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1.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e00895, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tetrasomy 21 is a very rare aneuploidy which could clinically resemble a Down syndrome. It was most often described in its partial form than complete. We report the prenatal, pathological and genetic characteristics of a fetus with mosaic complete tetrasomy 21. This is the second well-documented description of a complete tetrasomy 21 in the literature. METHODS: Prenatal and fetal pathological examinations, cytogenetic and molecular analyses were performed to characterize fetal features with tetrasomy 21. RESULTS: Prenatal ultrasound examination revealed an isolated complete atrioventricular septal defect with normal karyotype on amniotic fluid. After termination of pregnancy, clinical examination of the fetus evoked trisomy 21 or Down syndrome. Chromosomal microarray analysis and FISH on lung tissue showed a mosaicism with four copies of chromosome 21 (tetrasomy 21). CONCLUSION: Our observation and the review of the literature reported the possibility of very weak mosaicism and disease-causing confined tissue-specific mosaicism in fetus or alive patients with chromosome 21 aneuploidy, mainly Down syndrome. In case of clinical diagnosis suggestive of Down syndrome, attention must be paid to the risk of false-negative test due to chromosomal mosaicism (very weak percentage, different tissue distribution). To overcome this risk, it is necessary to privilege the diagnostic techniques without culture step and to increase the number of cells and tissues analyzed, if possible. This study highlights the limits of microarray as the unique diagnostic approach in case of weak mosaic and French cytogenetics guidelines recommend to check anomalies seen in microarray by another technique on the same tissue.

3.
RNA ; 25(9): 1130-1149, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175170

RESUMO

Minor intron splicing plays a central role in human embryonic development and survival. Indeed, biallelic mutations in RNU4ATAC, transcribed into the minor spliceosomal U4atac snRNA, are responsible for three rare autosomal recessive multimalformation disorders named Taybi-Linder (TALS/MOPD1), Roifman (RFMN), and Lowry-Wood (LWS) syndromes, which associate numerous overlapping signs of varying severity. Although RNA-seq experiments have been conducted on a few RFMN patient cells, none have been performed in TALS, and more generally no in-depth transcriptomic analysis of the ∼700 human genes containing a minor (U12-type) intron had been published as yet. We thus sequenced RNA from cells derived from five skin, three amniotic fluid, and one blood biosamples obtained from seven unrelated TALS cases and from age- and sex-matched controls. This allowed us to describe for the first time the mRNA expression and splicing profile of genes containing U12-type introns, in the context of a functional minor spliceosome. Concerning RNU4ATAC-mutated patients, we show that as expected, they display distinct U12-type intron splicing profiles compared to controls, but that rather unexpectedly mRNA expression levels are mostly unchanged. Furthermore, although U12-type intron missplicing concerns most of the expressed U12 genes, the level of U12-type intron retention is surprisingly low in fibroblasts and amniocytes, and much more pronounced in blood cells. Interestingly, we found several occurrences of introns that can be spliced using either U2, U12, or a combination of both types of splice site consensus sequences, with a shift towards splicing using preferentially U2 sites in TALS patients' cells compared to controls.

4.
Clin Genet ; 95(3): 384-397, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614526

RESUMO

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is an emblematic ciliopathy associated with retinal dystrophy, obesity, postaxial polydactyly, learning disabilities, hypogonadism and renal dysfunction. Before birth, enlarged/cystic kidneys as well as polydactyly are the hallmark signs of BBS to consider in absence of familial history. However, these findings are not specific to BBS, raising the problem of differential diagnoses and prognosis. Molecular diagnosis during pregnancies remains a timely challenge for this heterogeneous disease (22 known genes). We report here the largest cohort of BBS fetuses to better characterize the antenatal presentation. Prenatal ultrasound (US) and/or autopsy data from 74 fetuses with putative BBS diagnosis were collected out of which molecular diagnosis was established in 51 cases, mainly in BBS genes (45 cases) following the classical gene distribution, but also in other ciliopathy genes (6 cases). Based on this, an updated diagnostic decision tree is proposed. No genotype/phenotype correlation could be established but postaxial polydactyly (82%) and renal cysts (78%) were the most prevalent symptoms. However, autopsy revealed polydactyly that was missed by prenatal US in 55% of the cases. Polydactyly must be carefully looked for in pregnancies with apparently isolated renal anomalies in fetuses.

5.
Genet Med ; 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270358

RESUMO

PURPOSE: PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) encompasses a range of debilitating conditions defined by asymmetric overgrowth caused by mosaic activating PIK3CA variants. PIK3CA encodes the p110α catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), a critical transducer of growth factor signaling. As mTOR mediates the growth-promoting actions of PI3K, we hypothesized that the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus would slow pathological overgrowth. METHODS: Thirty-nine participants with PROS and progressive overgrowth were enrolled into open-label studies across three centers, and results were pooled. For the primary outcome, tissue volumes at affected and unaffected sites were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during 26 weeks of untreated run-in and 26 weeks of sirolimus therapy. RESULTS: Thirty participants completed the study. Sirolimus led to a change in mean percentage total tissue volume of -7.2% (SD 16.0, p = 0.04) at affected sites, but not at unaffected sites (+1.7%, SD 11.5, p = 0.48) (n = 23 evaluable). Twenty-eight of 39 (72%) participants had ≥1 adverse event related to sirolimus of which 37% were grade 3 or 4 in severity and 7/39 (18%) participants were withdrawn consequently. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that low-dose sirolimus can modestly reduce overgrowth, but cautions that the side-effect profile is significant, mandating individualized risk-benefit evaluations for sirolimus treatment in PROS.

6.
J Med Genet ; 55(6): 422-429, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Segmentation defects of the vertebrae (SDV) are non-specific features found in various syndromes. The molecular bases of SDV are not fully elucidated due to the wide range of phenotypes and classification issues. The genes involved are in the Notch signalling pathway, which is a key system in somitogenesis. Here we report on mutations identified in a diagnosis cohort of SDV. We focused on spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD) and the phenotype of these patients in order to establish a diagnostic strategy when confronted with SDV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used DNA samples from a cohort of 73 patients and performed targeted sequencing of the five known SCD-causing genes (DLL3, MESP2, LFNG, HES7 and TBX6) in the first 48 patients and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 28 relevant patients. RESULTS: Ten diagnoses, including four biallelic variants in TBX6, two biallelic variants in LFNG and DLL3, and one in MESP2 and HES7, were made with the gene panel, and two diagnoses, including biallelic variants in FLNB and one variant in MEOX1, were made by WES. The diagnostic yield of the gene panel was 10/73 (13.7%) in the global cohort but 8/10 (80%) in the subgroup meeting the SCD criteria; the diagnostic yield of WES was 2/28 (8%). CONCLUSION: After negative array CGH, targeted sequencing of the five known SCD genes should only be performed in patients who meet the diagnostic criteria of SCD. The low proportion of candidate genes identified by WES in our cohort suggests the need to consider more complex genetic architectures in cases of SDV.

7.
NPJ Genom Med ; 2: 32, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263841

RESUMO

Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is characterized by a variety of clinical symptoms with heterogeneous degrees of severity, including intellectual disability (ID), absent or delayed speech, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It results from a deletion of the distal part of chromosome 22q13 that in most cases includes the SHANK3 gene. SHANK3 is considered a major gene for PMS, but the factors that modulate the severity of the syndrome remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated 85 patients with different 22q13 rearrangements (78 deletions and 7 duplications). We first explored the clinical features associated with PMS, and provide evidence for frequent corpus callosum abnormalities in 28% of 35 patients with brain imaging data. We then mapped several candidate genomic regions at the 22q13 region associated with high risk of clinical features, and suggest a second locus at 22q13 associated with absence of speech. Finally, in some cases, we identified additional clinically relevant copy-number variants (CNVs) at loci associated with ASD, such as 16p11.2 and 15q11q13, which could modulate the severity of the syndrome. We also report an inherited SHANK3 deletion transmitted to five affected daughters by a mother without ID nor ASD, suggesting that some individuals could compensate for such mutations. In summary, we shed light on the genotype-phenotype relationship of patients with PMS, a step towards the identification of compensatory mechanisms for a better prognosis and possibly treatments of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders.

8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(12): 3136-3142, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29136349

RESUMO

Frontonasal dysplasias are rare congenital malformations of frontonasal process-derived structures, characterized by median cleft, nasal anomalies, widely spaced eyes, and cranium bifidum occultum. Several entities of syndromic frontonasal dysplasia have been described, among which, to date, only a few have identified molecular bases. We clinically ascertained a cohort of 124 individuals referred for frontonasal dysplasia. We identified six individuals with a similar phenotype, including one discordant monozygous twin. Facial features were remarkable by nasal deformity with creased ridge and depressed or absent tip, widely spaced eyes, almond-shaped palpebral fissures, and downturned corners of the mouth. All had apparently normal psychomotor development. In addition, upper limb anomalies, frontonasal encephalocele, corpus callosum agenesis, choanal atresia, and congenital heart defect were observed. We identified five reports in the literature of patients presenting with the same phenotype. Exome sequencing was performed on DNA extracted from blood of two individuals, no candidate gene was identified. In conclusion, we report six novel simplex individuals presenting with a specific frontonasal dysplasia entity associating recognizable facial features, limb and visceral malformations, and apparently normal development. The identification of discordant monozygotic twins supports the hypothesis of a mosaic disorder. Although previous patients have been reported, this is the first series, allowing delineation of a clinical subtype of frontonasal dysplasia, paving the way toward the identification of its molecular etiology.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico , Atresia das Cóanas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Encefalocele/diagnóstico , Face/anormalidades , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/genética , Atresia das Cóanas/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/classificação , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Encefalocele/genética , Encefalocele/patologia , Ossos Faciais/anormalidades , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nariz/anormalidades , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
9.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 175(4): 417-430, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178447

RESUMO

CHARGE syndrome (CS) is a genetic disorder whose first description included Coloboma, Heart disease, Atresia of choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital hypoplasia, and Ear anomalies and deafness, most often caused by a genetic mutation in the CHD7 gene. Two features were then added: semicircular canal anomalies and arhinencephaly/olfactory bulb agenesis, with classification of typical, partial, or atypical forms on the basis of major and minor clinical criteria. The detection rate of a pathogenic variant in the CHD7 gene varies from 67% to 90%. To try to have an overview of this heterogenous clinical condition and specify a genotype-phenotype relation, we conducted a national study of phenotype and genotype in 119 patients with CS. Selected clinical diagnostic criteria were from Verloes (2005), updated by Blake & Prasad (). Besides obtaining a detailed clinical description, when possible, patients underwent a full ophthalmologic examination, audiometry, temporal bone CT scan, gonadotropin analysis, and olfactory-bulb MRI. All patients underwent CHD7 sequencing and MLPA analysis. We found a pathogenic CHD7 variant in 83% of typical CS cases and 58% of atypical cases. Pathogenic variants in the CHD7 gene were classified by the expected impact on the protein. In all, 90% of patients had a typical form of CS and 10% an atypical form. The most frequent features were deafness/semicircular canal hypoplasia (94%), pituitary defect/hypogonadism (89%), external ear anomalies (87%), square-shaped face (81%), and arhinencephaly/anosmia (80%). Coloboma (73%), heart defects (65%), and choanal atresia (43%) were less frequent.


Assuntos
Síndrome CHARGE/diagnóstico , Síndrome CHARGE/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Sistema Nervoso Central/anormalidades , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Nervos Cranianos/anormalidades , DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , França , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(1): 62-71, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27615324

RESUMO

Neutropenia can be qualified as congenital when of neonatal onset or when associated with extra-hematopoietic manifestations. Overall, 30% of patients with congenital neutropenia (CN) remain without a molecular diagnosis after a multidisciplinary consultation and tedious diagnostic strategy. In the rare situations when neutropenia is identified and associated with intellectual disability (ID), there are few diagnostic hypotheses to test. This retrospective multicenter study reports on a clinically heterogeneous cohort of 10 unrelated patients with CN associated with ID and no molecular diagnosis prior to whole-exome sequencing (WES). WES provided a diagnostic yield of 40% (4/10). The results suggested that in many cases neutropenia and syndromic manifestations could not be assigned to the same molecular alteration. Three sub-groups of patients were highlighted: (i) severe, symptomatic chronic neutropenia, detected early in life, and related to a known mutation in the CN spectrum (ELANE); (ii) mild to moderate benign intermittent neutropenia, detected later, and associated with mutations in genes implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders (CHD2, HUWE1); and (iii) moderate to severe intermittent neutropenia as a probably undiagnosed feature of a newly reported syndrome (KAT6A). Unlike KAT6A, which seems to be associated with a syndromic form of CN, the other reported mutations may not explain the entire clinical picture. Although targeted gene sequencing can be discussed for the primary diagnosis of severe CN, we suggest that performing WES for the diagnosis of disorders associating CN with ID will not only provide the etiological diagnosis but will also pave the way towards personalized care and follow-up. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Exoma , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Neutropenia/congênito , Adolescente , Biomarcadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neutropenia/diagnóstico , Neutropenia/genética , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome
11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(4): 611-4, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26395554

RESUMO

To unravel missing genetic causes underlying monogenic disorders with recurrence in sibling, we explored the hypothesis of parental germline mosaic mutations in familial forms of malformation of cortical development (MCD). Interestingly, four families with parental germline variants, out of 18, were identified by whole-exome sequencing (WES), including a variant in a new candidate gene, syntaxin 7. In view of this high frequency, revision of diagnostic strategies and reoccurrence risk should be considered not only for the recurrent forms, but also for the sporadic cases of MCD.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/genética , Mosaicismo , Adulto , Exoma , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Proteínas Qa-SNARE/genética
12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(7): 992-1000, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26626311

RESUMO

Heterozygous COL2A1 variants cause a wide spectrum of skeletal dysplasia termed type II collagenopathies. We assessed the impact of this gene in our French series. A decision tree was applied to select 136 probands (71 Stickler cases, 21 Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita cases, 11 Kniest dysplasia cases, and 34 other dysplasia cases) before molecular diagnosis by Sanger sequencing. We identified 66 different variants among the 71 positive patients. Among those patients, 18 belonged to multiplex families and 53 were sporadic. Most variants (38/44, 86%) were located in the triple helical domain of the collagen chain and glycine substitutions were mainly observed in severe phenotypes, whereas arginine to cysteine changes were more often encountered in moderate phenotypes. This series of skeletal dysplasia is one of the largest reported so far, adding 44 novel variants (15%) to published data. We have confirmed that about half of our Stickler patients (46%) carried a COL2A1 variant, and that the molecular spectrum was different across the phenotypes. To further address the question of genotype-phenotype correlation, we plan to screen our patients for other candidate genes using a targeted next-generation sequencing approach.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Artrite/genética , Doenças do Colágeno/genética , Colágeno Tipo II/genética , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Fenótipo , Descolamento Retiniano/genética , Artrite/patologia , Doenças do Colágeno/patologia , Colágeno Tipo II/química , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/patologia , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Linhagem , Domínios Proteicos , Descolamento Retiniano/patologia
13.
Genet Med ; 18(1): 49-56, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25790162

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Treacher Collins/Franceschetti syndrome (TCS; OMIM 154500) is a disorder of craniofacial development belonging to the heterogeneous group of mandibulofacial dysostoses. TCS is classically characterized by bilateral mandibular and malar hypoplasia, downward-slanting palpebral fissures, and microtia. To date, three genes have been identified in TCS:,TCOF1, POLR1D, and POLR1C. METHODS: We report a clinical and extensive molecular study, including TCOF1, POLR1D, POLR1C, and EFTUD2 genes, in a series of 146 patients with TCS. Phenotype-genotype correlations were investigated for 19 clinical features, between TCOF1 and POLR1D, and the type of mutation or its localization in the TCOF1 gene. RESULTS: We identified 92/146 patients (63%) with a molecular anomaly within TCOF1, 9/146 (6%) within POLR1D, and none within POLR1C. Among the atypical negative patients (with intellectual disability and/or microcephaly), we identified four patients carrying a mutation in EFTUD2 and two patients with 5q32 deletion encompassing TCOF1 and CAMK2A in particular. Congenital cardiac defects occurred more frequently among patients with TCOF1 mutation (7/92, 8%) than reported in the literature. CONCLUSION: Even though TCOF1 and POLR1D were associated with extreme clinical variability, we found no phenotype-genotype correlation. In cases with a typical phenotype of TCS, 6/146 (4%) remained with an unidentified molecular defect.


Assuntos
RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Disostose Mandibulofacial/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Disostose Mandibulofacial/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/genética , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nat Commun ; 6: 8666, 2015 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26487268

RESUMO

Ciliopathies are a large group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders caused by defects in primary cilia. Here we identified mutations in TRAF3IP1 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor Interacting Protein 1) in eight patients from five families with nephronophthisis (NPH) and retinal degeneration, two of the most common manifestations of ciliopathies. TRAF3IP1 encodes IFT54, a subunit of the IFT-B complex required for ciliogenesis. The identified mutations result in mild ciliary defects in patients but also reveal an unexpected role of IFT54 as a negative regulator of microtubule stability via MAP4 (microtubule-associated protein 4). Microtubule defects are associated with altered epithelialization/polarity in renal cells and with pronephric cysts and microphthalmia in zebrafish embryos. Our findings highlight the regulation of cytoplasmic microtubule dynamics as a role of the IFT54 protein beyond the cilium, contributing to the development of NPH-related ciliopathies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Doenças Renais Císticas/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mutação , Degeneração Retiniana/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Western Blotting , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Polaridade Celular/genética , Dicroísmo Circular , Embrião não Mamífero , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Células HEK293 , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Doenças Renais Císticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Microftalmia/genética , Linhagem , Degeneração Retiniana/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Peixe-Zebra , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 167A(1): 111-22, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25425167

RESUMO

Array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) has proven its utility in uncovering cryptic rearrangements in patients with X-linked intellectual disability. In 2009, Giorda et al. identified inherited and de novo recurrent Xp11.23p11.22 microduplications in two males and six females from a wide cohort of patients presenting with syndromic intellectual disability. To date, 14 females and 5 males with an overlapping microduplication have been reported in the literature. To further characterize this emerging syndrome, we collected clinical and microarray data from 17 new patients, 10 females, and 7 males. The Xp11.23p11.2 microduplications detected by array CGH ranged in size from 331 Kb to 8.9 Mb. Five patients harbored 4.5 Mb recurrent duplications mediated by non-allelic homologous recombination between segmental duplications and 12 harbored atypical duplications. The chromosomal rearrangement occurred de novo in eight patients and was inherited in six affected males from three families. Patients shared several common major characteristics including moderate to severe intellectual disability, early onset of puberty, language impairment, and age related epileptic syndromes such as West syndrome and focal epilepsy with activation during sleep evolving in some patients to continuous spikes-and-waves during slow sleep. Atypical microduplications allowed us to identify minimal critical regions that might be responsible for specific clinical findings of the syndrome and to suggest possible candidate genes: FTSJ1 and SHROOM4 for intellectual disability along with PQBP1 and SLC35A2 for epilepsy. Xp11.23p11.22 microduplication is a recently-recognized syndrome associated with intellectual disability, epilepsy, and early onset of puberty in females. In this study, we propose several genes that could contribute to the phenotype.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Duplicações Segmentares Genômicas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo
16.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 9: 183, 2014 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25491320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to describe the natural history of severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) in 14 patients with G6PC3 mutations and enrolled in the French SCN registry. METHODS: Among 605 patients included in the French SCN registry, we identified 8 pedigrees that included 14 patients with autosomal recessive G6PC3 mutations. RESULTS: Median age at the last visit was 22.4 years. All patients had developed various comordibities, including prominent veins (n = 12), cardiac malformations (n = 12), intellectual disability (n = 7), and myopathic syndrome with recurrent painful cramps (n = 1). Three patients developed Crohn's disease, and five had chronic diarrhea with steatorrhea. Neutropenia was profound (<0.5 × 109/l) in almost all cases at diagnosis and could marginally fluctuate. The bone marrow smears exhibited mild late-stage granulopoeitic defects. One patient developed myelodysplasia followed by acute myelogenous leukemia with translocation (18, 21) at age 14 years, cured by chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Four deaths occurred, including one from sepsis at age 5, one from pulmonary late-stage insufficiency at age 19, and two from sudden death, both at age 30 years. A new homozygous mutation (c.249G > A /p.Trp83*) was detected in one pedigree. CONCLUSIONS: Severe congenital neutropenia with autosomal recessive G6PC3 mutations is associated with considerable clinical heterogeneity. This series includes the first described case of malignancy in this neutropenia.


Assuntos
Glucose-6-Fosfatase/genética , Mutação/genética , Neutropenia/congênito , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neutropenia/diagnóstico , Neutropenia/genética , Neutropenia/mortalidade , Linhagem , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(1): 177-81, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24259107

RESUMO

Mosaic variegated aneuploidy (MVA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by constitutional aneuploidies. Mutations in BUB1B and CEP57 genes, which are involved in mitotic spindle and microtubule stabilization, respectively, are responsible for a subset of patients with MVA. To date, CEP57 mutations have been reported only in four probands. We report on a girl with this disorder due to c.915-925dup11 mutation in CEP57, which predicts p.Leu309ProfsX9 and review the literature in order to facilitate genotype-phenotype correlation. Rhizomelic shortening of the upper limbs, skull anomalies with conserved head circumference, and absence of tumor development could be features suggesting a need for molecular screening of the CEP57 gene in patients with this disorder.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Aneuploidia , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Consanguinidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Mosaicismo , Linhagem , Fenótipo
18.
Eur J Med Genet ; 56(10): 556-60, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23933090

RESUMO

Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare syndrome associating malformations with intellectual deficiency and numerous visceral, orthopedic, endocrinological, immune and autoimmune complications. The early establishment of a diagnostic of KS leads to better care of the patients and therefore prevents complications such as perception deafness, severe complications of auto-immune diseases or obesity. However, the diagnosis of KS remains difficult because based on the appreciation of facial features combined with other highly variable features. We describe a novel sign, namely the attenuation and/or congenital absence of the IPD crease of the third and fourth fingers associated with limitation of flexion of the corresponding joints, which seems to be specific of KS and could help the clinician to diagnose KS.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Face/anormalidades , Dedos/anormalidades , Doenças Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Vestibulares/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
19.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 69(5): 768-775, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23972508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with multiple café-au-lait macules (CALMs) may be followed for years before a second National Institutes of Health clinical criterion of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) develops to confirm the diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the prevalence of nevus anemicus (NA) in NF1 and its association with neuro-ophthalmologic complications. METHODS: This was a prospective multicenter case-control study of 210 consecutive patients with multiple CALMs. Patients with NF1 were matched for age, sex, and center with control subjects. We documented the number, location, and morphologic appearance of NA; dermatologic features of NF1; magnetic resonance imaging results; and family history. RESULTS: In all, 77 (51%) patients with NF1 had NA compared with 6 (2%) control subjects. NA was not detected in 26 patients with other genodermatoses associated with CALMs. Patients with NF1 and NA were younger than those without NA (median age: 17 years) (P = .002). NA was mostly localized to the upper anterior aspect of the chest. NA was not significantly linked with other clinical manifestations of NF1, including optic glioma and unidentified bright objects. LIMITATIONS: A potential referral bias associated with tertiary care centers is a limitation. CONCLUSIONS: NA appears to have a high prevalence and specificity in NF1 and might serve as a marker for NF1 in children with multiple CALMs.


Assuntos
Neurofibromatose 1/complicações , Neurofibromatose 1/diagnóstico , Nevo/etiologia , Transtornos da Pigmentação/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 163C(2): 92-105, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23606591

RESUMO

Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is a rare X-linked multiple congenital abnormality/intellectual disability syndrome characterized by pre- and post-natal overgrowth, distinctive craniofacial features, macrocephaly, variable congenital malformations, organomegaly, increased risk of tumor and mild/moderate intellectual deficiency. In 1996, Glypican 3 (GPC3) was identified as the major gene causing SGBS but the mutation detection rate was only 28-70%, suggesting either genetic heterogeneity or that some patients could have alternative diagnoses. This was particularly suggested by some reports of atypical cases with more severe prognoses. In the family reported by Golabi and Rosen, a duplication of GPC4 was recently identified, suggesting that GPC4 could be the second gene for SGBS but no point mutations within GPC4 have yet been reported. In the genetics laboratory in Tours Hospital, GPC3 molecular testing over more than a decade has detected pathogenic mutations in only 8.7% of individuals with SGBS. In addition, GPC4 mutations have not been identified thus raising the question of frequent misdiagnosis. In order to better delineate the phenotypic spectrum of SGBS caused by GPC3 mutations, and to try to define specific clinical criteria for GPC3 molecular testing, we reviewed the clinical features of all male cases with a GPC3 mutation identified in the two molecular laboratories providing this test in France (Tours and Paris). We present here the results of the analysis of 42 patients belonging to 31 families and including five fetuses and three deceased neonates.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Gigantismo/genética , Glipicanas/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Humanos , Fenótipo
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