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2.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many cancer patients do not obtain clinical benefit from immune checkpoint inhibition. Checkpoint blockade targets T cells, suggesting that tyrosine kinase activity profiling of baseline peripheral blood mononuclear cells may predict clinical outcome. METHODS: Here a total of 160 patients with advanced melanoma or non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), treated with anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (anti-CTLA-4) or anti-programmed cell death 1 (anti-PD-1), were divided into five discovery and cross-validation cohorts. The kinase activity profile was generated by analyzing phosphorylation of peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysates in a microarray comprising of 144 peptides derived from sites that are substrates for protein tyrosine kinases. Binary grouping into patients with or without clinical benefit was based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors V.1.1. Predictive models were trained using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), performance of the models was evaluated by estimating the correct classification rate (CCR) using cross-validation. RESULTS: The kinase phosphorylation signatures segregated responders from non-responders by differences in canonical pathways governing T-cell migration, infiltration and co-stimulation. PLS-DA resulted in a CCR of 100% and 93% in the anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD1 melanoma discovery cohorts, respectively. Cross-validation cohorts to estimate the accuracy of the predictive models showed CCRs of 83% for anti-CTLA-4 and 78% or 68% for anti-PD-1 in melanoma or NSCLC, respectively. CONCLUSION: Blood-based kinase activity profiling for response prediction to immune checkpoint inhibitors in melanoma and NSCLC revealed increased kinase activity in pathways associated with T-cell function and led to a classification model with a highly accurate classification rate in cross-validation groups. The predictive value of kinase activity profiling is prospectively verified in an ongoing trial.

3.
Prev Med Rep ; 11: 120-124, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992082

RESUMO

Sex-workers have an increased risk for high-risk HPV(hrHPV) cervical cancer. On Curaçao, legal and illegal prostitution practice is high and the promiscuous lifestyle is common. We aimed to gain insight in HPV-genotype prevalence in cervical scrapes of female sex workers (FSW) and related risk factors in comparison with women not working in the sex industry. Cervical samples were taken from 76 FSW and 228 non-FSW (NFSW) age matched controls in the period between 2013 and 2015. HPV was detected by GP5+/6+ PCR-EIA followed by genotyping via reverse line-blot. HPV prevalence in FSWs was 25.0% and in NFSWs 29.4% (p = 0.14). NFSW had more often untypable HPV-genotypes (HPV-X:5.3% vs 0.0%; p = 0.042). A trend for statistical difference was observed in HPV prevalence between FSWs from Dominican Republic (42.1%) and FSWs from Colombia (19.2%; p = 0.067). Young age was the only risk factor related to HPV prevalence in FSWs. (Mean age FSW 29.2 y ±7.8 and NFSW 33 y ±6.2) Smoking and drugs consumption were significantly higher among FSW. A significant higher number of women with history of any STD was reported by NFSWs. In addition, >90% of FSW had their previous Pap smear <3 years ago, while >35% NFSW never had a previous Pap smear (p < 0.001). IN CONCLUSION: no significant difference in HPV prevalence is observed between FSW and NFSW. HPV prevalence in FSW was associated with a lower age. During interviews, FSW seemed more aware about prevention strategies, reported less history of STD's and were more updated with cervical cancer screening, compared to NFSWs.

4.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0199624, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Caribbean region, a notable difference in HPV-prevalence and genotypes distribution between the islands is observed. Recently we found in Curaçao a low incidence of HPV16 and 18 in cervical cancer compared to the standard world population. We aimed to determine HPV-prevalence, HPV-genotype distribution and associated risk-factors in women from Curaçao. METHODS: 5000 women aged 25-65 years were randomly selected from the national Population Register. HPV was detected by means of GP5+/6+PCR EIA and GP 5+/6+amplimers from HPV-positive samples were genotyped with a reverse hybridisation assay. We also collected personal data and data on risk-factors. RESULTS: 1075 women were enrolled in the study. Overall HPV-prevalence was 19.7%. Most frequent genotypes were HPV16 (2.3%), 35 (2.1%) and 52 (1.8%). Twenty-seven women detected with abnormal cytology (i.e.≥ASC-US) were referred for biopsy. In women with normal cytology (n = 1048), HPV-prevalence was 17.9% and the most common high-risk HPV (hrHPV)-types were HPV35 (2.0%), 18 (1.8%), 16 (1.5%) and 52 (1.5%). The highest HPV-prevalence (32.8%) was found in the age-group: 25-34 (n = 247). HPV positive women started sex at a younger age (p = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: HPV-prevalence in the overall population is high and HPV16 was the most common genotype followed by 35 and 18. In women with normal cytology HPV35 is the most common genotype followed by HPV18, 52 and 16. The high HPV-prevalence (32.8%) in women of 25-34 years argue for introduction of cervical cancer prevention strategies. HPV-type distribution found in Curaçao should be taken into account when considering the choice for prophylactic vaccination.


Assuntos
Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Curaçao/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/genética , Prevalência , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 562, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A low cost and accurate method for detecting high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is important to permit HPV testing for cervical cancer prevention. We used a commercially available HPV method (H13, Hybribio) which was documented to function accurately in a reduced volume of cervical specimen to determine the most prevalent HPV types and the distribution of HPV infections in over 1795 cancer-free women in Guatemala undergoing primary screening for cervical cancer by cytology. METHODS: HR-HPV detection was attempted in cervical samples from 1795 cancer-free women receiving Pap smears using the Hybribio™ real-time PCR assay of 13 HR types. The test includes a globin gene internal control. HPV positive samples were sequenced to determine viral type. Age-specific prevalence of HPV was also assessed in the study population. RESULTS: A total of 13% (226/1717) of women tested HPV+, with 78 samples (4.3%) failing to amplify the internal control. The highest prevalence was found in younger women (< 30 years, 22%) and older ones (≥60 years, 15%). The six most common HR-HPV types among the 148 HPV+ typed were HPV16 (22%), HPV18 (11%), HPV39 (11%), HPV58 (10%), HPV52 (8%), and HPV45 (8%). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of cancer free women in Guatemala, HPV16 was the most prevalent HR type in Guatemala and the age-specific prevalence curve peaked in younger ages. Women in the 30-59-year age groups had a prevalence of HR-HPV of 8%, however, larger studies to better describe the epidemiology of HPV in Guatemala are needed.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical , Colo do Útero/virologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Genótipo , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prevalência , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sex Transm Infect ; 94(4): 263-267, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Curaçao is a Dutch-Caribbean Island located in a high-risk area for cervical cancer.Prior to introduction of a prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, knowledge of the prevalence of high-risk HPV vaccine genotypes (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) in cervical (pre)cancer is required. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancers (ICC) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 1, 2 and 3 in Curaçao. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded blocks of 104 cervical cancers (89 squamous, 15 adenocarcinoma), 41 CIN3, 39 CIN2 and 40 CIN1 lesions were analysed for the presence of HPV. Sections were stained by H&E for histopathological evaluation, and DNA was extracted using proteinase K. HPV genotypes were detected using Short PCR Fragment (SPF10) PCR DNA enzyme immunoassay and a Line Probe Assay (LiPA25) . RESULTS: HPV was found in 92 (88.5%) ICC; 87 (94.6%) had a single HPV infection and 86 (93.5%) were high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV)-type positive.The three most common HPV types in ICC were 16 (38.5%), 18 (13.5%) and 45 (6.7%), covering 58.7%.HrHPV vaccine genotypes 16, 18, 31, 35, 45, 52 and 58 were responsible for 73.1% of ICC. For precancerous lesions, the HPV attribution was 85.4% for CIN3, 66.7% for CIN2% and 42.5% for CIN1. CONCLUSIONS: Our study, the largest in the Caribbean region in (pre)cancer, shows that the prevalence of HPV-type 16 and 18 in cervical cancer is lower compared with the world population but no differences in prevalence of these two HPV types are seen in precancerous lesions.When considering HPV vaccination in Curaçao, the relatively high contribution of non-HPV 16/18 genotypes in ICC should be taken into account.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/prevenção & controle , Adenocarcinoma/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alphapapillomavirus/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/prevenção & controle , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Curaçao/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Prev Med Rep ; 8: 238-241, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181295

RESUMO

In Curaçao, hysterectomies are frequently performed. A common reason for this procedure is the high incidence of leiomyomatosis. However in some cases the cervix is conserved. Following supravaginal hysterectomy most women discontinue cervical cancer screening because they think the cervix is not conserved. We aimed to get insight in the proportion of supravaginal hysterectomies and the level of awareness on the necessity to continue with cervical cancer screening in case of retained cervix. In 2014, data from all hysterectomies performed between 2003 and 2013 on Curaçao were collected. Information about: type of hysterectomy (supravaginal or not), age of the patient, reason for a hysterectomy and incidence of cervical cancer post-hysterectomy were obtained from the nationwide pathology database. In addition, 600 hysterectomised volunteers answered a questionnaire in which the awareness of their type of hysterectomy and continuation of screening for cervical cancer after surgery were investigated. In the at-risk population (≥ 15 years old), 6.0 per1000 women (95% CI 5.9-6.2) had a hysterectomy between 2003 and 2013 (n = 692,304). From the performed hysterectomies, 2.9% were supravaginal and no cases of cervical cancer post-hysterectomy were reported. The majority (55.3%) of women were unaware of their cervical status post-hysterectomy. About one-third (34.3%) of these women had their last Pap-smear pre-hysterectomy. Information campaigns are needed to raise awareness in women, to continue cervical-screening after supravaginal hysterectomy.

9.
PLoS One ; 8(7): e70237, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23875023

RESUMO

In cancer patients pervasive systemic suppression of Dendritic Cell (DC) differentiation and maturation can hinder vaccination efficacy. In this study we have extensively characterized migratory DC subsets from human skin and studied how their migration and T cell-stimulatory abilities were affected by conditioning of the dermal microenvironment through cancer-related suppressive cytokines. To assess effects in the context of a complex tissue structure, we made use of a near-physiological skin explant model. By 4-color flow cytometry, we identified migrated Langerhans Cells (LC) and five dermis-derived DC populations in differential states of maturation. From a panel of known tumor-associated suppressive cytokines, IL-10 showed a unique ability to induce predominant migration of an immature CD14(+)CD141(+)DC-SIGN(+) DC subset with low levels of co-stimulatory molecules, up-regulated expression of the co-inhibitory molecule PD-L1 and the M2-associated macrophage marker CD163. A similarly immature subset composition was observed for DC migrating from explants taken from skin overlying breast tumors. Whereas predominant migration of mature CD1a(+) subsets was associated with release of IL-12p70, efficient Th cell expansion with a Th1 profile, and expansion of functional MART-1-specific CD8(+) T cells, migration of immature CD14(+) DDC was accompanied by increased release of IL-10, poor expansion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and skewing of Th responses to favor coordinated FoxP3 and IL-10 expression and regulatory T cell differentiation and outgrowth. Thus, high levels of IL-10 impact the composition of skin-emigrated DC subsets and appear to favor migration of M2-like immature DC with functional qualities conducive to T cell tolerance.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-10/farmacologia , Células de Langerhans/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/citologia , Análise de Variância , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citometria de Fluxo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Pele/citologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia
10.
Lancet Oncol ; 13(5): 509-17, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22326922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-transduced allogeneic prostate cancer cells vaccine (GVAX) has antitumour activity against prostate cancer; preclinical studies have shown potent synergy when combined with ipilimumab, an antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4. We aimed to assess the safety of combined treatment with GVAX and ipilimumab in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: We did an open-labelled, single-centre, dose-escalation study of ipilimumab concurrent with a fixed dose of GVAX, with a subsequent expansion phase, both at the VU University Medical Centre (Amsterdam, Netherlands). Eligible patients had documented mCRPC and had not been previously treated with chemotherapy. All patients received a 5×10(8) cell priming dose of GVAX intradermally on day 1 with subsequent intradermal injections of 3×10(8) cells every 2 weeks for 24 weeks. The vaccinations were combined with intravenous ipilimumab every 4 weeks. We enrolled patients in cohorts of three; each cohort received an escalating dose of ipilimumab at 0·3, 1·0, 3·0, or 5·0 mg/kg. Our primary endpoint was safety. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01510288. FINDINGS: We enrolled 12 patients into our dose-escalation cohort. We did not record any severe immune-related adverse events at the first two dose levels. At the 3·0 mg/kg dose level, one patient had grade 2 and two patients grade 3 hypophysitis; at the 5·0 mg/kg dose level, two patients had grade 3 hypophysitis and one patient developed grade 4 sarcoid alveolitis (a dose-limiting toxic effect). Due to observed clinical activity and toxic events, we decided to expand the 3·0 mg/kg dose level, rather than enrol a further three patients at the 5·0 mg/kg level. 16 patients were enrolled in the expansion cohort, two of whom developed grade 2 hypophysitis, three colitis (one grade 1 and two grade 2), and one grade 3 hepatitis--all immune-related adverse events. The most common adverse events noted in all 28 patients were injection-site reactions (grade 1-2 events seen in all patients), fatigue (grade 1-2 in 20 patients, grade 3 in two), and pyrexia (grade 1-2 in 15 patients, grade 3 in one). 50% or greater declines in prostate-specific antigen from baseline was recorded in seven patients (25%); all had received 3·0 mg/kg or 5·0 mg/kg ipilimumab. INTERPRETATION: GVAX combined with 3·0 mg/kg ipilimumab is tolerable and safe for patients with mCRPC. Further research on the combined treatment of patients with mCRPC with vaccination and ipilimumab is warranted. FUNDING: Cell Genesys Inc, Prostate Cancer Foundation, Dutch Cancer Society (KWF-VU 2006-3697), and Foundation Stichting VUmc Cancer Center Amsterdam.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Ipilimumab , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orquiectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/secundário , Transplante Homólogo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 18(3): 882-9, 2012 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22156611

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Active specific immunotherapy (ASI) consisting of an autologous tumor cell vaccine given as adjuvant treatment has been shown to improve recurrence-free survival of patients with colon cancer. The aim of the current retrospective study was to investigate whether the beneficial effects of ASI given as adjuvant treatment correlated with microsatellite instability (MSI), which is considered an important biologic determinant of colon cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Microsatellite status was assessed on archival tumor material from patients with stage II and III colon cancer. Microsatellite status was next associated with clinical outcome in control and ASI treatment groups using Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: We identified 162 (83%) microsatellite-stable tumors (MSS) and 34 (17%) MSI tumors. Patients with MSI tumors did well in recurrence-free interval (RFI) as well as disease-specific survival (DSS) irrespective of treatment arm and tumor stage. Patients with MSI tumors had significantly fewer recurrences and prolonged DSS than those with MSS tumors. Patients with MSS Dukes B tumors who received ASI treatment showed a significantly improved recurrence-free survival compared with controls. ASI treatment did not improve recurrence-free interval or DSS for patients with MSS Dukes C tumors. CONCLUSION: This retrospective study indicated that patients with MSI tumors did well, irrespective of treatment arm and tumor stage. The data also indicate that the clinical benefit, measured as recurrence-free survival, from adjuvant ASI treatment of patients with colon cancer was restricted to patients with MSS Dukes B tumors.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/terapia , Imunoterapia Ativa , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Repetições de Microssatélites , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 10(1): 8-23, 2011 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21609931

RESUMO

Detecting and removing high-risk adenomas and early colorectal cancer (CRC) can reduce mortality of this disease. The noninvasive fecal occult blood test (FOBT; guaiac-based or immunochemical) is widely used in screening programs and although effective, it leaves room for improvement in terms of test accuracy. Molecular tests are expected to be more sensitive, specific and informative than current detection tests, and are promising future tools for CRC screening. This review provides an overview of the performances of DNA, RNA, and protein markers for CRC detection in stool and blood. Most emphasis currently is on DNA and protein markers. Among DNA markers there is trend to move away from mutation markers in favor of methylation markers. The recent boost in proteomics research leads to many new candidate protein markers. Usually in small series, some markers show better performance than the present FOBT. Evaluation in large well-controlled randomized trials is the next step needed to take molecular markers for CRC screening to the next level and warrant implementation in a screening setting.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , DNA/análise , Metilação de DNA , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/instrumentação , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Mutação , Proteômica , RNA/análise , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 8(3): 146-54, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19632929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The enhancer region of the thymidylate synthase (TS) gene (TSER) contains a polymorphic tandem repeat sequence (2 or 3 repeats, 2R or 3R) and a single-nucleotide polymorphism (G > C) within the second repeat of the 3R alleles which might influence TS expression/activity and response to fluoropyrimidines. However, clinical studies in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) failed to find a consistent relationship between TSER polymorphisms and protein levels as well as with clinical outcome. The analysis of the relationship between TSER genotype and TS mRNA and activity in normal and malignant tissues might explain the previous controversial data and help in the selection of useful markers to predict drug response and/or toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To address this issue, we studied TSER genotype, TS expression, and activity with specific polymerase chain reaction and activity assays (TS catalytic activity and FdUMP binding) in normal (liver, mucosa) and malignant (primary tumor and liver metastasis) tissues from 83 patients with CRC. RESULTS: No correlation between TSER genotype and TS mRNA and protein levels was observed in malignant tissues. In contrast, normal tissues harboring one or two 3RG alleles were characterized by higher TS protein levels (2.4-fold; P = .008) and catalytic activity (P < .05) compared with the other TSER genotypes. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that TSER polymorphisms do not predict tumoral TS levels possibly depending on altered TS regulation in cancer tissues, and might explain the lack of clear correlation with clinical outcome after chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines. However, the relationship between TS phenotype and TSER genotype in normal tissues warrants further investigations in large-scale prospective studies evaluating TS genotype and fluoropyrimidine tolerability.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Timidilato Sintase/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colo/enzimologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/enzimologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/enzimologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Neoplásico/genética , RNA Neoplásico/metabolismo , Reto/enzimologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Timidilato Sintase/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 57(10): 1569-77, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18523771

RESUMO

The field of tumor vaccination is currently undergoing a shift in focus, from individualized tailor-made vaccines to more generally applicable vaccine formulations. Although primarily predicated by financial and logistic considerations, stemming from a growing awareness that clinical development for wide-scale application can only be achieved through backing from major pharmaceutical companies, these new approaches are also supported by a growing knowledge of the intricacies and minutiae of antigen presentation and effector T-cell activation. Here, the development of whole-cell tumor and dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines from an individualized autologous set-up to a more widely applicable allogeneic approach will be discussed as reflected by translational studies carried out over the past two decades at our laboratories and clinics in the vrije universiteit medical center (VUmc) in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Transplante Autólogo , Transplante Homólogo
15.
Lancet Oncol ; 9(6): 533-42, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18495536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: JX-594 is a targeted oncolytic poxvirus designed to selectively replicate in and destroy cancer cells with cell-cycle abnormalities and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-ras pathway activation. Direct oncolysis plus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression also stimulates shutdown of tumour vasculature and antitumoral immunity. We aimed to assess intratumoral injection of JX-594 in patients with refractory primary or metastatic liver cancer. METHODS: Between Jan 4, 2006, and July 4, 2007, 14 patients with histologically confirmed refractory primary or metastatic liver tumours (up to 10.9 cm total diameter) that were amenable to image-guided intratumoral injections were enrolled into this non-comparative, open-label, phase I dose-escalation trial (standard 3x3 design; two to six patients for each dose with 12-18 estimated total patients). Patients received one of four doses of intratumoral JX-594 (10(8) plaque-forming units [pfu], 3x10(8) pfu, 10(9) pfu, or 3x10(9) pfu) every 3 weeks at Dong-A University Hospital (Busan, South Korea). Patients were monitored after treatment for at least 48 h in hospital and for at least 4 weeks as out-patients. Adverse event-monitoring according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (version 3) and standard laboratory toxicity grading for haematology, liver and renal function, coagulation studies, serum chemistry, and urinalysis were done. The primary aims were to ascertain the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and safety of JX-594 treatment. Data were also collected on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy. Analysis was per protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00629759. FINDINGS: Of 22 patients with liver tumours who were assessed for eligibility, eight patients did not meet inclusion criteria. Therefore, 14 patients, including those with hepatocellular, colorectal, melanoma, and lung cancer, were enrolled. Patients were heavily pretreated (5.6 previous treatments, SD 2.8, range 2.0-12.0) and had large tumours (7.0 cm diameter, SD 2.7, range 1.8-10.9). Patients received a mean of 3.4 (SD 2.2, range 1.0-8.0) cycles of JX-594. All patients were evaluable for toxicity. All patients experienced grade I-III flu-like symptoms, and four had transient grade I-III dose-related thrombocytopenia. Grade III hyperbilirubinaemia was dose-limiting in both patients at the highest dose; the MTD was therefore 1x10(9) pfu. JX-594 replication-dependent dissemination in blood was shown, with resultant infection of non-injected tumour sites. GM-CSF expression resulted in grade I-III increases in neutrophil counts in four of six patients at the MTD. Tumour responses were shown in injected and non-injected tumours. Ten patients were radiographically evaluable for objective responses; non-evaluable patients had contraindications to contrast medium (n=2) or no post-treatment scans (n=2). According to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), three patients had partial response, six had stable disease, and one had progressive disease. INTERPRETATION: Intratumoral injection of JX-594 into primary or metastatic liver tumours was generally well-tolerated. Direct hyperbilirubinaemia was the dose-limiting toxicity. Safety was acceptable in the context of JX-594 replication, GM-CSF expression, systemic dissemination, and JX-594 had anti-tumoral effects against several refractory carcinomas. Phase II trials are now underway.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Vírus Oncolíticos , Vírus Vaccinia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/biossíntese , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Humanos , Hiperbilirrubinemia/etiologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/efeitos adversos , Vírus Oncolíticos/genética , Vírus Oncolíticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus Oncolíticos/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Infecções por Poxviridae/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Vírus Vaccinia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus Vaccinia/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
16.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 62(6): 937-48, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18283461

RESUMO

Murine L1210 leukaemia cells expressing either the reduced folate carrier (RFC) or the membrane folate receptor (MFR) were studied in vitro and in vivo to assess the dynamics of membrane transport of two categories antifolates; folate-based inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (methotrexate, edatrexate, aminopterin, PT523, and PT644) and thymidylate synthase (TS) [CB3717, raltitrexed, plevitrexed (BGC9331), pemetrexed and GW1843]. The potency of in situ inhibition of TS was used as an endpoint to analyze the in vitro dynamics of RFC/MFR-membrane transport of these antifolates. Both for L1210-RFC and L1210-MFR cells, the potency of in situ TS inhibition was closely correlated with increasing affinities of these transporters for the antifolates (r = 0.64, P < 0.05 and r = -0.65, P < 0.05, respectively). Within the group of antifolates for which MFR had a low binding affinity, those that had the ability to become polyglutamylated, were more potent inhibitors of TS in situ activity than non-polyglutamatable antifolates. In vivo activity of methotrexate, edatrexate, raltitrexed and pemetrexed was assessed in L1210-RFC and L1210-MFR bearing mice that were fed either a standard or a folate-deficient chow. Dietary folate depletion significantly reduced the MTD for methotrexate (sevenfold), edatrexate (sevenfold), raltitrexed (50-fold) and pemetrexed (150-fold). Based on increased life spans, antitumor effects of methotrexate and edatrexate were markedly better in L1210-RFC bearing mice on the folate-deficient chow (ILS: 455 and 544%, respectively) than on standard chow (ILS: 213 and 263%, respectively). No therapeutic effects of methotrexate and edatrexate were observed for L1210-MFR bearing mice on either chow condition, which may be consistent with the low binding affinity for MFR. Irrespective of the folate diet status, pemetrexed and raltitrexed were inactive against both L1210-RFC and L1210-MFR bearing mice, which may be due to high circulating plasma thymidine levels. Collectively, this study underscores that modulation of dietary folate status can provide a basis within which the therapeutic effect of antifolates may be further improved.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacocinética , Leucemia L1210/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Animais , Líquido Ascítico/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Receptores de Folato com Âncoras de GPI , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Leucemia L1210/patologia , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácido Poliglutâmico/metabolismo , Proteína Carregadora de Folato Reduzido , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Timidilato Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores
17.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 6(10): 2807-15, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17938272

RESUMO

Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a multifunctional protein and one of the most important growth factors in cutaneous melanoma development and progression. We hypothesized that high bFGF expression might be responsible for chemoresistance in advanced melanoma. M14 human melanoma cells expressing low levels of bFGF were successfully transfected with vectors encoding either the 18 kDa or all isoform proteins of bFGF. M14 cells and bFGF-overexpressing clones had a similar growth rate in vitro. Overexpression of 18 kDa or all isoform proteins of bFGF resulted in, respectively, 2.9- and 6.9-fold resistance against temozolomide. O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase (AGT) protein levels were highly elevated. Specific inhibition of AGT with O6-benzylguanine completely reversed the resistance in the 18 kDa clone, and partially in the clone overexpressing all isoforms. A methylation-specific PCR showed that at least in the 18 kDa overexpressing clone, increased AGT expression was the result of demethylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase promoter. In parental M14 cells, the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine generated AGT expression resulting in temozolomide resistance. Overexpression of all isoform proteins of bFGF, but not the 18 kDa isoform alone, resulted in 2.9-fold resistance against cisplatin, which could not be reversed by O6-benzylguanine. The expression levels of the mismatch repair proteins MSH2, MSH6, and MLH1 were not decreased, which likely excludes a defective mismatch repair system as a cause for cisplatin resistance. There were no changes in sensitivity to docetaxel and doxorubicin. In conclusion, bFGF overexpression can result in resistance against temozolomide mediated by demethylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase promoter.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Metilação de DNA , Dacarbazina/análogos & derivados , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/farmacologia , Melanoma/genética , O(6)-Metilguanina-DNA Metiltransferase/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Pareamento Incorreto de Bases , Western Blotting , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Dacarbazina/farmacologia , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Guanina/metabolismo , Humanos , Luciferases/metabolismo , Melanoma/enzimologia , Melanoma/patologia , O(6)-Metilguanina-DNA Metiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , O(6)-Metilguanina-DNA Metiltransferase/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Neoplásico/genética , RNA Neoplásico/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Temozolomida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Melanoma Res ; 17(3): 155-68, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17505261

RESUMO

Basic fibroblast growth factor is the best-characterized autocrine growth factor in melanoma development and progression. We hypothesized that basic fibroblast growth factor might induce a more aggressive phenotype dependent on the amount of protein expressed in melanoma. Two human melanoma cell lines, M14 and 1F6, known to have low endogenous basic fibroblast growth factor expression and slow growth as subcutaneous xenografts, were stably transfected with vectors encoding either the 18 kDa or all (ALL) isoform proteins of human basic fibroblast growth factor. Different clones overexpressing the 18 kDa or ALL basic fibroblast growth factor proteins were easily obtained. Increased levels of basic fibroblast growth factor were secreted in conditioned medium and stored on the extracellular membrane. Biological activity of the overexpressed basic fibroblast growth factor was confirmed in a human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation assay. In 1F6 cells, overexpression of either 18 kDa or ALL basic fibroblast growth factor proteins resulted in up to two-fold shorter in-vitro doubling times (P<0.05). In addition, in vivo, both 18 kDa and ALL basic fibroblast growth factor-overexpressing 1F6 subcutaneous xenografts displayed significantly higher growth rates (P<0.05). In contrast, no major differences in in-vitro and in-vivo doubling times were observed when 18 kDa or ALL isoforms of basic fibroblast growth factor were overexpressed in M14 cells. Interestingly, basic fibroblast growth factor overexpression only affected the microvasculature in 1F6 xenografts. Although blood vessels in 1F6 parent tumors were large, 1F6 tumors overexpressing basic fibroblast growth factor contained numerous small, compressed vessels. Taken together, overexpression of the 18 kDa basic fibroblast growth factor protein only can promote autocrine melanoma cell growth and paracrine-driven angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Comunicação Autócrina , Proliferação de Células , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Comunicação Parácrina , Animais , Comunicação Autócrina/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Feminino , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/química , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/farmacologia , Humanos , Melanoma Experimental/irrigação sanguínea , Melanoma Experimental/genética , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/farmacologia , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Peso Molecular , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Comunicação Parácrina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Transfecção
19.
Nat Rev Cancer ; 7(6): 475-85, 2007 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17522716

RESUMO

Contrary to initial expectations, angiogenesis inhibitors can cause toxicities in patients with cancer. The toxicity profiles of these inhibitors reflect the disturbance of growth factor signalling pathways that are important for maintaining homeostasis. Experiences with angiogenesis inhibitors in clinical trials indicate that short-term toxicities are mostly manageable. However, these agents will also be given in prolonged treatment strategies, so we need to anticipate possible long-term toxicities. In addition, understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the toxicity of angiogenesis inhibition should allow more specific and more potent inhibitors to be developed.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/fisiologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Esquema de Medicação , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Biológicos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Trombose/etiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 74(2): 191-201, 2007 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17498666

RESUMO

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and its transcriptional regulator Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) play an important role in the process of angiogenesis in many types of cancer, including ovarian cancer. We have examined whether the DNA-damaging drugs cisplatin and doxorubicin and the microtubule inhibitors docetaxel and paclitaxel can affect VEGF expression and HIF-1 activity in three human ovarian cancer cell lines. We demonstrate that cisplatin and doxorubicin abolish hypoxia-induced VEGF mRNA expression in all cell lines, while basal VEGF mRNA expression was also downregulated. Transient transfection with a HIF-1-responsive luciferase construct indicated that cisplatin and doxorubicin inhibited hypoxic activation of HIF-1. Cisplatin repressed HIF-1alpha protein expression in all cell lines. Stimulation of HIF-1alpha protein degradation by cisplatin was observed in the only cell line expressing wild-type p53. Cisplatin also inhibited the synthesis of HIF-1alpha protein for which p53 was dispensable. Interestingly, cisplatin strongly reduced the protein levels of the HIF-1 coactivators p300 and CREB-binding protein (CBP) under hypoxia in all cell lines. Although doxorubicin inhibited hypoxic activation of HIF-1, this drug had no significant effect on the expression levels of HIF-1alpha and hypoxic expression of p300 and CBP was only weakly reduced. Docetaxel and paclitaxel did neither influence VEGF expression nor hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activity. In total, our findings indicate that cisplatin and doxorubicin can repress hypoxic induction of VEGF expression by inhibiting HIF-1 through different mechanisms. This knowledge may be useful for future treatment schedules including agents that target the HIF-1 signalling pathway.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Anidrase Carbônica IX , Anidrases Carbônicas/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Corticosterona , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição de p300-CBP/genética
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