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2.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(13): 8916-8925, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appendiceal goblet cell adenocarcinomas (GCC) are rare tumors with clinical behavior between classic carcinoids and adenocarcinomas. Current guidelines recommend right hemicolectomy for all GCCs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The National Cancer Database was retrospectively queried for appendiceal GCCs undergoing appendectomy or right hemicolectomy between 2004 and 2016. Demographics, tumor characteristics, and post-operative outcomes were collected. The primary outcome was overall survival, which was examined by surgical type and tumor T stage. Multivariate logistic regression was utilized to identify predictors of survival. RESULTS: In total, 1083 GCCs were included, and 81.8% underwent right hemicolectomy. Mean age was 57 years, and 89% were White. Patients undergoing hemicolectomy had higher T-stage tumors (66.6%/14.4% T3/T4 vs. 55.8%/8.1%, p < 0.001). Lymph node positivity increased with T stage (1.1%, 2.1%, 9.9%, and 29.1% for T1-T4). GCCs undergoing colectomy were more frequently moderately or poorly differentiated (16.7%/9.0% vs. 12.2%/6.6%, p = 0.011). Appendectomy surgical margins were positive in 17.3% (3.4% hemicolectomy, p < 0.001). In T3/T4 tumors, a significant survival benefit at 5 years was observed in patients undergoing colectomy as compared with appendectomy (85.4% vs. 82.0%, p = 0.028). On multivariate analysis, lymph node positivity markedly decreased survival overall for the entire cohort (HR 7.58, p < 0.001) and for T3/T4 tumors (HR 7.63, p < 0.001). In patients with T3/T4 tumors, there was a trend towards improved survival with right hemicolectomy (HR 0.42, p = 0.068). CONCLUSION: Omitting right hemicolectomy can be considered for select T1/T2 appendiceal GCCs with negative appendectomy margins, given low rates of lymph node metastases and lack of survival benefit with right hemicolectomy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias do Apêndice , Tumor Carcinoide , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Apendicectomia , Neoplasias do Apêndice/cirurgia , Tumor Carcinoide/cirurgia , Colectomia , Células Caliciformes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
3.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(13): 9116-9125, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224045

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early recurrence (ER) is a significant challenge for patients with colorectal peritoneal metastases (CRPM) following cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS HIPEC). Preoperative risk stratification for ER would improve preoperative decision making. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study examining patients who underwent CRS HIPEC for CRPM from 2000 to 2018. Optimal definition of ER was determined via minimum p-value approach based on differentiation of post-recurrence survival. Risk factors for ER were assessed in a derivation cohort by uni- and multivariate logistic regression. A predictive score for ER was generated using preoperative variables and validated in an independent cohort. RESULTS: 384 patients were analyzed, 316 (82%) had documented recurrence. Optimal length of post-operative RFS to distinguish ER (n = 144, 46%) vs. late recurrence (LR) (n = 172, 63%) was 8 mos (p<0.01). ER patients had shorter median OS post-CRS-HIPEC (13.6 vs. 39.4 mos, p<0.01). Preoperative BMI (OR 1.88), liver lesions (OR 1.89), progression on chemotherapy (OR 2.14), positive lymph nodes (OR 2.47) and PCI score (16-20: OR 1.7; >20: OR 4.37) were significant predictors of ER (all p<0.05). Using this model, patients were assigned risk scores from 0 to 9. Intermediate (scores 4-6) and high-risk patients (score 7-9) had observed rates of ER of 56% and 79% and overall 2-year survival rates of 27% and 0% respectively. The model showed fair discrimination (AUC 0.72) and good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow GOF p = 0.68). CONCLUSIONS: ER predicts markedly worse OS following surgery. Preoperative factors can accurately stratify risk for ER and identify patients in whom CRS-HIPEC for CPRM is futile.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Hipertermia Induzida , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Neoplasias Peritoneais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Combinada , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Humanos , Quimioterapia Intraperitoneal Hipertérmica , Futilidade Médica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
Gut ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have found aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX)/pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked (ATRX)/death domain-associated protein (DAXX) and alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to be promising prognostic biomarkers for non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NF-PanNETs). However, they have not been comprehensively evaluated, especially among small NF-PanNETs (≤2.0 cm). Moreover, their status in neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) from other sites remains unknown. DESIGN: An international cohort of 1322 NETs was evaluated by immunolabelling for ARX/PDX1 and ATRX/DAXX, and telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridisation for ALT. This cohort included 561 primary NF-PanNETs, 107 NF-PanNET metastases and 654 primary, non-pancreatic non-functional NETs and NET metastases. The results were correlated with numerous clinicopathological features including relapse-free survival (RFS). RESULTS: ATRX/DAXX loss and ALT were associated with several adverse prognostic findings and distant metastasis/recurrence (p<0.001). The 5-year RFS rates for patients with ATRX/DAXX-negative and ALT-positive NF-PanNETs were 40% and 42% as compared with 85% and 86% for wild-type NF-PanNETs (p<0.001 and p<0.001). Shorter 5-year RFS rates for ≤2.0 cm NF-PanNETs patients were also seen with ATRX/DAXX loss (65% vs 92%, p=0.003) and ALT (60% vs 93%, p<0.001). By multivariate analysis, ATRX/DAXX and ALT status were independent prognostic factors for RFS. Conversely, classifying NF-PanNETs by ARX/PDX1 expression did not independently correlate with RFS. Except for 4% of pulmonary carcinoids, ATRX/DAXX loss and ALT were only identified in primary (25% and 29%) and NF-PanNET metastases (62% and 71%). CONCLUSIONS: ATRX/DAXX and ALT should be considered in the prognostic evaluation of NF-PanNETs including ≤2.0 cm tumours, and are highly specific for pancreatic origin among NET metastases of unknown primary.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(15): 4195-4204, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753453

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neoadjuvant immunotherapy may improve the clinical outcome of regionally advanced operable melanoma and allows for rapid clinical and pathologic assessment of response. We examined neoadjuvant pembrolizumab and high-dose IFNα-2b (HDI) therapy in patients with resectable advanced melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with resectable stage III/IV melanoma were treated with concurrent pembrolizumab 200 mg i.v. every 3 weeks and HDI 20 MU/m2/day i.v., 5 days per week for 4 weeks, then 10 MU/m2/day subcutaneously 3 days per week for 2 weeks. Definitive surgery followed, as did adjuvant combination immunotherapy, completing a year of treatment. Primary endpoint was safety of the combination. Secondary endpoints included overall response rate (ORR), pathologic complete response (pCR), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Blood samples for correlative studies were collected throughout. Tumor tissue was assessed by IHC and flow cytometry at baseline and at surgery. RESULTS: A total of 31 patients were enrolled, and 30 were evaluable. At data cutoff (October 2, 2019), median follow-up for OS was 37.87 months (range, 33.2-43.47). Median OS and RFS were not reached. Radiographic ORR was 73.3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 55.5-85.8], with a 43% (95% CI: 27.3-60.1) pCR rate. None of the patients with a pCR have had a recurrence. HDI and pembrolizumab were discontinued in 73% and 43% of patients, respectively. Correlative analyses suggested that intratumoral PD-1/PD-L1 interaction and HLA-DR expression are associated with pCR (P = 0.002 and P = 0.008, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant concurrent HDI and pembrolizumab demonstrated promising clinical activity despite high rates of treatment discontinuation. pCR is a prognostic indicator.See related commentary by Menzies et al., p. 4133.

7.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(7): 3522-3531, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (CRS HIPEC) can offer significant survival advantage for select patients with colorectal peritoneal metastases (CRPM). Low socioeconomic status (SES) is implicated in disparities in access to care. We analyze the impact of SES on postoperative outcomes and survival at a high-volume tertiary CRS HIPEC center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study examining patients who underwent CRS HIPEC for CRPM from 2000 to 2018. Patients were grouped according to SES. Baseline characteristics, perioperative outcomes, and survival were examined between groups. RESULTS: A total of 226 patients were analyzed, 107 (47%) low-SES and 119 (53%) high-SES patients. High-SES patients were younger (52 vs. 58 years, p = 0.01) and more likely to be White (95.0% vs. 91.6%, p = 0.06) and privately insured (83% vs. 57%, p < 0.001). They traveled significantly further for treatment and had lower burden of comorbidities and frailty (p = 0.01). Low-SES patients more often presented with synchronous peritoneal metastases (48% vs. 35%, p = 0.05). Following CRS HIPEC, low-SES patients had longer length of stay and higher burden of postoperative complications, 90-day readmission, and 30-day mortality. Median overall survival following CRS HIPEC was worse for low-SES patients (17.8 vs. 32.4 months, p = 0.02). This disparity persisted on multivariate survival analysis (low SES: HR = 1.46, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Despite improving therapies for CRPM, low-SES patients remain at a significant disadvantage. Even patients who overcome barriers to care experience worse short- and long-term outcomes. Improving access and addressing these disparities is crucial to ensure equitable outcomes and improve patient care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Hipertermia Induzida , Neoplasias Peritoneais , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Humanos , Neoplasias Peritoneais/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Classe Social , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(9): 5287-5296, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ninety-day hospital readmission rates following cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) range from 20 to 40%. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple score to predict readmissions following CRS/HIPEC. STUDY DESIGN: Using a prospectively maintained database, we retrospectively reviewed clinicopathologic, perioperative, and day-of-discharge data for patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC for peritoneal surface malignancies between 2010 and 2018. In-hospital mortalities and discharges to hospice were excluded. Multivariate logistic regression was utilized to identify predictors of unplanned readmission, with three-quarters of the sample randomly selected as the derivation cohort and one-quarter as the validation cohort. Using regression coefficient-based scoring methods, we developed a weighted 7-factor, 10-point predictive score for risk of readmission. RESULTS: Overall, 1068 eligible discharges were analyzed; 379 patients were readmitted within 90 days (35.5%). Seven factors were associated with readmission: stoma creation, Peritoneal Cancer Index score ≥ 15, hyponatremia, in-hospital major complication, preoperative chemotherapy, anemia, and discharge to nursing home. In the validation cohort, 25 patients (9.2%) were categorized as high risk for readmission, with a predicted rate of readmission of 69.3% and an observed rate of 76.0%. The score had fair discrimination (area under the curve 0.70) and good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit p-value of 0.77). CONCLUSION: Our proposed risk score, easily obtainable on day of discharge, distinguishes patients at high risk for readmission over 90 days following CRS/HIPEC. This score has the potential to target high-risk individuals for intensive follow-up and other interventions.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Hipertermia Induzida , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Readmissão do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The assessment of therapeutic response after neoadjuvant treatment and pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been an ongoing challenge. Several limitations have been encountered when employing current grading systems for residual tumor. Considering endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) represents a sensitive imaging technique for PDAC, differences in tumor size between preoperative EUS and postoperative pathology after neoadjuvant therapy were hypothesized to represent an improved marker of treatment response. METHODS: For 340 treatment-naïve and 365 neoadjuvant-treated PDACs, EUS and pathologic findings were analyzed and correlated with patient overall survival (OS). A separate group of 200 neoadjuvant-treated PDACs served as a validation cohort for further analysis. RESULTS: Among treatment-naïve PDACs, there was a moderate concordance between EUS imaging and postoperative pathology for tumor size (r = 0.726, P < .001) and AJCC 8th edition T-stage (r = 0.586, P < .001). In the setting of neoadjuvant therapy, a decrease in T-stage correlated with improved 3-year OS rates (50% vs 31%, P < .001). Through recursive partitioning, a cutoff of ≥47% tumor size reduction was also found to be associated with improved OS (67% vs 32%, P < .001). Improved OS using a ≥47% threshold was validated using a separate cohort of neoadjuvant-treated PDACs (72% vs 36%, P < .001). By multivariate analysis, a reduction in tumor size by ≥47% was an independent prognostic factor for improved OS (P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: The difference in tumor size between preoperative EUS imaging and postoperative pathology among neoadjuvant-treated PDAC patients is an important prognostic indicator and may guide subsequent chemotherapeutic management.

10.
Mod Pathol ; 33(9): 1832-1843, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376853

RESUMO

Mutations in RAS occur in 30-50% of metastatic colorectal carcinomas (mCRCs) and correlate with resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. Consequently, mCRC biomarker guidelines state RAS mutational testing should be performed when considering EGFR inhibitor treatment. However, a small subset of mCRCs are reported to harbor RAS amplification. In order to elucidate the clinicopathologic features and anti-EGFR treatment response associated with RAS amplification, we retrospectively reviewed a large cohort of mCRC patients that underwent targeted next-generation sequencing and copy number analysis for KRAS, NRAS, HRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA. Molecular testing was performed on 1286 consecutive mCRC from 1271 patients as part of routine clinical care, and results were correlated with clinicopathologic findings, mismatch repair (MMR) status and follow-up. RAS amplification was detected in 22 (2%) mCRCs and included: KRAS, NRAS, and HRAS for 15, 5, and 2 cases, respectively (6-21 gene copies). Patients with a KRAS-amplified mCRC were more likely to report a history of inflammatory bowel disease (p < 0.001). In contrast, mutations in KRAS were associated with older patient age, right-sided colonic origin, low-grade differentiation, mucinous histology, and MMR proficiency (p ≤ 0.017). Four patients with a KRAS-amplified mCRC and no concomitant RAS/BRAF/PIK3CA mutations received EGFR inhibitor-based therapy, and none demonstrated a clinicoradiographic response. The therapeutic impact of RAS amplification was further evaluated using a separate, multi-institutional cohort of 23 patients. Eight of 23 patients with KRAS-amplified mCRC received anti-EGFR therapy and all 8 patients exhibited disease progression on treatment. Although the number of KRAS-amplified mCRCs is limited, our data suggest the clinicopathologic features associated with mCRC harboring a KRAS amplification are distinct from those associated with a KRAS mutation. However, both alterations seem to confer EGFR inhibitor resistance and, therefore, RAS testing to include copy number analyses may be of consideration in the treatment of mCRC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/complicações , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo/complicações , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Panitumumabe/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Gut ; 69(1): 52-61, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite improvements in imaging, serum CA19-9 and pathological evaluation, differentiating between benign and malignant bile duct strictures remains a diagnostic conundrum. Recent developments in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have opened new opportunities for early detection and management of cancers but, to date, have not been rigorously applied to biliary specimens. DESIGN: We prospectively evaluated a 28-gene NGS panel (BiliSeq) using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-obtained biliary specimens from patients with bile duct strictures. The diagnostic performance of serum CA19-9, pathological evaluation and BiliSeq was assessed on 252 patients (57 trainings and 195 validations) with 346 biliary specimens. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of BiliSeq for malignant strictures was 73% and 100%, respectively. In comparison, an elevated serum CA19-9 and pathological evaluation had sensitivities of 76% and 48%, and specificities of 69% and 99%, respectively. The combination of BiliSeq and pathological evaluation increased the sensitivity to 83% and maintained a specificity of 99%. BiliSeq improved the sensitivity of pathological evaluation for malignancy from 35% to 77% for biliary brushings and from 52% to 83% for biliary biopsies. Among patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), BiliSeq had an 83% sensitivity as compared with pathological evaluation with an 8% sensitivity. Therapeutically relevant genomic alterations were identified in 20 (8%) patients. Two patients with ERBB2-amplified cholangiocarcinoma received a trastuzumab-based regimen and had measurable clinicoradiographic response. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of BiliSeq and pathological evaluation of biliary specimens increased the detection of malignant strictures, particularly in patients with PSC. Additionally, BiliSeq identified alterations that may stratify patients for specific anticancer therapies.


Assuntos
Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Doenças Biliares/diagnóstico , Doenças Biliares/genética , Doenças Biliares/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Antígeno CA-19-9/sangue , Constrição Patológica/diagnóstico , Constrição Patológica/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/genética , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 26(8): 2607-2614, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic terminology and grading of primary appendiceal mucinous neoplasms lacks uniformity. We sought to identify discordance in pathologic reporting by reviewing pathology slides for cases referred to our institution. METHODS: Using guidelines from Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) and American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th edition (AJCC8), we compared diagnostic terminology/grading of primary appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (n = 115) between pathology reports from referring institutions and review of slides by pathologists at our high-volume institution. RESULTS: There was discordance in pathologic terminology and grading of primary appendiceal mucinous neoplasms between referring institutions and our institution in 28% and 50% of patients, respectively. In particular, 24% of patients referred with mucinous adenocarcinoma (MACA) had LAMN on our review, and a higher grade MACA was found in 48% of patients referred with low-grade (G1) MACA and 16% of patients referred with high-grade (G2) MACA following our review. Discordance in tumor grade between primary and metastatic disease was seen in 19% of cases based on referred primary tumor grading compared with only 4% following our review. Systemic chemotherapy was unnecessarily administered to four cases of LAMN (6%) and inappropriately not administered to four cases of MACA (6%) before referral due to inaccurate diagnosis/grading by referring institutions. CONCLUSIONS: We found significant discordance in diagnostic terminology/grading of primary appendiceal mucinous neoplasms following review of referred cases. Inaccurate pathologic assessment was associated with overtreatment or undertreatment with chemotherapy. These data highlight the need for pathologic review of such rare cases at high-volume centers.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/patologia , Neoplasias do Apêndice/patologia , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Terminologia como Assunto , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias do Apêndice/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Peritoneais/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Mod Pathol ; 32(8): 1197-1209, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962504

RESUMO

DNA was obtained from matching micro-dissected, primary tumor cells, paired metastases, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (germline) from patients with appendiceal mucinous neoplasms. We compared specimens from patient cohorts comprising low-grade adenomucinous neoplasm versus high-grade mucinous adenocarcinoma using a targeted, amplicon sequencing panel of 409 cancer related genes (Ion Torrent Comprehensive Cancer Panel, Thermo-Fisher, Waltham, MA). Copy number variants, single nucleotide variants and small insertions/deletions were identified using a multiplex algorithm pipeline (GATK, VarScan2, MuTect2, SIFT, SIFT-INDEL, PolyPhen-2, Provean). There were significantly more damaging variants in high-grade versus low-grade tumor cohorts. Both cohorts contained damaging, heterozygous germline variants (catenin ß1; notch receptor 1 and 4) in pathways associated with cell-lineage specification (WNT, NOTCH). Damaging, somatic KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase mutations were present in both cohorts, while somatic GNAS complex locus mutations were confined to low-grade neoplasms. Variants predominantly affected transcription factors, kinases, and stem cell signaling molecules in canonical pathways including epithelial to mesenchymal transition, stem cell pluripotency, p53, PTEN, and NF-қB signaling pathways. High-grade tumors demonstrated MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor (MYC) and death domain associated protein (DAXX) amplification and damaging somatic variants in tumor protein p53 (TP53), likely to amplify an aggressive phenotype. Damaging APC, WNT signaling pathway regulator (APC) deletions were identified in metastatic tissue of both cohorts suggesting a role in invasive disease. Our data suggest that germline dysregulation of WNT and/or NOTCH pathways predisposes patients toward a secretory cell phenotype (i.e., goblet-like cells) upon acquisition of somatic KRAS mutations. Additional somatically acquired variants activating oncogenes MYC and DAXX and inhibiting the critical tumor suppressor, tumor protein TP53, were consistent with manifestation of a high-grade phenotype. These additional changes within the epithelial to mesenchymal transition signaling network (WNT, NOTCH, RAS/ERK/PI3K, PTEN, NF-қB), produce aggressive high-grade tumor characteristics by actively driving cells towards dedifferentiation, proliferation, and migration.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/genética , Neoplasias do Apêndice/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Dosagem de Genes , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/patologia , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Apêndice/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Apêndice/patologia , Neoplasias do Apêndice/cirurgia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Amplificação de Genes , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
14.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 26(Suppl 3): 886, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980195

RESUMO

In the original article, the Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI) was incorrectly identified as the Comprehensive Comorbidity Index. Wherever CCI appears, it refers to the Comprehensive Complication Index.

15.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 26(5): 1445-1453, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825033

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We hypothesized that repeat cytoreductive surgery-hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (CRS-HIPEC) for peritoneal metastases (PM) may be associated with suboptimal resection, more frequent postoperative complications, and worse oncologic outcomes. METHODS: Using a prospectively maintained database, we compared clinicopathologic, perioperative, and oncologic outcome data in patients undergoing single or repeat CRS-HIPEC procedures. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival. Multivariate analyses identified associations with perioperative and oncologic outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 1294 patients undergoing CRS-HIPEC procedures at our institution, only one CRS-HIPEC procedure (single HIPEC cohort) was performed in 1169 patients (90.3%), whereas 125 patients (9.7%) underwent repeat CRS-HIPEC procedures (repeat HIPEC cohort). Of the 1440 CRS-HIPEC procedures at our institution, a first CRS-HIPEC procedure was performed in 1294 patients (89.9%), whereas subsequent second, third, and fourth CRS-HIPEC procedures were performed in 125 patients (8.7%), 18 patients (1.3%), and 3 patients (0.2%), respectively. Progression-free survival (PFS) following the second CRS-HIPEC procedure was negatively impacted by shorter PFS following the first CRS-HIPEC procedure, independent of other significant variables related to the second procedure, including completeness of cytoreduction and postoperative complications. Patients undergoing multiple CRS-HIPEC procedures were not at higher risk for suboptimal resection or postoperative complications and demonstrated equivalent PFS following each successive procedure compared to the first procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Repeat CRS-HIPEC procedures for PM were not associated with suboptimal perioperative and oncologic outcomes. Our data confirmed our ability to select patients appropriately for repeat CRS-HIPEC procedures.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia do Câncer por Perfusão Regional/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/mortalidade , Hipertermia Induzida/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Peritoneais/mortalidade , Reoperação/mortalidade , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Neoplasias Peritoneais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 26(5): 1429-1436, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with pleuropulmonary disease recurrence following cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (CRS/HIPEC) for appendiceal pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) and to evaluate the oncologic impact of pleuropulmonary disease recurrence compared with isolated peritoneal recurrence. METHODS: From a prospective database, we identified patients who developed pleuropulmonary recurrence, isolated peritoneal recurrence, or no recurrence following CRS/HIPEC for appendiceal PMP. Clinicopathologic, perioperative, and oncologic data associated with the index CRS/HIPEC procedure were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival. Multivariate analyses identified associations with recurrence and survival. RESULTS: Of 382 patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC, 61 (16%) developed pleuropulmonary recurrence. Patients who developed a pleuropulmonary recurrence were more likely to have high-grade (American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] grade 2/3) tumors (74% vs. 56%, p = 0.02) and increased operative blood loss (1651 vs. 1201 ml, p = 0.05) and were more likely to have undergone diaphragm stripping/resection (79% vs. 48%, p < 0.01) compared with patients with an abdominal recurrence. In a multivariate analysis, pleuropulmonary recurrence after CRS/HIPEC was associated with diaphragm stripping/resection, incomplete cytoreduction, and higher AJCC tumor grade. There was a trend towards reduced survival in patients with pleuropulmonary recurrence compared with patients with isolated peritoneal recurrence (median overall survival 45 vs. 53 months, p = 0.87). CONCLUSION: Pleuropulmonary recurrence of appendiceal PMP following CRS/HIPEC is common and may negatively impact survival. Formal protocols for surveillance and therapeutic intervention need to be studied and implemented to improve oncologic outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Apêndice/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/efeitos adversos , Hipertermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pleurais/mortalidade , Pseudomixoma Peritoneal/terapia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Apêndice/patologia , Quimioterapia do Câncer por Perfusão Regional/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/etiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Pseudomixoma Peritoneal/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
J Immunother Cancer ; 6(1): 112, 2018 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant immunotherapy utilizing novel combinations has the potential to transform the standard of care for locally/regionally advanced melanoma. We hypothesized that neoadjuvant ipilimumab in combination with high dose IFNα2b (HDI) is safe and associated with durable pathologic complete responses (pCR). METHODS: Patients with locally/regionally advanced melanoma were randomized to ipilimumab 3 or 10 mg/kg × 4 doses bracketing definitive surgery, then every 12 weeks × 4. HDI was given concurrently. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the combination with ipilimumab 3 or 10 mg/kg. The impact on T-cell fraction and clonality were investigated in tumor and blood. RESULTS: Thirty patients (age 37-76), 15 each at 3 and 10 mg/kg, 18 male and 12 female were treated. Considering immune related adverse events (irAEs) of interest, more grade 3/4 irAEs were seen with ipilimumab 10 mg/kg versus 3 mg/kg (p = 0.042). Among 28 evaluable patients, 11 relapsed, of whom 5 died. Median follow-up for 17 patients who have not relapsed was 32 months. The radiologic preoperative response rate was 36% (95% CI, 21-54); 4 patients at ipilimumab 3 mg/kg and 6 at 10 mg/kg and 2 (at 10 mg/kg) later relapsed. The pCR was 32% (95% CI, 18-51); 5 patients at ipilimumab 3 mg/kg and 4 at 10 mg/kg and one (at 3 mg/kg) had a late relapse. In patients with pCR, T-cell fraction was significantly higher when measured in primary melanoma tumors (p = 0.033). Higher tumor T-cell clonality in primary tumor and more so following neoadjuvant therapy was significantly associated with improved relapse free survival. CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant ipilimumab-HDI was relatively safe and exhibited promising tumor response rates with an associated measurable impact on T-cell fraction and clonality. Most pCRs were durable supporting the value of pCR as a primary endpoint in neoadjuvant immunotherapy trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01608594 . Registered 31 May 2012.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/farmacologia , Ipilimumab/farmacologia , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
18.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 25(13): 3950-3959, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30302637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors hypothesized that postoperative complications after cytoreductive surgery-hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (CRS-HIPEC) have a negative impact on perioperative and oncologic outcomes and that the novel Comprehensive Comorbidity Index (CCI) would be a better predictor of such outcomes than the traditional Clavien-Dindo classification (CDC). METHODS: The study used a prospective database of 1296 patients with peritoneal metastases (PM) undergoing CRS-HIPEC between 2001 and 2016. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival. Multivariate analyses identified associations with perioperative and oncologic outcomes. The Akaike information criterion and the Schwarz (Bayesian information) criterion were used to compare model fitting for CCI versus CDC. RESULTS: In this study, CRS-HIPEC was performed for malignant mesothelioma (12%) and PM from appendix (50%), colorectal (30%), and ovarian (8%) cancers. Major postoperative in-hospital complications (CDC grades 3-4) occurred for 24% of the patients. However, a range of CCI scores was calculated for each CDC grade because 36% of the patients experienced multiple complications. After a median follow-up period of 55 months, the median progression-free survival was 15 months, and the median overall survival was 39 months. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, postoperative in-hospital complications (measured by CDC or CCI) were independent prognostic factors for 30-day post-discharge morbidity and readmission, as well as for survival. The CCI scores demonstrated higher prognostic sensitivity for these outcomes than CDC grades. CONCLUSIONS: Reduction of postoperative complications after CRS-HIPEC is essential for optimal short- and long-term outcomes. For assessing total burden of postoperative complications per patient, CCI is superior to CDC and more sensitive for assessing surgery- and cancer-related outcomes after CRS-HIPEC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Apêndice/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/efeitos adversos , Mesotelioma/terapia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/terapia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/classificação , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
J Surg Oncol ; 117(5): 940-946, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ocular melanoma has a predilection for liver metastases. Systemic treatment is ineffective and the optimal regional therapy approach is poorly defined. Isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP) with melphalan has emerged as a viable treatment option, however a subset of patients are not candidates for this treatment. We therefore sought to determine if melphalan could be safely administered via the hepatic artery for these patients. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients treated with hepatic artery infusion (HAI) of melphalan was undertaken. All patients had contraindications to IHP and were without other therapy options. Melphalan infusion was repeated every four weeks with consideration for dose escalation in the absence of toxicity or significant disease progression. RESULTS: Fourteen patients were treated with HAI of melphalan from 2010 to 2015. All patients had hepatic dysfunction or prohibitive tumor volume precluding IHP. There were no procedure-related complications. Three patients (21%) died within 30 days and the median survival was 2.9 months. Elevated baseline bilirubin > 2.5 mg/dL was associated with worse overall survival (0.93 vs 6.3 months, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: HAI of melphalan is safe and feasible for patients with metastatic ocular melanoma. Further study to determine the optimal utilization of this treatment approach is warranted.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia do Câncer por Perfusão Regional , Neoplasias Oculares/tratamento farmacológico , Artéria Hepática , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Neoplasias Oculares/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Infusões Intra-Arteriais , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Ann Behav Med ; 52(1): 88-92, 2018 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538623

RESUMO

Background: Postoperative ambulation is encouraged to promote timely recovery but is rarely monitored objectively or examined as a predictor of clinical outcomes, despite growing availability of wearable devices that allow passive quantification and remote real-time monitoring of the number of steps taken during recovery. Purpose: To determine whether the number of steps taken during inpatient recovery predicts 30- and 60-day readmission risk after metastatic cancer surgery. Methods: Patients diagnosed with metastatic peritoneal cancer and scheduled for surgical resection were enrolled in this observational cohort study at their preoperative clinic visit. Fitbits were placed on patients' wrists upon transfer from the ICU following surgery and worn for the duration of their inpatient stay. Information about hospital readmission was extracted from electronic medical records. Results: Seventy-one patients participated in the study (mean age = 57.14, range = 31-80 years; 42% female; 51% diagnosed with appendiceal cancer). Mean steps per day were calculated for each participant over the entire inpatient recovery period (mean stay = 12.12 days, 4-37 days). Readmission within 30 and 60 days was medically indicated for 34% and 39% of patients, respectively. After statistically adjusting for age, body mass index, comorbidity, and length of postoperative stay, higher mean steps per day predicted lower 30-day and 60-day readmission risk. Conclusions: Higher Fitbit step counts during inpatient recovery predicted lower risk of 30- and 60-day readmission after surgery for metastatic peritoneal cancer. Results suggest that passively monitoring perioperative ambulation may identify patients at risk for readmission and highlight opportunities for behavioral intervention.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Peritoneais/cirurgia , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Período Pós-Operatório
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