terapia