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1.
Crit Care Res Pract ; 2021: 6682944, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136282

RESUMO

Background: Acute respiratory failure from COVID-19 pneumonia is a major cause of death after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We investigated whether PaO2/FiO2, oxygenation index (OI), SpO2/FiO2, and oxygen saturation index (OSI), commonly used to assess the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), can predict mortality in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. Methods: In this single-centered retrospective pilot study, we enrolled 68 critically ill mechanically ventilated adult patients with confirmed COVID-19. Physiological variables were recorded on the day of intubation (day 0) and postintubation days 3 and 7. The association between physiological parameters, PaO2/FiO2, OI, SpO2/FiO2, and OSI with mortality was assessed using multiple variable logistic regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was conducted to evaluate the performance of the predictive models. Results: The ARDS severity indices were not statistically different on the day of intubation, suggesting similar baseline conditions in nonsurviving and surviving patients. However, these indices were significantly worse in the nonsurviving as compared to surviving patients on postintubation days 3 and 7. On intubation day 3, PaO2/FiO2 was 101.0 (61.4) in nonsurviving patients vs. 140.2 (109.6) in surviving patients, p=0.004, and on day 7 106.3 (94.2) vs. 178.0 (69.3), p < 0.001. OI was 135.0 (129.7) in nonsurviving vs. 84.8 (86.1) in surviving patients (p=0.003) on day 3 and 150.0 (118.4) vs. 61.5 (46.7) (p < 0.001) on day 7. OSI was 12.0 (11.7) vs. 8.0 (10.0) (p=0.006) on day 3 and 14.7 (13.2) vs. 6.5 (5.4) (p < 0.001) on day 7. Similarly, SpO2/FiO2 was 130 (90) vs. 210 (90) (p=0.003) on day 3 and 130 (90) vs. 230 (50) (p < 0.001) on day 7, while OSI was 12.0 (11.7) vs. 8.0 (10.0) (p=0.006) on day 3 and 14.7 (13.2) vs. 6.5 (5.4) (p < 0.001) on day 7 in the nonsurviving and surviving patients, respectively. All measures were independently associated with hospital mortality, with significantly greater odds ratios observed on day 7. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for mortality prediction was greatest on intubation day 7 (AUC = 0.775, 0.808, and 0.828 for PaO2/FiO2, OI, SpO2/FiO2, and OSI, respectively). Conclusions: Decline in oxygenation indices after intubation is predictive of mortality in COVID-19 patients. This time window is critical to the outcome of these patients and a possible target for future interventions. Future large-scale studies to confirm the prognostic value of the indices in COVID-19 patients are warranted.

2.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 155, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The surge of critically ill patients due to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) overwhelmed critical care capacity in areas of northern Italy. Anesthesia machines have been used as alternatives to traditional ICU mechanical ventilators. However, the outcomes for patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure cared for with Anesthesia Machines is currently unknow. We hypothesized that COVID-19 patients receiving care with Anesthesia Machines would have worse outcomes compared to standard practice. METHODS: We designed a retrospective study of patients admitted with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis at a large tertiary urban hospital in northern Italy. Two care units were included: a 27-bed standard ICU and a 15-bed temporary unit emergently opened in an operating room setting. Intubated patients assigned to Anesthesia Machines (AM group) were compared to a control cohort treated with standard mechanical ventilators (ICU-VENT group). Outcomes were assessed at 60-day follow-up. A multivariable Cox regression analysis of risk factors between survivors and non-survivors was conducted to determine the adjusted risk of death for patients assigned to AM group. RESULTS: Complete daily data from 89 mechanically ventilated patients consecutively admitted to the two units were analyzed. Seventeen patients were included in the AM group, whereas 72 were in the ICU-VENT group. Disease severity and intensity of treatment were comparable between the two groups. The 60-day mortality was significantly higher in the AM group compared to the ICU-vent group (12/17 vs. 27/72, 70.6% vs. 37.5%, respectively, p = 0.016). Allocation to AM group was associated with a significantly increased risk of death after adjusting for covariates (HR 4.05, 95% CI: 1.75-9.33, p = 0.001). Several incidents and complications were reported with Anesthesia Machine care, raising safety concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that care associated with the use of Anesthesia Machines is inadequate to provide long-term critical care to patients with COVID-19. Added safety risks must be considered if no other option is available to treat severely ill patients during the ongoing pandemic. CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBER: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/instrumentação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
J Vis Exp ; (171)2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028428

RESUMO

Nitric Oxide (NO) is administered as gas for inhalation to induce selective pulmonary vasodilation. It is a safe therapy, with few potential risks even if administered at high concentration. Inhaled NO gas is routinely used to increase systemic oxygenation in different disease conditions. The administration of high concentrations of NO also exerts a virucidal effect in vitro. Owing to its favorable pharmacodynamic and safety profiles, the familiarity in its use by critical care providers, and the potential for a direct virucidal effect, NO is clinically used in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Nevertheless, no device is currently available to easily administer inhaled NO at concentrations higher than 80 parts per million (ppm) at various inspired oxygen fractions, without the need for dedicated, heavy, and costly equipment. The development of a reliable, safe, inexpensive, lightweight, and ventilator-free solution is crucial, particularly for the early treatment of non-intubated patients outside of the intensive care unit (ICU) and in a limited-resource scenario. To overcome such a barrier, a simple system for the non-invasive NO gas administration up to 250 ppm was developed using standard consumables and a scavenging chamber. The method has been proven safe and reliable in delivering a specified NO concentration while limiting nitrogen dioxide levels. This paper aims to provide clinicians and researchers with the necessary information on how to assemble or adapt such a system for research purposes or clinical use in COVID-19 or other diseases in which NO administration might be beneficial.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Óxido Nítrico/uso terapêutico , Ventiladores Mecânicos , Administração por Inalação , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Óxido Nítrico/administração & dosagem , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , SARS-CoV-2
4.
EClinicalMedicine ; 34: 100829, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875978

RESUMO

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by substantial heterogeneity in clinical, biochemical, and physiological characteristics. However, the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 infection is poorly understood. Previous studies established clinical and biological phenotypes among classical ARDS cohorts, with important therapeutic implications. The phenotypic profile of COVID-19 associated ARDS remains unknown. Methods: We used latent class modeling via a multivariate mixture model to identify phenotypes from clinical and biochemical data collected from 263 patients admitted to Massachusetts General Hospital intensive care unit with COVID-19-associated ARDS between March 13 and August 2, 2020. Findings: We identified two distinct phenotypes of COVID-19-associated ARDS, with substantial differences in biochemical profiles despite minimal differences in respiratory dynamics. The minority phenotype (class 2, n = 70, 26·6%) demonstrated increased markers of coagulopathy, with mild relative hyper-inflammation and dramatically increased markers of end-organ dysfunction (e.g., creatinine, troponin). The odds of 28-day mortality among the class 2 phenotype was more than double that of the class 1 phenotype (40·0% vs.· 23·3%, OR = 2·2, 95% CI [1·2, 3·9]). Interpretation: We identified distinct phenotypic profiles in COVID-19 associated ARDS, with little variation according to respiratory physiology but with important variation according to systemic and extra-pulmonary markers. Phenotypic identity was highly associated with short-term mortality. The class 2 phenotype exhibited prominent signatures of coagulopathy, suggesting that vascular dysfunction may play an important role in the clinical progression of severe COVID-19-related disease.

5.
Res Sq ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594358

RESUMO

BackgroundThe surge of critically ill patients due to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) overwhelmed critical care capacity in areas of northern Italy. Anesthesia machines have been used as alternatives to traditional ICU mechanical ventilators. However, the outcomes for patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure cared for with Anesthesia Machines is currently unknow. We hypothesized that COVID-19 patients receiving care with Anesthesia Machines would have worse outcomes compared to standard practice.MethodsWe designed a retrospective study of patients admitted with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis at a large tertiary urban hospital in northern Italy. Two care units were included: a 27-bed standard ICU and a 15-bed temporary unit emergently opened in an operating room setting. Intubated patients assigned to Anesthesia Machines (AM group) were compared to a control cohort treated with standard mechanical ventilators (ICU-VENT group). Outcomes were assessed at 60-day follow-up. A multivariable Cox regression analysis of risk factors between survivors and non-survivors was conducted to determine the adjusted risk of death for patients assigned to AM group.ResultsComplete daily data from 89 mechanically ventilated patients consecutively admitted to the two units were analyzed. Seventeen patients were included in the AM group, whereas 72 were in the ICU-VENT group. Disease severity and intensity of treatment were comparable between the two groups. The 60-day mortality was significantly higher in the AM group compared to the ICU-vent group (12/17 vs. 27/72, 70.6% vs. 37.5%, respectively, p = 0.016). Allocation to AM group was associated with a significantly increased risk of death after adjusting for covariates (HR 4.05, 95% CI: 1.75-9.33, p = 0.001). Several incidents and complications were reported with Anesthesia Machine care, raising safety concerns.ConclusionsOur results support the hypothesis that care associated with the use of Anesthesia Machines is inadequate to provide long-term critical care to patients with COVID-19. Added safety risks must be considered if no other option is available to treat severely ill patients during the ongoing pandemic.Clinical Trial NumberNot applicable.

7.
Chest ; 159(4): 1426-1436, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sigh is a cyclic brief recruitment maneuver: previous physiologic studies showed that its use could be an interesting addition to pressure support ventilation to improve lung elastance, decrease regional heterogeneity, and increase release of surfactant. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is the clinical application of sigh during pressure support ventilation (PSV) feasible? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter noninferiority randomized clinical trial on adult intubated patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure or ARDS undergoing PSV. Patients were randomized to the no-sigh group and treated by PSV alone, or to the sigh group, treated by PSV plus sigh (increase in airway pressure to 30 cm H2O for 3 s once per minute) until day 28 or death or successful spontaneous breathing trial. The primary end point of the study was feasibility, assessed as noninferiority (5% tolerance) in the proportion of patients failing assisted ventilation. Secondary outcomes included safety, physiologic parameters in the first week from randomization, 28-day mortality, and ventilator-free days. RESULTS: Two-hundred and fifty-eight patients (31% women; median age, 65 [54-75] years) were enrolled. In the sigh group, 23% of patients failed to remain on assisted ventilation vs 30% in the no-sigh group (absolute difference, -7%; 95% CI, -18% to 4%; P = .015 for noninferiority). Adverse events occurred in 12% vs 13% in the sigh vs no-sigh group (P = .852). Oxygenation was improved whereas tidal volume, respiratory rate, and corrected minute ventilation were lower over the first 7 days from randomization in the sigh vs no-sigh group. There was no significant difference in terms of mortality (16% vs 21%; P = .337) and ventilator-free days (22 [7-26] vs 22 [3-25] days; P = .300) for the sigh vs no-sigh group. INTERPRETATION: Among hypoxemic intubated ICU patients, application of sigh was feasible and without increased risk. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT03201263; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Mecânica Respiratória
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876469

RESUMO

Rationale: Obesity is characterized by elevated pleural pressure (PPL) and worsening atelectasis during mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Objectives: To determine the effects of lung recruitment maneuver (LRM) in the presence of elevated PPL on hemodynamics, left and right ventricular pressures and pulmonary vascular resistance. We hypothesized that elevated PPL protects the cardiovascular system against high airway pressures and prevents lung overdistension. Methods: First, an interventional crossover trial in adult subjects with ARDS and BMI ≥35 kg/m2 (n=21) was performed to explore the hemodynamic consequences of LRM. Second, cardiovascular function was studied during low/high PEEPs in a model of swine with ARDS and high PPL (n=9) versus healthy swine with normal PPL (n=6). Measurements and Main Results: Subjects with ARDS and obesity (BMI=57±12 kg/m2), following LRM, required an increase in PEEP of 8[7, 10] cmH2O above traditional ARDSnet settings to improve lung function, oxygenation and ventilation/perfusion matching, without impairment of hemodynamics or right heart function. ARDS swine with high PPL demonstrated unchanged transmural left ventricle pressure and systemic blood pressure after LRM protocol. Pulmonary artery hypertension decreased 8[13, 4] mmHg, as did vascular resistance 1.5[2.2, 0.9] WU, and transmural right ventricle pressure 10[15, 6] mmHg during exhalation. LRM and PEEP decreased pulmonary vascular resistance and normalized ventilation/perfusion ratio. Conclusions: High airway pressure is required to recruit lung atelectasis in patients with ARDS and class III obesity but causes minimal overdistension. Additionally, patients with ARDS and class III obesity tolerate hemodynamically LRM with high airway pressure.

9.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(6): 1109-1113, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rescue therapies to treat or prevent progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hypoxic respiratory failure in pregnant patients are lacking. METHOD: To treat pregnant patients meeting criteria for severe or critical COVID-19 with high-dose (160-200 ppm) nitric oxide by mask twice daily and report on their clinical response. EXPERIENCE: Six pregnant patients were admitted with severe or critical COVID-19 at Massachusetts General Hospital from April to June 2020 and received inhalational nitric oxide therapy. All patients tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. A total of 39 treatments was administered. An improvement in cardiopulmonary function was observed after commencing nitric oxide gas, as evidenced by an increase in systemic oxygenation in each administration session among those with evidence of baseline hypoxemia and reduction of tachypnea in all patients in each session. Three patients delivered a total of four neonates during hospitalization. At 28-day follow-up, all three patients were home and their newborns were in good condition. Three of the six patients remain pregnant after hospital discharge. Five patients had two negative test results on nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 within 28 days from admission. CONCLUSION: Nitric oxide at 160-200 ppm is easy to use, appears to be well tolerated, and might be of benefit in pregnant patients with COVID-19 with hypoxic respiratory failure.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Óxido Nítrico/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Massachusetts , Pandemias , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Nitric Oxide ; 104-105: 29-35, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in safely delivering high dose of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) as an antimicrobial and antiviral therapeutics for spontaneously breathing patients. A novel NO delivery system is described. METHODS: We developed a gas delivery system that utilizes standard respiratory circuit connectors, a reservoir bag, and a scavenging chamber containing calcium hydroxide. The performance of the system was tested using a mechanical lung, assessing the NO concentration delivered at varying inspiratory flows. Safety was assessed in vitro and in vivo by measuring nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels in the delivered NO gas. Lastly, we measured the inspired and expired NO and NO2 of this system in 5 healthy subjects during a 15-min administration of high dose NO (160 parts-per-million, ppm) using our delivery system. RESULTS: The system demonstrated stable delivery of prescribed NO levels at various inspiratory flow rates (0-50 L/min). The reservoir bag and a high flow of entering air minimized the oscillation of NO concentrations during inspiration on average 4.6 ppm for each 10 L/min increment in lung inspiratory flow. The calcium hydroxide scavenger reduced the inhaled NO2 concentration on average 0.9 ppm (95% CI -1.58, -0.22; p = .01). We performed 49 NO administrations of 160 ppm in 5 subjects. The average concentration of inspired NO was 164.8±10.74 ppm, with inspired NO2 levels of 0.7±0.13 ppm. The subjects did not experience any adverse events; transcutaneous methemoglobin concentrations increased from 1.05±0.58 to 2.26±0.47%. CONCLUSIONS: The system we developed to administer high-dose NO for inhalation is easy to build, reliable, was well tolerated in healthy subjects.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Óxido Nítrico/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Respiração
13.
medRxiv ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511450

RESUMO

Introduction: the current worldwide outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is seriously threatening the public health. The number of infected patients is continuously increasing and the need for Intensive Care Unit admission ranges from 5 to 26%. The mortality is reported to be around 3.4% with higher values for the elderly and in patients with comorbidities. Moreover, this condition is challenging the healthcare system where the outbreak reached its highest value. To date there is still no available treatment for SARS-CoV-2. Clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) has a beneficial effect on the coronavirus-mediated acute respiratory syndrome, and this can be related to its viricidal effect. The time from the symptoms' onset to the development of severe respiratory distress is relatively long. We hypothesize that high concentrations of inhaled NO administered during early phases of COVID-19 infection can prevent the progression of the disease. Methods and analysis: This is a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Spontaneous breathing patients admitted to the hospital for symptomatic COVID-19 infection will be eligible to enter the study. Patients in the treatment group will receive inhaled NO at high doses (140-180 parts per million) for 30 minutes, 2 sessions every day for 14 days in addition to the hospital care. Patient in the control group will receive only hospital care. The primary outcome is the percentage of patients requiring endotracheal intubation due to the progression of the disease in the first 28 days from enrollment in the study. Secondary outcomes include mortality at 28 days, proportion of negative test for SARS-CoV-2 at 7 days and time to clinical recovery. Ethics and dissemination: The trial protocol has been approved at the Investigation Review Boards of Xijing Hospital (Xi'an, China) and The Partners Human Research Committee of Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, USA) is pending. Recruitment is expected to start in March 2020. Results of this study will be published in scientific journals, presented at scientific meetings, and on related website or media in fighting this widespread contagious disease.

14.
medRxiv ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511534

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome due to novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) related infection (COVID-19) is characterized by severe ventilation perfusion mismatch leading to refractory hypoxemia. To date, there is no specific treatment available for 2019-nCoV. Nitric oxide is a selective pulmonary vasodilator gas used as a rescue therapy in refractory hypoxemia due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In has also shown in-vitro and clinical evidence that inhaled nitric oxide gas (iNO) has antiviral activity against other strains of coronavirus. The primary aim of this study is to determine whether inhaled NO improves oxygenation in patients with hypoxic COVID-19. This is a multicenter randomized controlled trial with 1:1 individual allocation. Patients will be blinded to the treatment. Methods and analysis. Intubated patients admitted to the intensive care unit with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe hypoxemia will be randomized to receive inhalation of NO (treatment group) or not (control group). Treatment will be stopped when patients are free from hypoxemia for more than 24 hours. The primary outcome evaluates levels of oxygenation between the two groups at 48 hours. Secondary outcomes include rate of survival rate at 28 and 90 days in the two groups, time to resolution of severe hypoxemia, time to achieve negativity of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests. Ethics and dissemination. The study protocol has been approved by the Investigational Review Board of Xijing Hospital (Xian, China) and by the Partners Human Research Committee (Boston, USA). Recruitment will start after approval of both IRBs and local IRBs at other enrolling centers. Results of this study will be published in scientific journals, presented at scientific meetings, reported through flyers and posters, and published on related website or media in combating against this widespread contagious diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov. NCT04306393.

15.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 46(3): 379-382, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973926

RESUMO

Patients 80 years old or older are increasingly being admitted to intensive care units, particularly in western countries, where life expectancy is constantly increasing. The benefits of intensively treating critically ill elderly patients are uncertain. The high mortality rate in the presence of underlying chronic diseases is a factor. More generally, frailty, defined as an impaired resilience following a health stressor event, must be taken into account. No consensus exists on the risk-benefit ratio to admit octogenarians to the ICU. Treatment decisions should account for life expectancy but also tailored to the needs and wishes of patients and next-of-kins. The cohort of elderly patients is known to be the most vulnerable to functional decline and cognitive impairment, including neuropsychological complications, such as delirium.. Interventions directed at reducing the incidence of delirium may mitigate brain injury associated with critical illness, potentially being the single most effective intervention in this population. A multimodal approach to analgesia should be considered to avoid untreated pain and its consequences. Sleep protocols can effectively reduce the risk of delirium. Notably, the deployment of "sleep bundles" (regular sleep-wake rhythms, reduced night-time light, noise control strategies), may be helpful. As well, adequate nutritional support, spontaneous awakening trials, early mobilization, and physical therapy are crucial to prevent physical deconditioning. The psychological consequences of critical illness for both patients and caregivers are also being increasingly recognized. Attention to the needs of families is essential, due to its positive effects on patients and as a quality improvement goal by itself. Death and dying in the ICU is a more frequent outcome in the elderly population. A real culture for the management of distress and grieving is a required skill for the ICU staff. Privacy and adequate palliative care should be contemplated for an ethical and comfortable end of life.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos
16.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 4, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist regarding ventilation in patients with class III obesity [body mass index (BMI) > 40 kg/m2] and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The aim of the present study was to determine whether an individualized titration of mechanical ventilation according to cardiopulmonary physiology reduces the mortality in patients with class III obesity and ARDS. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we enrolled adults admitted to the ICU from 2012 to 2017 who had class III obesity and ARDS and received mechanical ventilation for > 48 h. Enrolled patients were divided in two cohorts: one cohort (2012-2014) had ventilator settings determined by the ARDSnet table for lower positive end-expiratory pressure/higher inspiratory fraction of oxygen (standard protocol-based cohort); the other cohort (2015-2017) had ventilator settings determined by an individualized protocol established by a lung rescue team (lung rescue team cohort). The lung rescue team used lung recruitment maneuvers, esophageal manometry, and hemodynamic monitoring. RESULTS: The standard protocol-based cohort included 70 patients (BMI = 49 ± 9 kg/m2), and the lung rescue team cohort included 50 patients (BMI = 54 ± 13 kg/m2). Patients in the standard protocol-based cohort compared to lung rescue team cohort had almost double the risk of dying at 28 days [31% versus 16%, P = 0.012; hazard ratio (HR) 0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI95%) 0.13-0.78] and 3 months (41% versus 22%, P = 0.006; HR 0.35; CI95% 0.16-0.74), and this effect persisted at 6 months and 1 year (incidence of death unchanged 41% versus 22%, P = 0.006; HR 0.35; CI95% 0.16-0.74). CONCLUSION: Individualized titration of mechanical ventilation by a lung rescue team was associated with decreased mortality compared to use of an ARDSnet table.


Assuntos
Obesidade/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/mortalidade , APACHE , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Semin Nephrol ; 39(5): 484-495, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514912

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury is a common complication after cardiac surgery that is associated with high postoperative morbidity and mortality. Levels of hemolysis are associated closely with the incidence and severity of kidney injury after cardiac surgery. Hemolysis is caused by prolonged surgical procedures and blood transfusions from cell-saver devices and is associated with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Plasma oxyhemoglobin is released into the circulation by damaged red blood cells that, via a dioxygenation reaction, depletes vascular nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator molecule responsible for modulating organ perfusion and vascular homeostasis. Depleted plasma NO and increased levels of plasma oxyhemoglobin in the bloodstream lead to impairment of organ perfusion, inflammation, oxidative stress, and direct tubular injury, which, together, contribute to the development of renal injury after cardiac surgery. The administration of NO, a gas originally approved to treat pulmonary hypertension, maintains organ perfusion by preventing vascular NO depletion. In addition, this treatment improves cardiac output by reducing pulmonary vascular resistance and right heart workload. The clinical evidence of renal protection of NO gas therapy is supported by preclinical animal studies exploring the extrapulmonary protective effects of NO. Recent clinical trials showed a significant reduction of postoperative acute kidney injury when NO gas was administered during and after cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/uso terapêutico , Animais , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Medição de Risco
18.
J Vis Exp ; (148)2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282890

RESUMO

Lipopolysaccharide, also known as endotoxin, is a fundamental component of gram-negative bacteria and plays a crucial role in the development of sepsis and septic shock. The early identification of an infectious process that is rapidly evolving to a critical illness might prompt a quicker and more intensive treatment, thereby potentially leading to better patient outcomes. The Endotoxin Activity (EA) assay can be used at the bedside as a reliable biomarker of systemic endotoxemia. The detection of elevated endotoxin activity levels has been repeatedly shown to be associated with an increased disease severity in patients with sepsis and septic shock. The assay is quick and easy to perform. Briefly, after sampling, an aliquot of whole blood is mixed with an anti-endotoxin antibody and with added LPS. Endotoxin activity is measured as the relative oxidative burst of primed neutrophils as detected by chemioluminescence. The assay's output is expressed on a scale from 0 (absent) to 1 (maximal) and categorized as "low" (<0.4 units), "intermediate" (0.4-0.59 units), or "high" (≥0.6 units). The detailed methodology and rationale for the implementation of the EA assay are reported in this manuscript.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Estado Terminal , Endotoxemia/sangue , Endotoxemia/diagnóstico , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Choque Séptico/sangue
20.
Respir Care ; 64(1): 1-9, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biofilm on the surface of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) is associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia. The use of silver-coated ETTs has been suggested to reduce the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia by preventing biofilm formation. However, mucus accumulation can reduce the antibacterial activity of silver-coated ETTs by isolating bacterial colonies from the silver surface. We hypothesized that, in mechanically ventilated subjects, periodic removal of secretions through the use of a cleaning device would enhance the antimicrobial properties of silver-coated ETTs and thus reduce bacterial colonization. METHODS: Subjects were randomized to either standard suctioning (blind tracheal suctioning, control group) or blind tracheal suctioning plus cleaning maneuver every 8 h (treatment group). Tracheal aspirates were collected immediately before extubation for microbiological culture. After extubation, ETTs were collected for both cultural and non-cultural microbiological analysis and biofilm isolation. RESULTS: 39 subjects expected to be ventilated for > 48 h were enrolled; 36 ETTs (18 control, 18 treatment) and 29 tracheal samples (15 control, 14 treatment) were collected. Among the ETTs positive for bacterial colonization (15 vs 9, P = .18), cleaning maneuvers did not reduce microbial load, shown as the decimal logarithm of colony-forming units (CFU) per mL (1.6 ± 1.2 vs 0.9 ± 1.2 logCFU/mL, P = .15). There was a trend toward decreased biofilm deposition (439.5 ± 29.0 vs 288.9 ± 157.7 mg, P = .09) in the treated ETTs. No significant differences were observed in the number of positive tracheal aspirates (13 vs 10, P = .39) or in the microbial load (4.8 ± 4.0 vs 4.2 ± 3.8 logCFU/mL, P = .70) of tracheal secretions. Finally, no differences in the microbial load of Gram-positive organisms, Gram-negative organisms, or yeasts were found between the ETTs and tracheal aspirates of the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: In 39 critically-ill subjects intubated with silver-coated ETTs, periodic cleaning maneuvers did not decrease bacterial colonization of the ETTs and did not lower respiratory tract colonization compared to the standard suctioning. (Clinicaltrials.gov registration NCT02120001.).


Assuntos
Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Sucção/métodos , Idoso , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/microbiologia , Prata , Traqueia/metabolismo , Traqueia/microbiologia
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