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1.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468760

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of peripartal administration of a commercially available nonspecific immune stimulant (mycobacterium cell wall fraction; MCWF [Amplimune, NovaVive Inc., Napanee, ON, Canada]) on the incidence of disease during early lactation and subsequent fertility of dairy cows. A second objective was to characterize the dynamics of circulating white blood cells (WBC) and metabolic markers following treatment administration. Cows in an United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic-certified dairy herd were blocked by parity and, based on sequential calving dates, randomly assigned to receive two injections (5 mL s.c.) of either a placebo (saline solution) as a control (CON; n = 71) or MCWF (n = 65) at enrollment (7 d before expected calving) and within 24 h after calving. Blood samples were collected from a subsample of the study population (MCWF = 16; CON = 18) for WBC count at enrollment, at day 2 post enrollment, and at days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after calving. Serum fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and Ca concentrations were determined at days 1 and 7 postpartum (MCWF = 21; CON = 21). Main outcome variables included incidence risk of peripartal and early lactation health disorders and pregnancy at first artificial insemination (AI), at 100, and at 150 days in milk (DIM). In addition, the average daily milk yield up to 90 DIM and death and live culling before 305 DIM were compared. Treatment effects were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, time-to-event analyses, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). A treatment effect on the incidence risk of some of the health disorders in the study was established. Incidence risk of metritis and clinical mastitis <28 DIM was smaller in MCWF than in CON cows (36.9% vs. 50.7% and 6.3% vs. 19.7%, respectively). On the contrary, the incidence risk of respiratory disease <28 DIM was smaller in CON (0%) than in MCWF (7.7%). Reproductive performance of multiparous cows was affected by MCWF administration: pregnancy at first AI and pregnancy at 100 and 150 DIM were greater in MCWF than in CON (35.6% vs. 19.2%; 51.1% vs. 25.0%; and 64.4% vs. 40.4%, respectively). Overall, median intervals from calving to pregnancy were 90 vs. 121 d in MCWF and CON cows, respectively. No treatment effects on the dynamics of circulating WBC or in postpartum metabolic status were established. No differences for milk yield or for the proportion of cows that survived up to 305 DIM were determined, although cows in MCWF left the herd earlier than cows in CON. In conclusion, incidence risks of metritis and mastitis in early lactation were smaller in cows receiving MCWF, whereas the incidence risk of respiratory disease was smaller in CON. Fertility significantly improved in MCWF compared with CON cows. As this study was performed in an organic-certified dairy, specific health and reproductive management practices may affect the external validity of the current findings.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Mycobacterium , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Parede Celular , Feminino , Fertilidade , Lactação , Leite , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Reprodução
2.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 258(2): 197-209, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405986

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To survey cattle producers and veterinarians about the use of analgesia on US cattle operations. SAMPLE: 1,187 members of the following database, electronic mailing lists, and social media groups: FarmProgress master file, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Academy of Veterinary Consultants, National Milk Producers Federation Farm Evaluators, Dairy Moms Facebook group, and Dairy Girl Network Facebook group. PROCEDURES: An online survey was developed to gather information about the frequency of local and systemic analgesia use for common painful procedures and diseases in cattle < 2, 2 to 12, and > 12 months old. Respondents also rated their extent of agreement with each of 10 statements related to pain management in cattle. The survey was available from June 11 to August 10, 2018. Descriptive data were generated. Logistic regression was used for comparisons among cattle age groups and respondents on the basis of their industry role. RESULTS: In general, frequency of analgesia use increased as cattle age increased, regardless of the procedure or disease. The odds of analgesia use were lower for men, compared with women, and greater for veterinarians, compared with producers. Many respondents indicated they were cognizant of the benefits of analgesia use in cattle but perceived federal regulations and drug costs as impediments to the implementation of pain mitigation protocols on cattle operations. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results provided insight into current perceptions and use of analgesia in cattle, which can be used to guide implementation of pain mitigation protocols on US beef and dairy cattle operations.


Assuntos
Analgesia , Doenças dos Bovinos , Médicos Veterinários , Analgesia/veterinária , Animais , Atitude , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Humanos , Dor/veterinária , Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
3.
Transl Anim Sci ; 2(3): 231-240, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704707

RESUMO

The use of milk leukocyte differential (MLD) test has been proposed as a complement to somatic cell count (SCC) to assess the presence and the severity of intramammary infection. However, detailed information regarding the behavior of MLD under different physiological or pathological stages of the cow is nonexistent. The objective was to analyze the association between milk leukocyte proportions provided by a commercial automated MLD test and multiple cow and quarter-level variables. The study population consisted of 104 Holstein cows (32 primiparous and 72 multiparous) in one farm. Cows were categorized by days in milk as early (<50 DIM; n=29), middle (50-250 DIM; n=25), and late lactation (>250 DIM; n = 50). Milk from 416 quarters was collected and analyzed for lymphocytes (LYM), neutrophils (NEU), and macrophages (MAC) counts using an automated milk fluorescence microscopy system. Concurrently, a sterile composite milk sample was collected from each cow for pathogen identification through microbiological culture. Culture results were classified as no growth (NOG), gram-negative (GN), gram-positive (GP), or other (OTH). Milk leukocyte proportions varied depending on the level of total leukocyte counts (TLC; P < 0.001). Similarly, leukocyte ratios (NEU:LYM, NEU:MAC, and phagocyte:LYM) were different for multiple TLC categories (P < 0.05). There was no association between parity number and MLD; however, cows in early lactation had the greatest proportions of NEU and LYM. Leukocyte ratios varied depending on parity number and stage of lactation. Cows in the medium milk-yield category had the smallest proportions of NEU and LYM, and there was significant variation in leukocyte ratios, depending on the level of milk yield. In healthy quarters, MLD were not associated with quarter position; however, the NEU:MAC ratio was greater in rear quarters than in front quarters. In quarters with TLC >100,000, NEU% was greater in rear quarters than in front quarters (P = 0.03). For quarters with pathogen growth, TLC was greatest for GN followed by OTH and GP (P < 0.001). Milk LD depended on the isolated pathogen group, although the magnitudes of the differences were small. Although the changes in the proportions of leukocytes in milk were associated with categories of TLC, levels of milk yield, and mastitis-causing pathogen groups, the deviations were small in magnitude. Additional research is necessary to determine the potential applications for this methodology.

4.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 251(5): 580-586, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28828958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To identify milk component alterations that might be useful for detecting cows with rumen indigestion. DESIGN Prospective case-control study. ANIMALS 23 Holstein cows with rumen indigestion (cases) and 33 healthy cohorts (controls) from 1 herd. PROCEDURES Cases were defined as cows between 30 and 300 days postpartum with a > 10% decrease in milk yield for 2 consecutive milkings or > 20% decrease in milk yield from the 10-day rolling mean during any milking, abnormally decreased rumen motility, and no other abnormalities. Each case was matched with 2 healthy cows (controls) on the basis of pen, parity, days postpartum, and mean milk yield. Some cows were controls for multiple cases. All cows underwent a physical examination and collection of a rumen fluid sample for pH measurement at study enrollment. Individual-cow milk yield and milk component data were obtained for the 16 milkings before and after study enrollment. Rumen motility and pH and milk components were compared between cases and controls. RESULTS Rumen motility for cases was decreased from that of controls. Cases had an abrupt increase in milk fat percentage and the milk fat-to-lactose ratio during the 2 milkings immediately before diagnosis of rumen indigestion. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed that a 10% increase in the milk fat-to-lactose ratio had the highest combined sensitivity (57%) and specificity (85%) for identifying cows with rumen indigestion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that a positive deviation in the milk fat-to-lactose ratio might be useful for identifying cows with rumen indigestion.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Dispepsia/veterinária , Rúmen/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Dieta , Dispepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Lactação , Leite , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Vet Microbiol ; 172(1-2): 301-8, 2014 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24930984

RESUMO

Johne's disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), can cause considerable economic losses in affected herds. Early diagnosis of JD is hampered by the chronic nature of the disease with a slow subclincal progression. The aim of the present study was to challenge the hypothesis that lymphatic fluid is of diagnostic value in the early stages of the disease. Lymphatic fluid from 122 animals was collected and tested for MAP by nested PCR for IS900 and compared to the results of testing for MAP in feces (culture), blood and milk (ELISA) in 110 of these samples. MAP was detected by PCR in 27.1% of the lymph samples. Agreement between the tests was poor: 6.9% of the lymph positive cows were also positive in all other tests applied, and 69.0% had negative results in fecal culture, blood and milk ELISA. Resampling of 25 cows after 8 to 12 and 16 to 20 months revealed 20.0% lymph positive animals at the first, 5.5% at the second and 27.8% at the third sampling, respectively. Only one cow showed positive lymph-PCR results at more than one sampling date. Lymph-positive cows had a 7.2 times greater likelihood of being culled within 8 to 12 months after sampling, compared to negative cows, mainly due to other health issues than JD. It can be concluded, that lymphatic fluid might be promising for the detection of early MAP-infection in cows, but further studies to elucidate the potential of this diagnostic approach are needed.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Linfa/microbiologia , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/imunologia , Paratuberculose/diagnóstico , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Leite/microbiologia , Paratuberculose/imunologia , Paratuberculose/microbiologia
6.
J Math Biol ; 69(2): 501-32, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23864122

RESUMO

Many infectious agents transmitting through a contaminated environment are able to persist in the environment depending on the temperature and sanitation determined rates of their replication and clearance, respectively. There is a need to elucidate the effect of these factors on the infection transmission dynamics in terms of infection outbreaks and extinction while accounting for the random nature of the process. Also, it is important to distinguish between the true and apparent extinction, where the former means pathogen extinction in both the host and the environment while the latter means extinction only in the host population. This study proposes a stochastic-differential equation model as an approximation to a Markov jump process model, using Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle as a model system. In the model, the host population infection dynamics are described using the standard susceptible-infected-susceptible framework, and the E. coli O157:H7 population in the environment is represented by an additional variable. The backward Kolmogorov equations that determine the probability distribution and the expectation of the first passage time are provided in a general setting. The outbreak and apparent extinction of infection are investigated by numerically solving the Kolmogorov equations for the probability density function of the associated process and the expectation of the associated stopping time. The results provide insight into E. coli O157:H7 transmission and apparent extinction, and suggest ways for controlling the spread of infection in a cattle herd. Specifically, this study highlights the importance of ambient temperature and sanitation, especially during summer.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli O157/imunologia , Modelos Imunológicos , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/transmissão , Processos Estocásticos , Temperatura
7.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 243(7): 1035-41, 2013 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24050572

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of CBC variables and castration status at the time of arrival at a research facility with the risk of development of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS: 1,179 crossbred beef bull (n = 588) and steer (591) calves included in 4 experiments at 2 University of Arkansas research facilities. PROCEDURES: Calves underwent processing and treatments in accordance with the experiment in which they were enrolled. Castration status and values of CBC variables were determined at the time of arrival at the facilities. Calves were monitored to detect signs of BRD during a 42-day period. RESULTS: The areas under the receiving operator characteristic curves for CBC variables with significant contrast test results ranged from 0.51 (neutrophil count) to 0.67 (eosinophil count), indicating they were limited predictors of BRD in calves. The only CBC variables that had significant associations with BRD in calves as determined via multivariable logistic regression analysis were eosinophil and RBC counts. The odds of BRD for bulls were 3.32 times the odds of BRD for steers. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results of this study indicated that low eosinophil and high RBC counts in blood samples may be useful for identification of calves with a high risk for development of BRD. Further research may be warranted to validate these variables for prediction of BRD in calves. Calves that were bulls at the time of arrival had a higher risk of BRD, versus calves that were steers at that time.


Assuntos
Complexo Respiratório Bovino/sangue , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Animais , Biomarcadores , Bovinos , Estudos de Coortes , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 24(1): 23-31, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22362932

RESUMO

The objective of the current study was to evaluate the feasibility of lymph collection from the bovine udder and to investigate if the lymphatic fluid might be of diagnostic value in cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. Lymph fluid collection was attempted from 58 cows, and the reactions of the cows as well as the level of difficulty of the procedure were recorded in 56 animals. Lymph samples (51 in total) were tested for the presence of MAP by nested polymerase chain reaction. Collection of the lymphatic fluid caused no or mild signs of discomfort in 94.6% of the cows; in 51.8% of cows, lymphatic fluid was attained on the first attempt, while sample collection was unsuccessful in 12.1%. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected in 43.1% of all lymph samples. The bacterium was present in 66.7% of cows with clinical Johne's disease, in 42.8% of asymptomatic cows with a positive or suspicious enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) result in blood, and in 38.7% of cows with a negative ELISA result in blood. The present study shows that the procedure was well tolerated by most cows and can easily be performed on farm. The current report of the isolation of MAP from lymph fluid suggests that the present approach could be used for the early detection of Johne's disease in cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Linfa/microbiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/metabolismo , Paratuberculose/diagnóstico , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Paratuberculose/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária
9.
Prev Vet Med ; 91(2-4): 189-96, 2009 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19525022

RESUMO

Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) imposes a significant problem to the world dairy and beef industries and today is considered a potential zoonosis. The disease is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and is characterized by progressive weight loss and profuse diarrhoea. Susceptibility to infection is suspected to have a genetic component, and moderated values for heritability of infection have been reported. Interferon gamma is an inducible cytokine with a crucial role in the innate host response to intracellular bacteria. Toll-like receptors are trans-membrane structures responsible for coordination of innate and adaptive immune responses. The solute carrier family 11 member 1 (SLC11A1, formerly NRAMP1) gene plays an important role in innate immunity, preventing bacterial growth in macrophages during the initial stages of infection. The objective of this candidate gene case-control study was to characterize the distribution of polymorphisms in three candidate genes related to the immune function; interferon gamma (BoIFNG), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and SLC11A1 genes and to test their role as potential risk factors for paratuberculosis infection in cattle. The statistical analysis demonstrated significant differences in allelic frequencies between cases and controls for BoIFNG-SNP(1)2781 and SLC11A1 microsatellites, indicating a significant association between infection and variant alleles. In the analysis of genotypes, a significant association was also found between infection status and BoIFNG-SNP(1)2781 and SLC11A1-275-279-281 microsatellites. However, when variables such as breed and age were included in the multivariate logistic regression analysis, a tendency toward statistical significance for the effect of polymorphisms in the odds of infection was only found for alleles SLC11A1-275 and 279.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Interferon gama/genética , Paratuberculose/epidemiologia , Paratuberculose/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , DNA/genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/microbiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Risco , Tamanho da Amostra
10.
Mamm Genome ; 20(2): 124-9, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19145459

RESUMO

Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, is an important disease for bovines, although its genetic basis is poorly understood. In this study, three candidate genes were typed to study the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and paratuberculosis susceptibility (measured in a 1 or 0 form) at the haplotype level. A significant risk haplotype, constructed by a variant allele (C) at the first SNP and a common allele (A) at the second SNP, within the CARD15 gene was detected to trigger genetic effects on paratuberculosis infection in an overdominace manner. Marginally significant haplotypes were identified for the other two genes. The results obtained will provide scientific guidance about the selection and prediction of resistance types in bovines.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Paratuberculose/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
11.
Vet Microbiol ; 134(3-4): 346-52, 2009 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18926647

RESUMO

Paratuberculosis represents a major problem in farmed ruminants and at the present is considered a potential zoonosis. The disease is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and susceptibility to infection is suspected to have a genetic component. Caspase recruitment domain 15 (CARD15) gene encodes for a cytosolic protein implicated in bacterial recognition during innate immunity. Crohn's disease (CD) is an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease in humans comparable in many features to bovine paratuberculosis involving an abnormal mucosal immune response. The association between mutations in the CARD15 gene and increased risk of Crohn's disease has been described. The objective of this candidate gene case-control study was to characterize the distribution of three polymorphisms in the bovine CARD15 gene and test their association with paratuberculosis infection in cattle. Three previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (E2[-32] intron 1; 2197/C733R and 3020/Q1007L) were screened for the study population (431 adult cows). The statistical analysis resulted in significant differences in allelic frequencies between cases and controls for SNP2197/C733R (P<0.001), indicating a significant association between infection and variant allele. In the analysis of genotypes, a significant association was also found between SNP2197/C733R and infection status (P<0.0001); cows with the heterozygous genotype were 3.35 times more likely to be infected than cows with the reference genotype (P=0.01). Results suggest a role for CARD15 gene in the susceptibility of cattle to paratuberculosis infection. These data contribute to the understanding of paratuberculosis, suggest new similarities with Crohn's disease and provide new information for the control of bovine paratuberculosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Paratuberculose/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Feminino
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