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1.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468760

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of peripartal administration of a commercially available nonspecific immune stimulant (mycobacterium cell wall fraction; MCWF [Amplimune, NovaVive Inc., Napanee, ON, Canada]) on the incidence of disease during early lactation and subsequent fertility of dairy cows. A second objective was to characterize the dynamics of circulating white blood cells (WBC) and metabolic markers following treatment administration. Cows in an United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic-certified dairy herd were blocked by parity and, based on sequential calving dates, randomly assigned to receive two injections (5 mL s.c.) of either a placebo (saline solution) as a control (CON; n = 71) or MCWF (n = 65) at enrollment (7 d before expected calving) and within 24 h after calving. Blood samples were collected from a subsample of the study population (MCWF = 16; CON = 18) for WBC count at enrollment, at day 2 post enrollment, and at days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after calving. Serum fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and Ca concentrations were determined at days 1 and 7 postpartum (MCWF = 21; CON = 21). Main outcome variables included incidence risk of peripartal and early lactation health disorders and pregnancy at first artificial insemination (AI), at 100, and at 150 days in milk (DIM). In addition, the average daily milk yield up to 90 DIM and death and live culling before 305 DIM were compared. Treatment effects were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, time-to-event analyses, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). A treatment effect on the incidence risk of some of the health disorders in the study was established. Incidence risk of metritis and clinical mastitis <28 DIM was smaller in MCWF than in CON cows (36.9% vs. 50.7% and 6.3% vs. 19.7%, respectively). On the contrary, the incidence risk of respiratory disease <28 DIM was smaller in CON (0%) than in MCWF (7.7%). Reproductive performance of multiparous cows was affected by MCWF administration: pregnancy at first AI and pregnancy at 100 and 150 DIM were greater in MCWF than in CON (35.6% vs. 19.2%; 51.1% vs. 25.0%; and 64.4% vs. 40.4%, respectively). Overall, median intervals from calving to pregnancy were 90 vs. 121 d in MCWF and CON cows, respectively. No treatment effects on the dynamics of circulating WBC or in postpartum metabolic status were established. No differences for milk yield or for the proportion of cows that survived up to 305 DIM were determined, although cows in MCWF left the herd earlier than cows in CON. In conclusion, incidence risks of metritis and mastitis in early lactation were smaller in cows receiving MCWF, whereas the incidence risk of respiratory disease was smaller in CON. Fertility significantly improved in MCWF compared with CON cows. As this study was performed in an organic-certified dairy, specific health and reproductive management practices may affect the external validity of the current findings.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Mycobacterium , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Parede Celular , Feminino , Fertilidade , Lactação , Leite , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Reprodução
2.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 178, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypocalcemia has detrimental effects on health and performance of dairy cows. As hypocalcemic cows show reduced feed intake, we hypothesized that cows with reduced combined rumination and eating time (CRET) may benefit from Ca supplementation. The objective was to evaluate the effect of postpartum oral Ca administration on metabolic status (Calcium [Ca], fatty acids [FA], and ß-Hydroxybutyrate [BHB] serum concentrations) and incidence of puerperal metritis (PM) in dairy cows with reduced postpartum CRET. Cows in an organic-certified dairy, diagnosed with reduced CRET (< 489 min/d; n = 88) during the first day postpartum were assigned into 1 of 2 treatments: i) Calcium administration (CA; n = 45) that received 1 Ca oral capsule (Bovikalc bolus, Boehringer Ingelheim, St. Joseph, MO) containing CaCl2 and CaSO4 (43 g of Ca) once per day, for 3 consecutive days, starting at d 1 postpartum; and ii) Control (CON; n = 43) that did not receive oral Ca. A convenience group consisting of cows with CRET ≥489 min/d was used for comparison and did not receive oral Ca (NOR; n = 96). RESULTS: At day 1 postpartum cows with reduced CRET had lower Ca serum concentrations (CA = 2.08 mmol/L; CON = 2.06 mmol/L) compared with NOR cows (2.17 mmol/L). Calcium concentrations at d 3, 5, and 12 postpartum were not different among the three groups. Serum FA concentrations at d 1, 3 and 5 postpartum were higher in both CA and CON cows compared with NOR. At d 12, only CA cows had higher FA concentrations than NOR cows. Serum BHB concentrations at d 3 were highest in CA, with no difference between CON and NOR. At d 5, BHB concentrations were higher in CA, followed by CON, and NOR. No effect was observed for Ca administration on incidence of PM and reproductive performance. CON cows had lower survival at 30 DIM (86.5%) than NOR cows (97.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The use of remote sensor technology identified cows with reduced rumination and eating time that had lower postpartum serum concentrations of calcium and altered metabolic status. However, oral calcium administration to cows with reduced CRET did not affect incidence of metabolic disorders nor reproductive health and subsequent pregnancy. Although survival at 30 days postpartum was lower for non-Ca supplemented cows, the identification of effective interventions in cows with reduced CRET requires further consideration.


Assuntos
Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/dietoterapia , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Período Pós-Parto/metabolismo , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Cálcio/sangue , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Suplementos Nutricionais , Endometrite/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Gravidez , Ruminação Digestiva
3.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 258(2): 197-209, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405986

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To survey cattle producers and veterinarians about the use of analgesia on US cattle operations. SAMPLE: 1,187 members of the following database, electronic mailing lists, and social media groups: FarmProgress master file, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Academy of Veterinary Consultants, National Milk Producers Federation Farm Evaluators, Dairy Moms Facebook group, and Dairy Girl Network Facebook group. PROCEDURES: An online survey was developed to gather information about the frequency of local and systemic analgesia use for common painful procedures and diseases in cattle < 2, 2 to 12, and > 12 months old. Respondents also rated their extent of agreement with each of 10 statements related to pain management in cattle. The survey was available from June 11 to August 10, 2018. Descriptive data were generated. Logistic regression was used for comparisons among cattle age groups and respondents on the basis of their industry role. RESULTS: In general, frequency of analgesia use increased as cattle age increased, regardless of the procedure or disease. The odds of analgesia use were lower for men, compared with women, and greater for veterinarians, compared with producers. Many respondents indicated they were cognizant of the benefits of analgesia use in cattle but perceived federal regulations and drug costs as impediments to the implementation of pain mitigation protocols on cattle operations. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results provided insight into current perceptions and use of analgesia in cattle, which can be used to guide implementation of pain mitigation protocols on US beef and dairy cattle operations.


Assuntos
Analgesia , Doenças dos Bovinos , Médicos Veterinários , Analgesia/veterinária , Animais , Atitude , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Humanos , Dor/veterinária , Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
4.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 523, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134329

RESUMO

Sensor technologies allow ethologists to continuously monitor the behaviors of large numbers of animals over extended periods of time. This creates new opportunities to study livestock behavior in commercial settings, but also new methodological challenges. Densely sampled behavioral data from large heterogeneous groups can contain a range of complex patterns and stochastic structures that may be difficult to visualize using conventional exploratory data analysis techniques. The goal of this research was to assess the efficacy of unsupervised machine learning tools in recovering complex behavioral patterns from such datasets to better inform subsequent statistical modeling. This methodological case study was carried out using records on milking order, or the sequence in which cows arrange themselves as they enter the milking parlor. Data was collected over a 6-month period from a closed group of 200 mixed-parity Holstein cattle on an organic dairy. Cows at the front and rear of the queue proved more consistent in their entry position than animals at the center of the queue, a systematic pattern of heterogeneity more clearly visualized using entropy estimates, a scale and distribution-free alternative to variance robust to outliers. Dimension reduction techniques were then used to visualize relationships between cows. No evidence of social cohesion was recovered, but Diffusion Map embeddings proved more adept than PCA at revealing the underlying linear geometry of this data. Median parlor entry positions from the pre- and post-pasture subperiods were highly correlated (R = 0.91), suggesting a surprising degree of temporal stationarity. Data Mechanics visualizations, however, revealed heterogeneous non-stationary among subgroups of animals in the center of the group and herd-level temporal outliers. A repeated measures model recovered inconsistent evidence of a relationships between entry position and cow attributes. Mutual conditional entropy tests, a permutation-based approach to assessing bivariate correlations robust to non-independence, confirmed a significant but non-linear association with peak milk yield, but revealed the age effect to be potentially confounded by health status. Finally, queueing records were related back to behaviors recorded via ear tag accelerometers using linear models and mutual conditional entropy tests. Both approaches recovered consistent evidence of differences in home pen behaviors across subsections of the queue.

5.
Anim Nutr ; 6(1): 47-53, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211528

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the effect of linseed and canola expeller on average daily weight gain (ADG), concentrate intakes, incidence of diarrhea, serum haptoglobin, interleukin (IL)-1, and resolvin-E1 in female Holstein calves from birth to weaning. A sample size of 20 calves per group was calculated and were randomly allocated at the time of birth. Linseed group (LIN) was fed a starter with linseed expeller, while canola group (CAN) received a similar concentrate, but with canola expeller. Both expellers were included at a rate of 25% dry matter (DM) basis of the starter. Pasteurized waste milk was fed twice a day until weaning. Calves were weighed at birth, 30, and 60 d of age. Starter intake was evaluated daily from 5 to 60 d. A blood sample was obtained at birth, 14, 28, 35, and 49 d of age, and bovine serum resolvin-E1, haptoglobin, and IL-1 were assayed by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Incidence of diarrhea and the duration of the events were also recorded. The effect of the interaction group by time on body weight (BW) and starter intake was not significant (P > 0.05). Average daily gains (ADG) from 0 to 60 d for CAN and LIN groups were 0.680 and 0.675 kg/d (P > 0.05), respectively. Incidences of diarrhea were 25% and 45% for CAN and LIN groups, respectively (P = 0.18). LIN group had greater concentrations of IL-1 at d 21, haptoglobin at d 7, and resolving-E1 at d 14 and 49 than CAN group, respectively. It is concluded that BW at weaning, ADG, and concentrate intakes were not different between groups fed starters containing linseed or canola expeller (25% inclusion). The concentrations of cytokines and haptoglobin were the greatest in LIN group.

6.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 450, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Negative energy balance during the transition period is a concern for both conventional and certified organic dairy systems. During early lactation, supplemental strategies are used to cope with nutrient deficiencies that are associated with impaired health, production, and reproduction. As organic certified dairies in the United States face restricted access to dietary supplements, the evaluation of products especially formulated for organic production is needed. Our objective was to assess the effect of supplementing 0.45 kg/d of an organic rumen-protected fat (RPF) on health, metabolic status, and productive and reproductive performance of organic certified Holstein cows from 1 to 150 days in milk (DIM). Two-hundred and two cows were enrolled in a randomized blocked controlled trial conducted from January to July 2017 in a certified organic dairy located in Northern Colorado (USA). Two groups were randomly assigned to be individually supplemented with organic RPF (ORG; n = 100) or control pellets (CON; n = 102) once per day, in addition to the total mixed ration (TMR). Outcomes of interest included milk yield (kg/d) and milk components, serum concentration of glucose, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), resumption of cyclicity, time-to-first artificial insemination (AI), conception at first AI, and conception within 150 DIM, disease occurrence, culling, mortality. RESULTS: A significant effect for the inclusion of RPF was found in daily milk yield; RPF supplemented cows had greater milk yield (1.6 kg/d) compared to CON cows up to 150 DIM (P = 0.03). During grazing, multiparous (MP) ORG cows had greater milk yield compared to MP CON cows, whereas no effect was found in primiparous (PP) cows. Health outcomes, serum metabolite concentrations, and reproductive performance were not affected by the inclusion of RPF. Body condition loss was smaller in the ORG group up to 80 DIM; however, there was no effect on body condition during the grazing season and in the overall study period. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that supplementation of RPF increased daily milk yield and prevented body condition loss during at 90 DIM. However, RPF supplementation did not affect health, serum metabolite concentration, milk components, and reproductive outcomes.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Lactação/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Bovinos/metabolismo , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Leite , Agricultura Orgânica/métodos , Reprodução/fisiologia
7.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(12)2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842505

RESUMO

The present study used surveys of the cattle sector over the period of 2009-2015 to develop a typology of cattle farms to evaluate their evolution over time and to identify variables that may be associated with systems' adaptive changes and continuance. Four groups of farms were defined using multivariate analyses as follows: Group I are small calf-cow operations using non-specialized beef breeds; Group II is similar to Group I but employs specialized beef breeds; Group III is dedicated to finishing cattle, and Group IV are larger farms (>1000 animals) with a complete cycle of breeding and fattening. In general, beef cattle production in the temperate-Mediterranean Southern Zone of Chile is declining in response to the opening up of the economy that allows for ample imports, the high opportunity cost of land, and recurrent droughts associated with climate change. Current policies and regulations have modified farms' businesses models depending on their ease of access to markets, farm size and financial capacity. The defined groups require different development paths and strategies. Sustainable intensification is an alternative strategy for farms in Group I and II, particularly if they were to contract the finishing stage of their cattle with Group III farms. In contrast, it is suggested that Group IV farms concentrate on pastoral production using low external inputs to enhance the production of "natural" beef for high-value niche markets, with positive externalities.

8.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 284, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calf stress at weaning and during transition to group pens represents a concern in dairy operations. Favoring natural behaviors, such as grooming, may help on reducing this challenge. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of a mechanical grooming brush on behavior and health of recently weaned calves, after transferring from individual to group housing. Two treatment groups (control [CON, n = 81]; automated brush [AB, n = 81]) were compared enrolling Holstein heifers (94 ± 7 d old) that were monitored for 20 days. Four cohorts, considering one CON and one AB group (19-20 calves/pen/cohort) were enrolled sequentially. Each calf was weighed, clinically evaluated, and affixed with a 3-D accelerometer sensor attached to the ear at enrolment. Continuous measurements (min/h) were generated for the following behaviors: Not-active, active, highly active, eating, and ruminating. Cameras for continuous video recording were installed in each pen, and calves were weighted at the last day of the study (d 20). Behavioral data were summarized as daily averages (min/h). Data was examined using repeated measures analysis for nested factors, with day as the time unit. RESULTS: Overall, calves had their first interaction with the brush within 2.5 days with a mean (SE) of 7 (±9.6) h after being transferred to group pens. A significant effect was determined for the interaction day by treatment on the time spent not-active and eating. Average not-active time was greater in CON compared to AB (22.8 ± 0.82 min/h vs. 21.7 ± 0.82 min/h), while eating time was greater in AB compared with CON (7.01 ± 0.40 min/h vs. 6.43 ± 0.40 min/h). Treatment groups had a similar weight gain and time to the first disease. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the use of a mechanical brush influenced behavior, reducing not-active time, while increasing eating time. The consequences of this change in activity require further investigation.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/instrumentação , Comportamento Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Abrigo para Animais , Comportamento Social
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 53, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first month of life possess significant challenges for dairy calves due to high susceptibility to digestive diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prebiotic supplementation with stabilized rice bran (SRB) in milk on health, immunity, and performance of pre-weaned organic dairy calves. Holstein heifer calves (n = 90) were enrolled at 6 ± 1 days old and monitored for 28 days, from July to August 2017. Calves were randomly assigned to a control (CTR; n = 45) or a treatment group (SRB; n = 45). The CTR group received milk alone and the SRB group received 120 g of SRB per day in milk to achieve a 10% w/w dose of the total calories. Daily health evaluations were conducted to score health status and disease severity (healthy, slightly affected, moderately or severely sick) of calves, through integrated assessment of diarrhea, dehydration, attitude, and milk intake. Body weights and fecal IgA quantification were completed on the first and last day of the study. RESULTS: Overall, weight gain and fecal IgA concentrations were not affected by the dietary addition of SRB. The total number of calf-days classified as healthy or sick were not different between treatment groups. Similarly, the number of calf-days categorized as slightly affected, moderately sick, or severely sick did not differ between treatment groups. Time to event analyses indicated a tendency for a treatment effect in the time to the first moderate case of diarrhea (P = 0.08), as well as in the time to recovery from diarrhea (P = 0.052), favoring control calves. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that the dietary addition of SRB in milk did not have an effect in health, immunity or performance of pre-weaned dairy calves.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fibras na Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Oryza , Prebióticos , Ração Animal , Animais , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fezes/química , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Ganho de Peso
10.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 192: 69-77, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29534827

RESUMO

Currently there is no contraceptive vaccine that can cause permanent sterility in mares. This study investigates the effect of vaccination against oocyte-specific growth factors, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP-15) and Growth Differentiation Factor 9 (GDF-9), on ovarian function of mares. It was hypothesized that immunization against these growth factors would prevent ovulation and/or accelerate depletion of the oocyte reserve. For this study, 30 mares were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 10/group) and vaccinated with BMP-15 or GDF-9 peptides conjugated to KLH and adjuvant, or a control of phosphate buffered saline and adjuvant. Horses received vaccinations at weeks 0, 6, 12, and 18. Ovarian activity and estrous behavior were evaluated 3 days a week via ultrasonography and interaction with a stallion. The study was initiated on March1, 2016. Upon evaluation of ovulation rate, the GDF-9 group did not have a difference (P = 0.66) in ovulation rate when compared to controls (10.8 and 10.0 ovulations, respectively), but the number of ovulations in the BMP-15 group was less (P = 0.02; 4.9 ovulations). Average follicle size prior to ovulation was less (P < 0.0001) in both treatment groups compared to controls. Estrous behavior was altered in both the BMP-15 and GDF-9 groups compared to controls after the second vaccination (P = 0.05 and 0.03, respectively). Although further research is required to determine the continued effects of vaccination against GDF-9 on ovulation rates, these results indicate that vaccination against BMP-15 and GDF-9 could serve as a contraceptive in wild horse populations.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 15/imunologia , Fator 9 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/imunologia , Cavalos/fisiologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Vacinas Anticoncepcionais/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Esquemas de Imunização , Ovário/imunologia , Ovulação/imunologia
11.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192149, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29414986

RESUMO

Escherichia coli O157:H7 fecal shedding in feedlot cattle is common and is a public health concern due to the risk of foodborne transmission that can result in severe, or even fatal, disease in people. Despite a large body of research, few practical and cost-effective farm-level interventions have been identified. In this study, a randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effect of reducing the level of water in automatically refilling water-troughs on fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle. Pens in a feedlot in the Texas Panhandle were randomly allocated as control (total number: 17) or intervention (total number: 18) pens. Fecal samples (2,759 in total) were collected both at baseline and three weeks after the intervention, and tested for the presence of E. coli O157:H7 using immunomagnetic bead separation and selective culture. There was a strong statistical association between sampling date and the likelihood of a fecal sample testing positive for E. coli O157:H7. Pen was also a strong predictor of fecal prevalence. Despite accounting for this high level of clustering, a statistically significant association between reduced water levels in the trough and increased prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in the feces was observed (Odds Ratio = 1.6; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.2-2.0; Likelihood Ratio Test: p = 0.02). This is the first time that such an association has been reported, and suggests that increasing water-trough levels may be effective in reducing shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle feces, although further work would be needed to test this hypothesis. Controlling E. coli O157:H7 fecal shedding at the pre-harvest level may lead to a reduced burden of human foodborne illness attributed to this pathogen in beef.


Assuntos
Água Potável/microbiologia , Escherichia coli O157/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Análise Multivariada , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , Tempo (Meteorologia)
12.
Transl Anim Sci ; 2(3): 231-240, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704707

RESUMO

The use of milk leukocyte differential (MLD) test has been proposed as a complement to somatic cell count (SCC) to assess the presence and the severity of intramammary infection. However, detailed information regarding the behavior of MLD under different physiological or pathological stages of the cow is nonexistent. The objective was to analyze the association between milk leukocyte proportions provided by a commercial automated MLD test and multiple cow and quarter-level variables. The study population consisted of 104 Holstein cows (32 primiparous and 72 multiparous) in one farm. Cows were categorized by days in milk as early (<50 DIM; n=29), middle (50-250 DIM; n=25), and late lactation (>250 DIM; n = 50). Milk from 416 quarters was collected and analyzed for lymphocytes (LYM), neutrophils (NEU), and macrophages (MAC) counts using an automated milk fluorescence microscopy system. Concurrently, a sterile composite milk sample was collected from each cow for pathogen identification through microbiological culture. Culture results were classified as no growth (NOG), gram-negative (GN), gram-positive (GP), or other (OTH). Milk leukocyte proportions varied depending on the level of total leukocyte counts (TLC; P < 0.001). Similarly, leukocyte ratios (NEU:LYM, NEU:MAC, and phagocyte:LYM) were different for multiple TLC categories (P < 0.05). There was no association between parity number and MLD; however, cows in early lactation had the greatest proportions of NEU and LYM. Leukocyte ratios varied depending on parity number and stage of lactation. Cows in the medium milk-yield category had the smallest proportions of NEU and LYM, and there was significant variation in leukocyte ratios, depending on the level of milk yield. In healthy quarters, MLD were not associated with quarter position; however, the NEU:MAC ratio was greater in rear quarters than in front quarters. In quarters with TLC >100,000, NEU% was greater in rear quarters than in front quarters (P = 0.03). For quarters with pathogen growth, TLC was greatest for GN followed by OTH and GP (P < 0.001). Milk LD depended on the isolated pathogen group, although the magnitudes of the differences were small. Although the changes in the proportions of leukocytes in milk were associated with categories of TLC, levels of milk yield, and mastitis-causing pathogen groups, the deviations were small in magnitude. Additional research is necessary to determine the potential applications for this methodology.

13.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 251(5): 580-586, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28828958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To identify milk component alterations that might be useful for detecting cows with rumen indigestion. DESIGN Prospective case-control study. ANIMALS 23 Holstein cows with rumen indigestion (cases) and 33 healthy cohorts (controls) from 1 herd. PROCEDURES Cases were defined as cows between 30 and 300 days postpartum with a > 10% decrease in milk yield for 2 consecutive milkings or > 20% decrease in milk yield from the 10-day rolling mean during any milking, abnormally decreased rumen motility, and no other abnormalities. Each case was matched with 2 healthy cows (controls) on the basis of pen, parity, days postpartum, and mean milk yield. Some cows were controls for multiple cases. All cows underwent a physical examination and collection of a rumen fluid sample for pH measurement at study enrollment. Individual-cow milk yield and milk component data were obtained for the 16 milkings before and after study enrollment. Rumen motility and pH and milk components were compared between cases and controls. RESULTS Rumen motility for cases was decreased from that of controls. Cases had an abrupt increase in milk fat percentage and the milk fat-to-lactose ratio during the 2 milkings immediately before diagnosis of rumen indigestion. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed that a 10% increase in the milk fat-to-lactose ratio had the highest combined sensitivity (57%) and specificity (85%) for identifying cows with rumen indigestion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that a positive deviation in the milk fat-to-lactose ratio might be useful for identifying cows with rumen indigestion.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Dispepsia/veterinária , Rúmen/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Dieta , Dispepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Lactação , Leite , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 33(2): 377-387, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28579049

RESUMO

Animal welfare is an essential aspect of organic dairying. Consequently, adequate lameness control should be a central component of on-farm health monitoring programs. The combination of organic management practices, including grazing requirements that are combined with different types of housing, results in unique features determining the cows' feet and legs health condition. Because the use of therapeutic resources is limited, preventive management and early detection of lameness is critical in organic dairies. This article discusses the relevant aspects of prevention and treatment options of lameness disorders in organic dairy farms.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Indústria de Laticínios , Coxeadura Animal/terapia , Agricultura Orgânica , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 100(4): 2917-2927, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28215890

RESUMO

Our objective was to evaluate the effect of oral calcium administration on clinical cure, survival, subsequent presentation of peripartal health disorders, and reproductive performance of Holstein cows diagnosed with puerperal metritis (PM) under certified organic management. A second objective was to evaluate the metabolic status at calving and at the time of PM diagnosis (d 0) in affected and matched healthy cows. Cows diagnosed with PM (n = 200) were assigned randomly to receive 1 of 2 treatments: (1) control received 3.75 mL of Optimum UterFlush [Van Beek Natural Science, Orange City, IA, containing yucca extract, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and a proprietary blend of carvacrol (4-isopropyl-2-methylphenol, at 0.47 g/mL)] diluted in 117 mL of distilled water by intrauterine infusion, administered every other day for a total of 3 treatments (n = 100); (2) calcium-supplemented (CA) received the same intrauterine treatment plus 6 oral capsules providing calcium ('O' Cal-D Cap, Bio-Vet Inc., Barneveld, WI; 7.5-9.0 g of Ca/capsule) once per day, for 3 consecutive days after diagnosis of PM. All cows received hypertonic saline solution (500 mL of 7.2% solution i.v. once), dextrose (500 mL of 50% solution i.v. once), and oral aspirin (5 boluses/d for 3 d). Outcome variables included fever, presence of fetid vaginal discharge, and uterine score at d 6 and 14 after diagnosis, survival at 30 and 100 d in milk, reproductive performance, and incidence of other health disorders after PM. A group of 200 control healthy cows (CH) was matched with PM cows at d 0, and calcium and fatty acid serum concentrations were determined at calving and at the day of diagnosis of PM (d 0). Calcium status was also assessed in PM cows at d 1, 2, 3, and 6 after diagnosis. Treatment effects were tested by logistic regression, repeated measures analysis, and ANOVA. Average calcium serum concentrations at d 0 were lower in PM cows (1.57 mmol/L) compared with CH cows (2.10 mmol/L). In PM cows, calcium concentrations at d 1, 2, 3, and 6 after diagnosis were significantly higher in the CA group. Fatty acid serum concentrations at calving and at d 0 were higher in PM cows compared with CH cows (0.48 vs. 0.37 mmol/L and 0.49 vs. 0.35 mmol/L, for calving and d 0). No effect was observed for calcium administration on health and survival outcomes. However, the proportion of cows inseminated by 150 d in milk was greater for CA compared with control cows (66 vs. 55%). In conclusion, supplementing oral calcium at the time of diagnosing PM had no effect on health. High fatty acid concentrations at calving were significant risk factors for occurrence of PM. Furthermore, cows affected with PM had lower calcium and higher fatty acid concentrations than CH cows at d 0.


Assuntos
Cálcio/sangue , Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bovinos , Endometrite/tratamento farmacológico , Endometrite/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Período Pós-Parto , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Theriogenology ; 90: 219-227, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166972

RESUMO

The objectives of the present investigation were to evaluate the pregnancy diagnosis by detection of either the allantochorion membrane (FMS) or amniotic sac (ASP) by per rectum palpation (PRP) during late embryonic or early fetal period on pregnancy loss (PRL) at reexamination, calving rates, and abnormalities in newborn calves. A controlled randomized blind design with 800 lactating dairy pregnant cows diagnosed by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) between Days 35 and 57 of gestation from one dairy farm were included. The cows were randomly divided according to detection of allantochorion membrane (FMS group; n = 264), detection of amniotic sac (ASP group; n = 266), and TRUS (control [CON] group; n = 270). TRUS was considered as the criterion standard method of comparison. The entire PRP was performed by one experienced veterinarian. Then, all the cows were reexamined only by TRUS between 2 and 4 weeks later by two independent veterinarians to assess PRL. The calving rate one (number of cows calved divided by the number of cows initially pregnant) and calving rate two (number of cows calved divided by the number of cows pregnant at reexamination) for each group was calculated. All abortions and stillborns were necropsied, and calves alive were followed for 5 days. The overall initial PRL (between initial pregnant cows and reexamination) for FMS, ASP, and CON groups was 7.4% (19/258), 8.8% (23/262), and 9.2% (24/260), respectively (P = 0.75). The overall late PRL (between reexamination and calving) for FMS, ASP, and CON groups was 4.2% (9/213), 5.7% (12/209), and 4.2% (9/216), respectively (P = 0.71). The calving rate one for FMS, ASP, and TRUS groups was 79.1% (204/258), 75.2% (197/262), and 79.6% (207/260), respectively (P = 0.63). The calving rate two for the same groups was 85.4% (204/239), 82.4% (197/239), and 87.7% (207/236), respectively (P = 0.27). The number of fetuses aborted late, premature, and mature dead from FMS, ASP, and CON groups was 6, 4, and 5, respectively (P = 0.85), and no abnormalities at necropsy were detected. One stillborn male calf with atresia coli after 281 days of gestation from a cow examined by ASP at Day 51 was diagnosed. It was concluded that the use of either FMS or ASP for pregnancy diagnosis during late embryonic or early fetal period did not increase the PRL, affect calving rates, or produce calves with congenital abnormalities.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Bovinos/anormalidades , Exame Retal Digital/veterinária , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Exame Retal Digital/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Atresia Intestinal/veterinária , Masculino , Gravidez , Testes de Gravidez/veterinária
17.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 172: 64-71, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27032505

RESUMO

While the safety and efficacy profiles of orally administered bovine interferon (IFN) alpha have been documented, the mechanism(s) that result in clinical benefits remain elusive. One approach to delineating the molecular pathways of IFN efficacy is through the use of gene expression profiling technologies. In this proof-of-concept study, different (0, 50, 200 and 800 units) oral doses of natural bovine IFN (type I) were tested in cattle to determine if oral IFN altered the expression of genes that may be pivotal to the development of systemic resistance to viral infections such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Oral IFN was administered twice: Time 0 and 8h later. Blood was collected at 0, 8 and 24h after the first IFN administration, and DNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was employed in quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) microarray assays. Within 8h, 50 and 200 units of oral IFN induced significant (P<0.05) changes in expression of 41 of 92 tested autoimmune and inflammatory response-associated genes. These data suggest that orally administered IFN is a viable approach for providing short-term antiviral immunity to livestock exposed to viruses such as FMD virus (FMDV) until such a time that an effective vaccine can be produced and distributed to producers.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Animais , Autoimunidade/genética , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Citocinas/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interferon-alfa/administração & dosagem , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Receptores de Citocinas/genética
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 12: 50, 2016 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26968506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ketogenesis is a secondary metabolic pathway to provide energy to dairy cows during early lactation; however when the production of ketone bodies (acetoacetate, acetone, ß- hydroxybutyrate) is above certain levels a subclinical disorder may appear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between serum concentrations of ß- hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and fatty acid (FA) profile of milk with emphasis in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a population of early lactation Holstein cows. Fifty cows between parity 1 and 5, ranging from 14 to 21 days in milk, were randomly selected from 3 farms of the central area of Chile for determination of serum BHBA concentrations, milk fat content, and milk FA profiles. RESULTS: Cows were divided in low (n = 26) and high (n = 24) BHBA groups considering the median value of the serum concentration of BHBA (0.7 mmol/L) (SEM = 0.094). Mean milk fat % was 3.45% and 3.60% for cows in the low and high BHBA groups, respectively (P = 0.15). Concentrations of several FA were significantly different between both groups. Specifically, mean CLA concentrations were 0.40% (4 ± 0.03 g/kg) and 0.33% (3.3 ± 0.03 g/kg) for the low and high BHBA groups, respectively (P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that early postpartum cows with serum BHBA > 0.7 mmol/L tended to have higher milk fat % and had significantly lower concentrations of CLA than early postpartum cows with BHBA ≤ 0.7 mmol/L.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Chile , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Lactação/sangue , Período Pós-Parto/sangue
19.
Theriogenology ; 85(3): 419-27, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26443235

RESUMO

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of per rectal amniotic sac palpation (ASP) for pregnancy diagnosis during the late embryonic period on pregnancy loss, calving rates, and abnormalities in newborn calves. A controlled, randomized, blocked, blind experiment containing 680 lactating pregnant dairy cows with a viable embryo diagnosed by transrectal ultrasonography was performed. Two dairy operation sites (farm A and farm B) were selected. At each farm, the cows were randomly divided into control (CON) and ASP groups. The CON group was not subjected to pregnancy diagnosis via per rectum palpation. The ASP examinations were performed by one experienced veterinarian between Days 34 and 45 after breeding. All cows were reevaluated by transrectal ultrasonography only between 2 and 4 weeks later. Two calving rates were calculated: calving rate 1 (cows that calved from the initial number of pregnant cows) and calving rate 2 (cows that calved from cows pregnant at reexamination). In farm A, the percentages of early pregnancy loss were 11.5% (19 of 165) and 13.2% (24 of 182) for the CON and the ASP groups, respectively (P = 0.64). In farm B, the percentage of early pregnancy loss was 11.2% (19 of 170) for the CON group and 8.8% (14 of 159; P = 0.48) for the ASP group. In farm A, the percentage of late pregnancy loss was 7.6% (11 of 145) for the CON group and 5.5% (8 of 155; P = 0.39) for the ASP group. In farm B, the percentage of late pregnancy loss was 3.7% (5 of 137) for the CON group and 6.3% (8 of 127; P = 0.32) for the ASP group. In farm A, early pregnancy loss was higher than late pregnancy loss (12.4% vs. 6.3%; P = 0.01), and in farm B, the same tendency was detected (10.0% vs. 4.9%, for early and late pregnancy loss, respectively; P = 0.02). In farm A, calving rate 1 was 81.2% (134 of 165) for the CON group and 80.8% (147 of 182; P = 0.92) for the ASP group. Calving rate 2 for the same groups was 92.4% (134 of 145) and 94.8% (147 of 155), respectively (P = 0.68). In farm B, calving rate 1 was 77.7% (132 of 170) for the CON group and 74.8% (119 of 159; P = 0.55) for the ASP group. Calving rates 2 for the same groups were 87.4% (132 of 151) and 82.1% (119 of 145), respectively (P = 0.20). Two female calves with atresia coli were diagnosed only in the CON group. It was concluded that ASP during the late embryonic period for pregnancy diagnosis did not increase the pregnancy loss, affect calving rates, or produce abnormalities in calves.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/etiologia , Âmnio , Animais Recém-Nascidos/anormalidades , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Exame Retal Digital/veterinária , Testes de Gravidez/veterinária , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Exame Retal Digital/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Gravidez , Testes de Gravidez/métodos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/veterinária
20.
Vet Microbiol ; 172(1-2): 301-8, 2014 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24930984

RESUMO

Johne's disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), can cause considerable economic losses in affected herds. Early diagnosis of JD is hampered by the chronic nature of the disease with a slow subclincal progression. The aim of the present study was to challenge the hypothesis that lymphatic fluid is of diagnostic value in the early stages of the disease. Lymphatic fluid from 122 animals was collected and tested for MAP by nested PCR for IS900 and compared to the results of testing for MAP in feces (culture), blood and milk (ELISA) in 110 of these samples. MAP was detected by PCR in 27.1% of the lymph samples. Agreement between the tests was poor: 6.9% of the lymph positive cows were also positive in all other tests applied, and 69.0% had negative results in fecal culture, blood and milk ELISA. Resampling of 25 cows after 8 to 12 and 16 to 20 months revealed 20.0% lymph positive animals at the first, 5.5% at the second and 27.8% at the third sampling, respectively. Only one cow showed positive lymph-PCR results at more than one sampling date. Lymph-positive cows had a 7.2 times greater likelihood of being culled within 8 to 12 months after sampling, compared to negative cows, mainly due to other health issues than JD. It can be concluded, that lymphatic fluid might be promising for the detection of early MAP-infection in cows, but further studies to elucidate the potential of this diagnostic approach are needed.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Linfa/microbiologia , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/imunologia , Paratuberculose/diagnóstico , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Leite/microbiologia , Paratuberculose/imunologia , Paratuberculose/microbiologia
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