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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Parent anxiety is associated with offspring internalizing problems (emotional problems related to anxiety and depression). This may reflect causal processes, whereby exposure to parent anxiety directly influences offspring internalizing (and/or vice versa). However, parent-offspring associations could also be attributable to their genetic relatedness. We present a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether exposure to parent anxiety is associated with offspring internalizing after controlling for genetic relatedness. METHOD: A literature search in five databases identified 429 records. Publications were retained if they used a quasi-experimental design in a general population sample to control for participant relatedness in associations between parent anxiety and offspring internalizing outcomes. Publications were excluded if they involved an experimental exposure or intervention. Studies of pre- and post-natal anxiety exposure were meta-analysed separately. Pearson's correlation coefficient estimates (r) were pooled using multilevel random effects models. RESULTS: Eight publications were retained. Data were drawn from four population cohorts, each unique to a quasi-experimental design: adoption, sibling-comparison, children-of-twins or in-vitro-fertilisation. Cohorts were located in northern Europe or America. Families were predominantly of European ancestry. Three publications (Nfamilies>11,700; offspring aged 0.5-10 years) showed no association between prenatal anxiety exposure and offspring internalizing outcomes after accounting for participant relatedness (r=.04, CI -.07,.14). Six publications (Nfamilies>12,700; offspring aged 0.75-22 years) showed a small but significant association between concurrent symptoms in parents and offspring, after accounting for participant relatedness (r=.13, CI .04,.21). CONCLUSION: Initial literature, derived from homogenous populations, suggests that prenatal anxiety exposure does not cause offspring internalizing outcomes. However, postnatal anxiety exposure may be causally associated with concurrent offspring internalizing, via non-genetic pathways. Longitudinal stability, child-to-parent effects, and the role of moderators and methodological biases require attention.

2.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-harm is a major health concern, not only as a signal of distress but also as a strong predictor of later suicide. Self-harm can be further refined into suicidal self-harm (SSH, i.e. suicide attempt) and non-suicidal self-harm (NSSH). Understanding the aetiologies of NSSH and SSH can help inform suicide prevention strategies. Using a twin design, we investigated the phenotypic and aetiological relationships between NSSH and SSH, and their aetiological overlap with mental health problems. METHODS: We analysed data from the Twins Early Development Study using structural equation modelling. At age 21 years, 9063 twins (62.4% female) answered questions related to self-harm. At age 16 years, 19 self- or parent-reported mental health measures were administered, including measures of internalising and externalising problems, psychotic-like experiences and substance abuse. RESULTS: Prevalences for NSSH and SSH were 21.9% and 10.5%, respectively. Additive genetic factors explained half of the variance in NSSH (55%) and SSH (50%), with the rest explained by non-shared environmental factors. Phenotypically, NSSH and SSH were strongly correlated (r = 0.87) with their correlation explained by genetic (57%) and non-shared environmental (43%) factors. We found no evidence that NSSH and SSH differed in their phenotypic and aetiological relationships with mental health measures. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest no aetiological difference between NSSH and SSH. NSSH and SSH should be regarded as two different ends of a continuum, rather than as two distinct categories.

3.
Behav Genet ; 51(2): 110-124, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624124

RESUMO

We investigated how the COVID-19 crisis and the extraordinary experience of lockdown affected young adults in England and Wales psychologically. One month after lockdown commenced (T2), we assessed 30 psychological and behavioural traits in more than 4000 twins in their mid-twenties and compared their responses to the same traits assessed in 2018 (T1). Mean changes from T1 to T2 were modest and inconsistent. Contrary to the hypothesis that major environmental changes related to COVID-19 would result in increased variance in psychological and behavioural traits, we found that the magnitude of individual differences did not change from T1 to T2. Twin analyses revealed that while genetic factors accounted for about half of the reliable variance at T1 and T2, they only accounted for ~ 15% of individual differences in change from T1 to T2, and that nonshared environmental factors played a major role in psychological and behavioural changes. Shared environmental influences had negligible impact on T1, T2 or T2 change. Genetic factors correlated on average .86 between T1 and T2 and accounted for over half of the phenotypic stability, as would be expected for a 2-year interval even without the major disruption of lockdown. We conclude that the first month of lockdown has not resulted in major psychological or attitudinal shifts in young adults, nor in major changes in the genetic and environmental origins of these traits. Genetic influences on the modest psychological and behavioural changes are likely to be the result of gene-environment correlation not interaction.


Assuntos
/genética , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Genética Comportamental , Adulto , Correlação de Dados , Doenças em Gêmeos/psicologia , Inglaterra , Feminino , Seguimentos , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Meio Social , Isolamento Social , País de Gales , Adulto Jovem
4.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-8, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is associated with adult mental health, cognitive and socioeconomic problems. However, the causal nature of these associations remains difficult to establish owing to confounding. AIMS: To estimate the contribution of birth weight to adult mental health, cognitive and socioeconomic outcomes using two-sample Mendelian randomisation, an instrumental variable approach strengthening causal inference. METHOD: We used 48 independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms as genetic instruments for birth weight (genome-wide association studies' total sample: n = 264 498) and considered mental health (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia, suicide attempt), cognitive (intelligence) and socioeconomic (educational attainment, income, social deprivation) outcomes. RESULTS: We found evidence for a contribution of birth weight to ADHD (OR for 1 s.d. unit decrease (~464 g) in birth weight, 1.29; 95% CI 1.03-1.62), PTSD (OR = 1.69; 95% CI 1.06-2.71) and suicide attempt (OR = 1.39; 95% CI 1.05-1.84), as well as for intelligence (ß = -0.07; 95% CI -0.13 to -0.02) and socioeconomic outcomes, i.e. educational attainment (ß = -0.05; 95% CI -0.09 to -0.01), income (ß = -0.08; 95% CI -0.15 to -0.02) and social deprivation (ß = 0.08; 95% CI 0.03-0.13). However, no evidence was found for a contribution of birth weight to the other examined mental health outcomes. Results were consistent across a wide range of sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the hypothesis that birth weight could be an important element on the causal pathway to mental health, cognitive and socioeconomic outcomes.

5.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and body mass index (BMI) are associated. However, it remains unclear whether this association reflects causal relationships in either direction or confounding. Here, we implemented genetically informed methods to examine bidirectional causality and potential confounding. METHODS: Three genetically informed methods were employed: (i) cross-lagged twin-differences analyses to assess bidirectional effects of ADHD symptoms and BMI at ages 8, 12, 14 and 16 years in 2386 pairs of monozygotic twins from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS); (ii) within- and between-family ADHD and BMI polygenic score (PS) analyses in 3320 pairs of dizygotic TEDS twins; and (iii) two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on ADHD (N = 55,374) and BMI (N = 806,834). RESULTS: Mixed results were obtained across the three methods. Twin-difference analyses provided little support for cross-lagged associations between ADHD symptoms and BMI over time. PS analyses were consistent with bidirectional relationships between ADHD and BMI, with plausible time-varying effects from childhood to adolescence. MR findings also suggested bidirectional causal effects between ADHD and BMI. Multivariable MR indicated the presence of substantial confounding in bidirectional relationships. CONCLUSIONS: The three methods converged to highlight multiple sources of confounding in the association between ADHD and BMI. PS and MR analyses suggested plausible causal relationships in both directions. Possible explanations for mixed causal findings across methods are discussed.

6.
PLoS Genet ; 16(11): e1009153, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201880

RESUMO

Polygenic scores are increasingly powerful predictors of educational achievement. It is unclear, however, how sets of polygenic scores, which partly capture environmental effects, perform jointly with sets of environmental measures, which are themselves heritable, in prediction models of educational achievement. Here, for the first time, we systematically investigate gene-environment correlation (rGE) and interaction (GxE) in the joint analysis of multiple genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS) and multiple environmental measures as they predict tested educational achievement (EA). We predict EA in a representative sample of 7,026 16-year-olds, with 20 GPS for psychiatric, cognitive and anthropometric traits, and 13 environments (including life events, home environment, and SES) measured earlier in life. Environmental and GPS predictors were modelled, separately and jointly, in penalized regression models with out-of-sample comparisons of prediction accuracy, considering the implications that their interplay had on model performance. Jointly modelling multiple GPS and environmental factors significantly improved prediction of EA, with cognitive-related GPS adding unique independent information beyond SES, home environment and life events. We found evidence for rGE underlying variation in EA (rGE = .38; 95% CIs = .30, .45). We estimated that 40% (95% CIs = 31%, 50%) of the polygenic scores effects on EA were mediated by environmental effects, and in turn that 18% (95% CIs = 12%, 25%) of environmental effects were accounted for by the polygenic model, indicating genetic confounding. Lastly, we did not find evidence that GxE effects significantly contributed to multivariable prediction. Our multivariable polygenic and environmental prediction model suggests widespread rGE and unsystematic GxE contributions to EA in adolescence.

7.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e038258, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907905

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Disruptive behaviour disorders, including oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, are a common set of diagnoses in childhood and adolescence, with global estimates of 5.7%, 3.6% and 2.1% for any disruptive disorder, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, respectively. There are high economic and social costs associated with disruptive behaviours and the prevalence of these disorders has increased in recent years. As such, disruptive behaviours represent an escalating major public health concern and it is important to understand what factors may influence the risk of these behaviours. Such research would inform interventions that aim to prevent the development of disruptive behaviours. The current review will identify the most stringent evidence of putative risk factors for disruptive behaviour from quasi-experimental studies, which enable stronger causal inference. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The review will be carried out according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. An electronic search of references published between 1 January 1980 and 1 March 2020 will be conducted using Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Initial abstract and title screening, full-text screening and data extraction will be completed independently by two reviewers using Evidence for Policy and Practice Information (EPPI)-Reviewer 4 software. Quasi-experimental studies in the English language examining the association between any putative risk factor and a clearly defined measure of disruptive behaviour (eg, a validated questionnaire measure) will be included. We will conduct meta-analyses if we can pool a minimum of three similar studies with the same or similar exposures and outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The proposed review does not require ethical approval. The results will help to identify risk factors for which there is strong evidence of causal effects on disruptive behaviours and also highlight potential risk factors that require further research. The findings will be disseminated via publication in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and through presentations at international meetings and conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020169313.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900702

RESUMO

In this review, we discuss how samples comprising monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs can be used for the purpose of strengthening causal inference by controlling for shared influences on exposure and outcome. We begin by briefly introducing how twin data can be used to inform the biometric decomposition of population variance into genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental influences. We then discuss how extensions to this model can be used to explore whether associations between exposure and outcome survive correction for shared etiology (common causes). We review several analytical approaches that can be applied to twin data for this purpose. These include multivariate structural equation models, cotwin control methods, direction of causation models (cross-sectional and longitudinal), and extended family designs used to assess intergenerational associations. We conclude by highlighting some of the limitations and considerations that researchers should be aware of when using twin data for the purposes of interrogating causal hypotheses.

9.
Res Sq ; 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702738

RESUMO

We investigated how the COVID-19 crisis and the extraordinary experience of lockdown affected young adults in England and Wales psychologically. One month after lockdown commenced (T2), we assessed 30 psychological and behavioural traits in 4,000 twins in their mid-twenties and compared their responses to the same traits assessed in 2018 (T1). Mean changes from T1 to T2 were modest and inconsistent: just as many changes were in a positive as negative direction. Twin analyses revealed that genetics accounted for about half of the reliable variance at T1 and T2. Genetic factors correlated on average .86 between T1 and T2 and accounted for over half of the phenotypic stability. Systematic environmental influences had negligible impact on T1, T2 or T2 change. Rather than the crisis fundamentally changing people psychologically, our results suggest that genetic differences between individuals play a fundamental role in shaping psychological and behavioural responses to the COVID-19 crisis.

10.
Addict Biol ; : e12944, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705754

RESUMO

Individuals most often use several rather than one substance among alcohol, cigarettes or cannabis. This widespread co-occurring use of multiple substances is thought to stem from a common liability that is partly genetic in origin. Genetic risk may indirectly contribute to a common liability to substance use through genetically influenced mental health vulnerabilities and individual traits. To test this possibility, we used polygenic scores indexing mental health and individual traits and examined their association with the common versus specific liabilities to substance use. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (N = 4218) and applied trait-state-occasion models to delineate the common and substance-specific factors based on four classes of substances (alcohol, cigarettes, cannabis and other illicit substances) assessed over time (ages 17, 20 and 22). We generated 18 polygenic scores indexing genetically influenced mental health vulnerabilities and individual traits. In multivariable regression, we then tested the independent contribution of selected polygenic scores to the common and substance-specific factors. Our results implicated several genetically influenced traits and vulnerabilities in the common liability to substance use, most notably risk taking (bstandardised = 0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.10, 0.17]), followed by extraversion (bstandardised = -0.10; 95% CI [-0.13, -0.06]), and schizophrenia risk (bstandardised = 0.06; 95% CI [0.02, 0.09]). Educational attainment (EA) and body mass index (BMI) had opposite effects on substance-specific liabilities such as cigarette use (bstandardised-EA = -0.15; 95% CI [-0.19, -0.12]; bstandardised-BMI = 0.05; 95% CI [0.02, 0.09]) and alcohol use (bstandardised-EA = 0.07; 95% CI [0.03, 0.11]; bstandardised-BMI = -0.06; 95% CI [-0.10, -0.02]). These findings point towards largely distinct sets of genetic influences on the common versus specific liabilities.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In England, all state-funded schools are inspected by an independent government agency, the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills (Ofsted). Inspections aim to hold schools accountable and to promote the improvement of education, with the results made available to the public. Ofsted reports intend to index school quality, but their influence on students' individual outcomes has not been previously studied. The aim of the current study was to explore the extent to which school quality, as indexed by Ofsted ratings, is associated with students' educational achievement, well-being and school engagement. METHODS: We use an England population-based sample of 4,391 individuals, for whom school performance at age 11 and GCSE grades at age 16 were accessed from the National Pupil Database, and who completed measures of well-being and school engagement at age 16. RESULTS: We found that Ofsted ratings of secondary school quality accounted for 4% of the variance in students' educational achievement at age 16, which was further reduced to 1% of the variance after we accounted for prior school performance at age 11 and family socioeconomic status. Furthermore, Ofsted ratings were weak predictors of school engagement and student well-being, with an average correlation of .03. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that differences in school quality, as indexed by Ofsted ratings, have little relation to students' individual outcomes. Accordingly, our results challenge the usefulness of Ofsted ratings as guides for parents and students when choosing secondary schools.

12.
PLoS Med ; 17(6): e1003137, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying causal risk factors for self-harm is essential to inform preventive interventions. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors associated with self-harm, but these associations can be subject to confounding. By implementing genetically informed methods to better account for confounding, this study aimed to better identify plausible causal risk factors for self-harm. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using summary statistics from 24 genome-wide association studies (GWASs) comprising 16,067 to 322,154 individuals, polygenic scores (PSs) were generated to index 24 possible individual risk factors for self-harm (i.e., mental health vulnerabilities, substance use, cognitive traits, personality traits, and physical traits) among a subset of UK Biobank participants (N = 125,925, 56.2% female) who completed an online mental health questionnaire in the period from 13 July 2016 to 27 July 2017. In total, 5,520 (4.4%) of these participants reported having self-harmed in their lifetime. In binomial regression models, PSs indexing 6 risk factors (major depressive disorder [MDD], attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, alcohol dependence disorder, and lifetime cannabis use) predicted self-harm, with effect sizes ranging from odds ratio (OR) = 1.05 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.07, q = 0.008) for lifetime cannabis use to OR = 1.20 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.23, q = 1.33 × 10-35) for MDD. No systematic differences emerged between suicidal and non-suicidal self-harm. To further probe causal relationships, two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses were conducted, with MDD, ADHD, and schizophrenia emerging as the most plausible causal risk factors for self-harm. The genetic liabilities for MDD and schizophrenia were associated with self-harm independently of diagnosis and medication. Main limitations include the lack of representativeness of the UK Biobank sample, that self-harm was self-reported, and the limited power of some of the included GWASs, potentially leading to possible type II error. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to confirming the role of MDD, we demonstrate that ADHD and schizophrenia likely play a role in the aetiology of self-harm using multivariate genetic designs for causal inference. Among the many individual risk factors we simultaneously considered, our findings suggest that systematic detection and treatment of core psychiatric symptoms, including psychotic and impulsivity symptoms, may be beneficial among people at risk for self-harm.


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
13.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rise of social media use in young people has sparked concern about the impact of cyber-victimisation on mental health. Although cyber-victimisation is associated with mental health problems, it is not known whether such associations reflect genetic and environmental confounding. METHODS: We used the co-twin control design to test the direct association between cyber-victimisation and multiple domains of mental health in young people. Participants were 7708 twins drawn from the Twins Early Development Study, a UK-based population cohort followed from birth to age 22. RESULTS: Monozygotic twins exposed to greater levels of cyber-victimisation had more symptoms of internalising, externalising and psychotic disorders than their less victimised co-twins at age 22, even after accounting for face-to-face peer victimisation and prior mental health. However, effect sizes from the most stringent monozygotic co-twin control analyses were decreased by two thirds from associations at the individual level [pooled ß across all mental health problems = 0.06 (95% CI 0.03-0.10) v. 0.17 (95% CI 0.15-0.19) in individual-level analyses]. CONCLUSIONS: Cyber-victimisation has a small direct association with multiple mental health problems in young people. However, a large part of the association between cyber-victimisation and mental health is due to pre-existing genetic and environmental vulnerabilities and co-occurring face-to-face victimisation. Therefore, preventative interventions should target cyber-victimisation in conjunction with pre-existing mental health vulnerabilities and other forms of victimisation.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined the genetic and environmental influences underlying baseline level and developmental course of callous-unemotional (CU) traits across childhood and adolescence. METHODS: The data on 8,958 twin pairs (3,108 MZ twin pairs and 5,850 DZ twin pairs) from the Twins Early Development Study were analysed. CU traits were assessed at ages 7, 9, 12 and 16 by mothers and analysed using a biometric latent growth model. RESULTS: Individual differences in the baseline level of CU traits were highly heritable (76.5%), while the heritability of the developmental course of CU traits was moderate (43.6%). The genetic influences on baseline level and developmental course of CU traits were mostly nonoverlapping. Nonshared environment made a modest contribution to the baseline level of CU traits (21.7%). Nonshared environmental influences on the developmental course of CU traits were moderate (43.2%), with nearly half of them being the same as those influencing the baseline level and just over half being specific. Shared environmental effects did not contribute to systematic change across childhood and adolescence but were rather age-specific. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that rather than only being conceptualized as factors of stability, genes also play a dynamic role in explaining systematic change in CU traits. Genetic effects for the initial risk and subsequent development of CU traits are not the same. In addition to genetic factors, nonshared environmental influences play an important role in explaining why some children will increase or maintain their CU traits over time, whereas other will desist. New genetic and environmental influences with age suggest that repeated, age-tailored interventions may be required throughout development to make a lasting difference in the presentation of CU traits and associated outcomes.

15.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 61(1): 30-39, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diverse behaviour problems in childhood correlate phenotypically, suggesting a general dimension of psychopathology that has been called the p factor. The shared genetic architecture between childhood psychopathology traits also supports a genetic p. This study systematically investigates the manifestation of this common dimension across self-, parent- and teacher-rated measures in childhood and adolescence. METHODS: The sample included 7,026 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). First, we employed multivariate twin models to estimate common genetic and environmental influences on p based on diverse measures of behaviour problems rated by children, parents and teachers at ages 7, 9, 12 and 16 (depressive traits, emotional problems, peer problems, autism traits, hyperactivity, antisocial behaviour, conduct problems and psychopathic tendencies). Second, to assess the stability of genetic and environmental influences on p across time, we conducted longitudinal twin modelling of the first phenotypic principal components of childhood psychopathological measures across each of the four ages. Third, we created a genetic p factor in 7,026 unrelated genotyped individuals based on eight polygenic scores for psychiatric disorders to estimate how a general polygenic predisposition to mostly adult psychiatric disorders relates to childhood p. RESULTS: Behaviour problems were consistently correlated phenotypically and genetically across ages and raters. The p factor is substantially heritable (50%-60%) and manifests consistently across diverse ages and raters. However, residual variation in the common factor models indicates unique contributions as well. Genetic correlations of p components across childhood and adolescence suggest stability over time (49%-78%). A polygenic general psychopathology factor derived from studies of psychiatric disorders consistently predicted a general phenotypic p factor across development (0.3%-0.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Diverse forms of psychopathology generally load on a common p factor, which is highly heritable. There are substantial genetic influences on the stability of p across childhood. Our analyses indicate genetic overlap between general risk for psychiatric disorders in adulthood and p in childhood, even as young as age 7. The p factor has far-reaching implications for genomic research and, eventually, for diagnosis and treatment of behaviour problems.

16.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 29(2): 205-216, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111269

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder. However, no study has examined genetic and environmental influences in the longitudinal developmental course of ADHD symptoms in a non-Western population. This study investigated changes of genetic and environmental influences and their contributions to the stability and change of ADHD symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention in Chinese adolescent twins. A prospective sample of 602 twin pairs (48% male) self-reported both DSM-IV ADHD symptom subscales three times at the approximate age of 12, 13, and 15 years. Longitudinal multivariate genetic analyses through structural equation modelling examined genetic and environmental contributions to the developmental course of ADHD symptoms. From early (time 1 and 2) to middle adolescence (time 3), both symptoms showed modest and non-significant genetic influences that became substantial and significant, whereas shared environmental influences were substantial and significant and became modest and non-significant. The same genetic factors influenced ADHD symptoms throughout adolescence, while shared and non-shared environmental influences largely came from new emerging factors. In early adolescence, genetic factor contributed to the stability of inattention, whereas shared environmental factor contributed to the stability of hyperactivity/impulsivity. Genetic influences of ADHD tended to be smaller, whereas shared environmental influences tended to be larger in Chinese than in Western populations. Genetic factors played a large role in the stability of ADHD throughout adolescence, while shared and non-shared environment primarily contributed to its change. Findings highlight the importance of shared family, neighbourhood, and community experiences on child psychopathology in a collectivistic culture such as the Chinese society.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Gêmeos/genética , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato
17.
Psychol Med ; 50(8): 1398-1407, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment is robustly associated with increased risk of poor mental health outcome and changes in brain function. The authors investigated whether childhood experience of abuse (e.g. physical, emotional and sexual abuse) and neglect (physical and emotional deprivation) was differentially associated with neural reactivity to threat. METHODS: Participants were drawn from an existing study and allocated to one of four groups based on self-report of childhood maltreatment experience: individuals with childhood abuse experiences (n = 70); individuals with childhood neglect experiences (n = 87); individuals with combined experience of childhood abuse and neglect (n = 50); and non-maltreated individuals (n = 207) propensity score matched (PSM) on gender, age, IQ, psychopathology and SES. Neural reactivity to facial cues signalling threat was compared across groups, allowing the differential effects associated with particular forms of maltreatment experience to be isolated. RESULTS: Brain imaging analyses indicated that while childhood abuse was associated with heightened localised threat reactivity in ventral amygdala, experiences of neglect were associated with heightened reactivity in a distributed cortical fronto-parietal network supporting complex social and cognitive processing as well as in the dorsal amygdala. Unexpectedly, combined experiences of abuse and neglect were associated with hypo-activation in several higher-order cortical regions as well as the amygdala. CONCLUSIONS: Different forms of childhood maltreatment exert differential effects in neural threat reactivity: while the effects of abuse are more focal, the effects of neglect and combined experiences of abuse are more distributed. These findings are relevant for understanding the range of psychiatric outcomes following childhood maltreatment and have implications for intervention.

19.
Psychol Med ; 50(8): 1381-1389, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phenotypic and aetiological architecture of depression symptomatology has been mostly studied in Western samples. In this study, we conducted a genetically informed factor analysis to elucidate both the phenotypic and aetiological architectures of self-reported depression among a Japanese adult twin sample. METHODS: Depressive symptoms assessed by Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale were self-rated by 425 twin pairs (301 monozygotic and 124 dizygotic twin pairs) in a community sample in Japan. RESULTS: An exploratory factor analysis extracted three symptom domains representing cognitive, affective and somatic symptomatology. A confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that a bi-factor solution fitted better than the alternative solutions, implying that depression may be defined as a combination of a single general construct and three factors specific to each of the three symptom domains. A multivariate genetic analysis with the bi-factor solution showed that the general factor was substantially heritable (47%), and that only the affective symptom domain was significantly heritable (29%) among the three specific factors, their remaining variance being explained by non-shared environmental influences. CONCLUSIONS: Depression symptomatology appears to be adequately captured by a substantially heritable general factor. The heritability of this factor (47%) in a Japanese adult sample is in line with commonly reported heritability estimates for depression. The three specific factors - cognitive, affective and somatic - are mostly explained by non-shared environmental factors, which include measurement error. The extent to which these specific factors are uniquely associated with correlates of depression when the general factor is accounted for should be investigated in future studies.

20.
J Atten Disord ; : 1087054719892888, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884885

RESUMO

Objective: The study aimed to identify early childhood risk factors for de novo and subthreshold late-onset ADHD. Method: ADHD symptoms were assessed in 9,875 participants from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) using the Conners' Parent Rating Scale at ages 8, 12, 14, and 16 years, along with other childhood characteristics and adolescent outcomes. Multinomial logistic regressions were implemented to identify early childhood predictors of late-onset ADHD and childhood-onset persistent ADHD, with non-ADHD controls as the reference category. Results: Male sex, increased childhood conduct problems, and low socioeconomic status predicted de novo late-onset ADHD. Additional risk factors predicted subthreshold late-onset ADHD and childhood-onset persistent ADHD. Late-onset ADHD symptoms were also accompanied by increased co-occurring behavioral and emotional problems. Conclusion: Findings of different childhood predictors between subthreshold and de novo late-onset ADHD suggest further investigation into time-varying environmental and biological factors driving psychopathological changes is warranted to fully characterize late-onset ADHD.

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