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1.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219106

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Germline CNVs are important contributors to hereditary cancer. In genetic diagnostics, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is commonly used to identify them. However, MLPA is time-consuming and expensive if applied to many genes, hence many routine laboratories test only a subset of genes of interest. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based CNV detection tool (DECoN) as first-tier screening to decrease costs and turnaround time and expand CNV analysis to all genes of clinical interest in our diagnostics routine. We used DECoN in a retrospective cohort of 1860 patients where a limited number of genes were previously analysed by MLPA, and in a prospective cohort of 2041 patients, without MLPA analysis. In the retrospective cohort, 6 new CNVs were identified and confirmed by MLPA. In the prospective cohort, 19 CNVs were identified and confirmed by MLPA, 8 of these would have been lost in our previous MLPA-restricted detection strategy. Also, the number of genes tested by MLPA across all samples decreased by 93.0% in the prospective cohort. CONCLUSION: Including an in silico germline NGS CNV detection tool improved our genetic diagnostics strategy in hereditary cancer, both increasing the number of CNVs detected and reducing turnaround time and costs.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC) are the most common types of cancer in Lynch syndrome (LS). Risk reducing surgeries (RRS) might impact cancer incidence and mortality. Our objectives were to evaluate cumulative incidences of CRC, gynecological cancer and all-cause mortality after RRS in LS individuals. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 976 LS carriers from a single-institution registry. Primary endpoints were cumulative incidence at 75 years of cancer (metachronous CRC in 425 individuals; EC and ovarian cancer (OC) in 531 individuals) and all-cause mortality cumulative incidence, comparing extended (ES) vs. segmental surgery (SS) in the CRC cohort and risk reducing gynecological surgery (RRGS) vs. surveillance in the gynecological cohort. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence at 75 years of metachronous CRC was 12.5% vs. 44.7% (p = 0.04) and all-cause mortality cumulative incidence was 38.6% vs. 55.3% (p = 0.31), for ES and SS, respectively. Cumulative, incidence at 75 years was 11.2% vs. 46.3% for EC (p = 0.001) and 0% vs. 12.7% for OC (p N/A) and all-cause mortality cumulative incidence was 0% vs. 52.7% (p N/A), for RRGS vs. surveillance, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: RRS in LS reduces the incidence of metachronous CRC and gynecological neoplasms, also indicating a reduction in all-cause mortality cumulative incidence in females undergoing RRGS.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185660

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Lynch syndrome (LS) is the most common inherited colorectal and endometrial cancer syndrome, caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. It is also characterized by an increased risk of other tumours with lower prevalence, such as adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC), an endocrine tumour with an incidence of < two cases/million individuals/year. Most ACC developed during childhood are associated with hereditary syndromes. In adults this association is not as well established as in children. Previous studies showed a 3.2% prevalence of LS among patients with ACC. EVIDENCE ADQUISITION: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of ACC in a Spanish LS cohort and their molecular and histological characteristics. This retrospective study includes 634 patients from 220 LS families registered between 1999 and 2018. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: During the follow-up three patients were diagnosed with ACC (0.47%), all were carriers of a MSH2 germline mutation. The three ACC patients presented loss of expression of MSH2 and MSH6 proteins. One tumour analysis showed loss of heterozygosity of the MSH2 wildtype allele. Our findings support previous data which considered ACC as a LS spectrum tumour. CONCLUSION: MMR protein immunohistochemistry screening could be an efficient strategy to detect LS in patients with ACC.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Colonoscopy reduces colorectal (CRC) incidence and mortality in Lynch syndrome (LS) carriers. However, a high incidence of post-colonoscopy CRC (PCCRC) has been reported. Colonoscopy is highly dependent on operator skill and subject to quality variability. We aimed to evaluate the impact of key colonoscopy quality indicators on adenoma detection and prevention of PCCRC in LS. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter study focused on LS carriers without previous colorectal cancer undergoing colonoscopy surveillance (n=893). Incident colorectal neoplasia during surveillance and quality indicators of all colonoscopies were analyzed. We performed an emulated target trial comparing the results from first and second surveillance colonoscopies to assess the effect of colonoscopy quality indicators on adenoma detection and PCCRC incidence. Risk analyses were conducted using a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: The 10-year cumulative incidence of adenoma and PCCRC was 60.6% (95%CI;55.5-65.2%) and 7.9% (95%CI:5.2-10.6%), respectively. Adequate bowel preparation (OR=2.07; 95%CI:1.06- 4.3) complete colonoscopies (20% vs. 0%; p=.01), and pan-chromoendoscopy use (OR=2.14; 95%CI:1.15-3.95) were associated with significant improvement in adenoma detection). PCCRC risk was significantly lower when colonoscopies were performed in a time interval of less than 3-year (OR=0.35; 95%CI: 0.14-0.97). We observed a consistent but not significant reduction in PCCRC risk for previous complete examination (OR=0.16; 95%CI: 0.03-1.28); adequate bowel preparation (OR=0.64; 95%CI:0.17-3.24) or previous use of high-definition colonoscopy (OR=0.37; 95%CI:0.02-2.33). CONCLUSIONS: Complete colonoscopies with adequate bowel preparation and chromoendoscopy use are associated with improved adenoma detection, while surveillance intervals less than 3 years are associated with reduction of PCCRC incidence. In Lynch syndrome, high-quality colonoscopy surveillance is of utmost importance for CRC prevention.

5.
Gut ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998877

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Germline TP53 pathogenic (P) variants cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), an aggressive multitumor-predisposing condition. Due to the implementation of multigene panel testing, TP53 variants have been detected in individuals without LFS suspicion, for example, patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to decipher whether these findings are the result of detecting the background population prevalence or the aetiological basis of CRC. DESIGN: We analysed TP53 in 473 familial/early-onset CRC cases and evaluated the results together with five additional studies performed in patients with CRC (total n=6200). Control population and LFS data were obtained from Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD V.2.1.1) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) TP53 database, respectively. All variants were reclassified according to the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP), following the ClinGen TP53 Expert Panel specifications. RESULTS: P or likely pathogenic (LP) variants were identified in 0.05% of controls (n=27/59 095) and 0.26% of patients with CRC (n=16/6200) (p<0.0001) (OR=5.7, 95% CI 2.8 to 10.9), none of whom fulfilled the clinical criteria established for TP53 testing. This association was still detected when patients with CRC diagnosed at more advanced ages (>50 and>60 years) were excluded from the analysis to minimise the inclusion of variants caused by clonal haematopoiesis. Loss-of-function and missense variants were strongly associated with CRC as compared with controls (OR=25.44, 95% CI 6.10 to 149.03, for loss of function and splice-site alleles, and OR=3.58, 95% CI 1.46 to 7.98, for missense P or LP variants). CONCLUSION: TP53 P variants should not be unequivocally associated with LFS. Prospective follow-up of carriers of germline TP53 P variants in the absence of LFS phenotypes will define how surveillance and clinical management of these individuals should be performed.

6.
J Mol Diagn ; 22(12): 1453-1468, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011440

RESUMO

RNA analyses are a potent tool to identify spliceogenic effects of DNA variants, although they are time-consuming and cannot always be performed. We present splicing assays of 20 variants that represent a variety of mutation types in 10 hereditary cancer genes and attempt to incorporate these results into American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) classification guidelines. Sixteen single-nucleotide variants, 3 exon duplications, and 1 single-exon deletion were selected and prioritized by in silico algorithms. RNA was extracted from short-term lymphocyte cultures to perform RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing, and allele-specific expression was assessed whenever possible. Aberrant transcripts were detected in 14 variants (70%). Variant interpretation was difficult, especially comparing old classification standards to generic ACMG guidelines and a proposal was devised to weigh functional analyses at RNA level. According to the ACMG guidelines, only 12 variants were reclassified as pathogenic/likely pathogenic because the other two variants did not gather enough evidence. This study highlights the importance of RNA studies to improve variant classification. However, it also indicates the challenge of incorporating these results into generic ACMG guidelines and the need to refine these criteria gene specifically. Nevertheless, 60% of variants were reclassified, thus improving genetic counseling and surveillance for carriers of these variants.

7.
Eur J Cancer ; 141: 1-8, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) is an inherited disorder with an increased risk of breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancers (OC). Mutations in BRCA1-BRCA2 explains less than a half of cases. In the last decade several genes with different penetrance have been associated with an increased risk of BC or OC. A recurrent heterozygous ERCC3 truncating mutation increases the risk for breast cancer in patients with Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. Our study aimed to investigate the role of ERCC3 truncating variants in a cohort of patients with suspicion of HBOC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ERCC3 screening by multigene-panel analysis in 1311 unrelated patients after our regional consensus for genetic testing in hereditary cancer was done. In addition, 453 Spanish cancer-free individuals and 51,343 GnomAD non-Finnish, non-cancer European individuals were used as control populations. RESULTS: We identified 13 patients with heterozygous ERCC3 truncating variants (0.99%). Five of them also carried a mutation in a high- /moderate-penetrance HBOC gene (BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and TP53) being Multilocus Inherited Neoplasia Alleles syndrome (MINAS) patients. The frequency in 453 Spanish controls was of 0.22%; similar to that observed in 51,343 non-Finnish European GnomAD population (0.24%). We found an almost statistically significant association of truncating ERCC3 variants with BC (odds ratio [OR] = 2.25, confidence interval [CI] = 0.6-5.93, P = 0.11), and we observed for the first time a significant association with OC (OR = 4.74, CI = 1-14.34, P = 0.028), that holds even after removing MINAS cases. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the largest HBOC series comprehensively analysed for ERCC3 mutations, and the first study identifying ERCC3 as a cancer risk for OC.

8.
Hum Mutat ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906215

RESUMO

CHEK2 variants are associated with intermediate breast cancer risk, among other cancers. We aimed to comprehensively describe CHEK2 variants in a Spanish hereditary cancer (HC) cohort and adjust the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG-AMP) guidelines for their classification. First, three CHEK2 frequent variants were screened in a retrospective Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer cohort of 516 patients. After, the whole CHEK2 coding region was analyzed by next-generation sequencing in 1848 prospective patients with HC suspicion. We refined ACMG-AMP criteria and applied different combined rules to classify CHEK2 variants and define risk alleles. We identified 10 CHEK2 null variants, 6 missense variants with discordant interpretation in ClinVar database, and 35 additional variants of unknown significance. Twelve variants were classified as (likely)-pathogenic; two can also be considered "established risk-alleles" and one as "likely risk-allele." The prevalence of (likely)-pathogenic variants in the HC cohort was 0.8% (1.3% in breast cancer patients and 1.0% in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer patients). Here, we provide ACMG adjustment guidelines to classify CHEK2 variants. We hope that this study would be useful for variant classification of other genes with low effect variants.

9.
Genet Med ; 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792570

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Germline pathogenic variants in the exonuclease domain (ED) of polymerases POLE and POLD1 predispose to adenomatous polyps, colorectal cancer (CRC), endometrial tumors, and other malignancies, and exhibit increased mutation rate and highly specific associated mutational signatures. The tumor spectrum and prevalence of POLE and POLD1 variants in hereditary cancer are evaluated in this study. METHODS: POLE and POLD1 were sequenced in 2813 unrelated probands referred for genetic counseling (2309 hereditary cancer patients subjected to a multigene panel, and 504 patients selected based on phenotypic characteristics). Cosegregation and case-control studies, yeast-based functional assays, and tumor mutational analyses were performed for variant interpretation. RESULTS: Twelve ED missense variants, 6 loss-of-function, and 23 outside-ED predicted-deleterious missense variants, all with population allele frequencies <1%, were identified. One ED variant (POLE p.Met294Arg) was classified as likely pathogenic, four as likely benign, and seven as variants of unknown significance. The most commonly associated tumor types were colorectal, endometrial and ovarian cancers. Loss-of-function and outside-ED variants are likely not pathogenic for this syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Polymerase proofreading-associated syndrome constitutes 0.1-0.4% of familial cancer cases, reaching 0.3-0.7% when only CRC and polyposis are considered. ED variant interpretation is challenging and should include multiple pieces of evidence.

10.
J Clin Med ; 9(7)2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708519

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To survey risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) practice and advice regarding hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women with Lynch syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a survey in 31 contributing centers from the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD), which incorporates 18 countries worldwide. The survey covered local policies for risk-reducing hysterectomy and BSO in Lynch syndrome, the timing when these measures are offered, the involvement of stakeholders and advice regarding HRT. RESULTS: Risk-reducing hysterectomy and BSO are offered to path_MLH1 and path_MSH2 carriers in 20/21 (95%) contributing centers, to path_MSH6 carriers in 19/21 (91%) and to path_PMS2 carriers in 14/21 (67%). Regarding the involvement of stakeholders, there is global agreement (~90%) that risk-reducing surgery should be offered to women, and that this discussion may involve gynecologists, genetic counselors and/or medical geneticists. Prescription of estrogen-only HRT is offered by 15/21 (71%) centers to women of variable age range (35-55 years). CONCLUSIONS: Most centers offer risk-reducing gynecological surgery to carriers of path_MLH1, path_MSH2 and path_MSH6 variants but less so for path_PMS2 carriers. There is wide variation in how, when and to whom this is offered. The Manchester International Consensus Group developed recommendations to harmonize clinical practice across centers, but there is a clear need for more research.

11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561899

RESUMO

Although germline copy-number variants (CNVs) are the genetic cause of multiple hereditary diseases, detecting them from targeted next-generation sequencing data (NGS) remains a challenge. Existing tools perform well for large CNVs but struggle with single and multi-exon alterations. The aim of this work is to evaluate CNV calling tools working on gene panel NGS data and their suitability as a screening step before orthogonal confirmation in genetic diagnostics strategies. Five tools (DECoN, CoNVaDING, panelcn.MOPS, ExomeDepth, and CODEX2) were tested against four genetic diagnostics datasets (two in-house and two external) for a total of 495 samples with 231 single and multi-exon validated CNVs. The evaluation was performed using the default and sensitivity-optimized parameters. Results showed that most tools were highly sensitive and specific, but the performance was dataset dependant. When evaluating them in our diagnostics scenario, DECoN and panelcn.MOPS detected all CNVs with the exception of one mosaic CNV missed by DECoN. However, DECoN outperformed panelcn.MOPS specificity achieving values greater than 0.90 when using the optimized parameters. In our in-house datasets, DECoN and panelcn.MOPS showed the highest performance for CNV screening before orthogonal confirmation. Benchmarking and optimization code is freely available at https://github.com/TranslationalBioinformaticsIGTP/CNVbenchmarkeR.

12.
J Med Genet ; 57(4): 269-273, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494577

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lynch syndrome (LS) and constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) are hereditary cancer syndromes associated with mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. Tumours show microsatellite instability (MSI), also reported at low levels in non-neoplastic tissues. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of high-sensitivity MSI (hs-MSI) assessment for the identification of LS and CMMRD in non-neoplastic tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood DNA samples from 131 individuals were grouped into three cohorts: baseline (22 controls), training (11 CMMRD, 48 LS and 15 controls) and validation (18 CMMRD and 18 controls). Custom next generation sequencing panel and bioinformatics pipeline were used to detect insertions and deletions in microsatellite markers. An hs-MSI score was calculated representing the percentage of unstable markers. RESULTS: The hs-MSI score was significantly higher in CMMRD blood samples when compared with controls in the training cohort (p<0.001). This finding was confirmed in the validation set, reaching 100% specificity and sensitivity. Higher hs-MSI scores were detected in biallelic MSH2 carriers (n=5) compared with MSH6 carriers (n=15). The hs-MSI analysis did not detect a difference between LS and control blood samples (p=0.564). CONCLUSIONS: The hs-MSI approach is a valuable tool for CMMRD diagnosis, especially in suspected patients harbouring MMR variants of unknown significance or non-detected biallelic germline mutations.

13.
J Mol Diagn ; 22(3): 376-385, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881334

RESUMO

A significant proportion of DNA-mismatch repair (MMR) variants are classified as of unknown significance, precluding diagnosis. The in vitro MMR assay is used to assess their MMR capability, likely the most important function of an MMR protein. However, the robustness of the assay, crucial for its use in the clinical setting, has been rarely evaluated. The aim of the present work was to validate an in vitro MMR assay approach to the functional characterization of MMR variants, as a first step to meeting quality standards of diagnostic laboratories. The MMR assay was optimized by testing a variety of reagents and experimental conditions. Reference materials and standard operating procedures were established. To determine the intra- and interexperimental variability of the assay and its reproducibility among centers, independent transfections of six previously characterized MLH1 variants were performed in two independent laboratories. Reagents and conditions optimal for performing the in vitro MMR assay were determined. The validated assay demonstrated no significant intra- or interexperimental variability and good reproducibility between centers. We set up a robust in vitro MMR assay that can provide relevant in vitro functional evidence for MMR variant pathogenicity assessment, eventually improving the molecular diagnosis of hereditary cancer syndromes associated with MMR deficiency.

14.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 171, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779681

RESUMO

Constitutional MLH1 methylation (epimutation) is a rare cause of Lynch syndrome. Low-level methylation (≤ 10%) has occasionally been described. This study aimed to identify low-level constitutional MLH1 epimutations and determine its causal role in patients with MLH1-hypermethylated colorectal cancer.Eighteen patients with MLH1-hypermethylated colorectal tumors in whom MLH1 methylation was previously undetected in blood by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) were screened for MLH1 methylation using highly sensitive MS-melting curve analysis (MS-MCA). Constitutional methylation was characterized by different approaches.MS-MCA identified one patient (5.6%) with low-level MLH1 methylation (~ 1%) in blood and other normal tissues, which was confirmed by clonal bisulfite sequencing in blood. The patient had developed three clonally related gastrointestinal MLH1-methylated tumor lesions at 22, 24, and 25 years of age. The methylated region in normal tissues overlapped with that reported for other carriers of constitutional MLH1 epimutations. Low-level MLH1 methylation and reduced allelic expression were linked to the same genetic haplotype, whereas the opposite allele was lost in patient's tumors. Mutation screening of MLH1 and other hereditary cancer genes was negative.Herein, a highly sensitive MS-MCA-based approach has demonstrated its utility for the identification of low-level constitutional MLH1 epigenetic mosaicism. The eventual identification and characterization of additional cases will be critical to ascertain the cancer risks associated with constitutional MLH1 epigenetic mosaicism.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636762

RESUMO

Background: We previously reported that in pathogenic mismatch repair (path_MMR) variant carriers, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) was not reduced when colonoscopy was undertaken more frequently than once every 3 years, and that CRC stage and interval since last colonoscopy were not correlated. Methods: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) that records outcomes of surveillance was examined to determine survival after colon cancer in relation to the time since previous colonoscopy and pathological stage. Only path_MMR variants scored by the InSiGHT variant database as class 4 or 5 (clinically actionable) were included in the analysis. Results: Ninety-nine path_MMR carriers had no cancer prior to or at first colonoscopy, but subsequently developed colon cancer. Among these, 96 were 65 years of age or younger at diagnosis, and included 77 path_MLH1, 17 path_MSH2, and 2 path_MSH6 carriers. The number of cancers detected within < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 and at > 3.5 years after previous colonoscopy were 9, 43, 31 and 13, respectively. Of these, 2, 8, 4 and 3 were stage III, respectively, and only one stage IV (interval 2.5-3.5 years) disease. Ten-year crude survival after colon cancer were 93, 94 and 82% for stage I, II and III disease, respectively (p < 0.001). Ten-year crude survival when the last colonoscopy had been < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 or > 3.5 years before diagnosis, was 89, 90, 90 and 92%, respectively (p = 0.91). Conclusions: In path_MLH1 and path_MSH2 carriers, more advanced colon cancer stage was associated with poorer survival, whereas time since previous colonoscopy was not. Although the numbers are limited, together with our previously reported findings, these results may be in conflict with the view that follow-up of path_MMR variant carriers with colonoscopy intervals of less than 3 years provides significant benefit.

16.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 61: 129-132, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238232

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The current availability of genomic information represents an opportunity to develop new strategies for early detection of cancer. New molecular tests for endometrial cancer may improve performance and failure rates of histological aspirate-based diagnosis, and provide promising perspectives for a potential screening scenario. However, the selection of relevant biomarkers to develop efficient strategies can be a challenge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed an algorithm to identify the largest number of patients with endometrial cancer using the minimum number of somatic mutations based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. RESULTS: The algorithm provided the number of subjects with mutations (sensitivity) for a given number of biomarkers included in the signature. For instance, by evaluating the 50 most representative point mutations, up to 81.9% of endometrial cancers can be identified in the TCGA dataset. At gene level, a 92.9% sensitivity can be obtained by interrogating five genes. DISCUSSION: We developed a computational method to aid in the selection of relevant genomic biomarkers in endometrial cancer that can be adapted to other cancer types or diseases.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Genômica/métodos , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação
17.
Int J Cancer ; 145(12): 3194-3206, 2019 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199503

RESUMO

Due to the anatomical continuity of the uterine cavity with the cervix, genomic exploitation of material from routine Pap smears and other noninvasive sampling methods represent a unique opportunity to detect signs of disease using biological material shed from the upper genital tract. Recent research findings offer a promising perspective in the detection of endometrial cancer, but certain questions need to be addressed in order to accelerate the implementation of novel technologies in a routine screening or clinical setting. We discuss here new perspectives on detection of endometrial cancer using genomic and other biomarkers in minimally invasive sampling methods with a special focus on public health classic screening criteria, highlighting current gaps in knowledge.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos
18.
Mol Aspects Med ; 69: 27-40, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935834

RESUMO

Most next generation sequencing (NGS) studies identified candidate genetic variants predisposing to colorectal cancer (CRC) but do not tackle its functional interpretation to unequivocally recognize a new hereditary CRC gene. Besides, germline variants in already established hereditary CRC-predisposing genes or somatic variants share the same need when trying to categorize those with relevant significance. Functional genomics approaches have an important role in identifying the causal links between genetic architecture and phenotypes, in order to decipher cellular function in health and disease. Therefore, functional interpretation of identified genetic variants by NGS platforms is now essential. Available approaches nowadays include bioinformatics, cell and molecular biology and animal models. Recent advances, such as the CRISPR-Cas9, ZFN and TALEN systems, have been already used as a powerful tool with this objective. However, the use of cell lines is of limited value due to the CRC heterogeneity and its close interaction with microenvironment. Access to tridimensional cultures or organoids and xenograft models that mimic the in vivo tissue architecture could revolutionize functional analysis. This review will focus on the application of state-of-the-art functional studies to better tackle new genes involved in germline predisposition to this neoplasm.

19.
Int J Cancer ; 145(10): 2682-2691, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927264

RESUMO

Multigene panels provide a powerful tool for analyzing several genes simultaneously. We evaluated the frequency of pathogenic variants (PV) in customized predefined panels according to clinical suspicion by phenotype and compared it to the yield obtained in the analysis of our clinical research gene panel. We also investigated mutational yield of opportunistic testing of BRCA1/2 and mismatch repair (MMR) genes in all patients. A total of 1,205 unrelated probands with clinical suspicion of hereditary cancer were screened for germline mutations using panel testing. Overall, 1,048 females and 157 males were analyzed, mean age at cancer diagnosis was 48; 883 had hereditary breast/ovarian cancer-suspicion, 205 hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)-suspicion, 73 adenomatous-polyposis-suspicion and 44 with other/multiple clinical criteria. At least one PV was found in 150 probands (12%) analyzed by our customized phenotype-driven panel. Tumoral MMR deficiency predicted for the presence of germline MMR gene mutations in patients with HNPCC-suspicion (46/136 vs. 0/56 in patients with and without MMR deficiency, respectively). Opportunistic testing additionally identified five MSH6, one BRCA1 and one BRCA2 carriers (0.6%). The analysis of the extended 24-gene panel provided 25 additional PVs (2%), including in 4 out of 51 individuals harboring MMR-proficient colorectal tumors (2 CHEK2 and 2 ATM). Phenotype-based panels provide a notable rate of PVs with clinical actionability. Opportunistic testing of MMR and BRCA genes leads to a significant straightforward identification of MSH6, BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, and endorses the model of opportunistic testing of genes with clinical utility within a standard genetic counseling framework.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Feminino , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858900

RESUMO

Background: Recent epidemiological evidence shows that colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to occur in carriers of pathogenic mismatch repair (path_MMR) variants despite frequent colonoscopy surveillance in expert centres. This observation conflicts with the paradigm that removal of all visible polyps should prevent the vast majority of CRC in path_MMR carriers, provided the screening interval is sufficiently short and colonoscopic practice is optimal. Methods: To inform the debate, we examined, in the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD), whether the time since last colonoscopy was associated with the pathological stage at which CRC was diagnosed during prospective surveillance. Path_MMR carriers were recruited for prospective surveillance by colonoscopy. Only variants scored by the InSiGHT Variant Interpretation Committee as class 4 and 5 (clinically actionable) were included. CRCs detected at the first planned colonoscopy, or within one year of this, were excluded as prevalent cancers. Results: Stage at diagnosis and interval between last prospective surveillance colonoscopy and diagnosis were available for 209 patients with 218 CRCs, including 162 path_MLH1, 45 path_MSH2, 10 path_MSH6 and 1 path_PMS2 carriers. The numbers of cancers detected within < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 and at > 3.5 years since last colonoscopy were 36, 93, 56 and 33, respectively. Among these, 16.7, 19.4, 9.9 and 15.1% were stage III-IV, respectively (p = 0.34). The cancers detected more than 2.5 years after the last colonoscopy were not more advanced than those diagnosed earlier (p = 0.14). Conclusions: The CRC stage and interval since last colonoscopy were not correlated, which is in conflict with the accelerated adenoma-carcinoma paradigm. We have previously reported that more frequent colonoscopy is not associated with lower incidence of CRC in path_MMR carriers as was expected. In contrast, point estimates showed a higher incidence with shorter intervals between examinations, a situation that may parallel to over-diagnosis in breast cancer screening. Our findings raise the possibility that some CRCs in path_MMR carriers may spontaneously disappear: the host immune response may not only remove CRC precursor lesions in path_MMR carriers, but may remove infiltrating cancers as well. If confirmed, our suggested interpretation will have a bearing on surveillance policy for path_MMR carriers.

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