Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 27
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Ecol Evol ; 8(16): 8030-8042, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250682

RESUMO

Andean orogenesis has driven the development of very high plant diversity in the Neotropics through its impact on landscape evolution and climate. The analysis of the intraspecific patterns of genetic structure in plants would permit inferring the effects of Andean uplift on the evolution and diversification of Neotropical flora. In this study, using microsatellite markers and Bayesian clustering analyses, we report the presence of four genetic clusters for the palm Oenocarpus bataua var. bataua which are located within four biogeographic regions in northwestern South America: (a) Chocó rain forest, (b) Amotape-Huancabamba Zone, (c) northwestern Amazonian rain forest, and (d) southwestern Amazonian rain forest. We hypothesize that these clusters developed following three genetic diversification events mainly promoted by Andean orogenic events. Additionally, the distinct current climate dynamics among northwestern and southwestern Amazonia may maintain the genetic diversification detected in the western Amazon basin. Genetic exchange was identified between the clusters, including across the Andes region, discarding the possibility of any cluster to diversify as a distinct intraspecific variety. We identified a hot spot of genetic diversity in the northern Peruvian Amazon around the locality of Iquitos. We also detected a decrease in diversity with distance from this area in westward and southward direction within the Amazon basin and the eastern Andean foothills. Additionally, we confirmed the existence and divergence of O. bataua var. bataua from var. oligocarpus in northern South America, possibly expanding the distributional range of the latter variety beyond eastern Venezuela, to the central and eastern Andean cordilleras of Colombia. Based on our results, we suggest that Andean orogenesis is the main driver of genetic structuring and diversification in O. bataua within northwestern South America.

2.
Curr Biol ; 27(14): 2211-2218.e8, 2017 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28712568

RESUMO

For many crops, wild relatives constitute an extraordinary resource for cultivar improvement [1, 2] and also help to better understand the history of their domestication [3]. However, the wild ancestor species of several perennial crops have not yet been identified. Perennial crops generally present a weak domestication syndrome allowing cultivated individuals to establish feral populations difficult to distinguish from truly wild populations, and there is frequently ongoing gene flow between wild relatives and the crop that might erode most genetic differences [4]. Here we report the discovery of populations of the wild ancestor species of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), one of the oldest and most important cultivated fruit plants in hot and arid regions of the Old World. We discovered these wild individuals in remote and isolated mountainous locations of Oman. They are genetically more diverse than and distinct from a representative sample of Middle Eastern cultivated date palms and exhibit rounded seed shapes resembling those of a close sister species and archeological samples, but not modern cultivars. Whole-genome sequencing of several wild and cultivated individuals revealed a complex domestication history involving the contribution of at least two wild sources to African cultivated date palms. The discovery of wild date palms offers a unique chance to further elucidate the history of this iconic crop that has constituted the cornerstone of traditional oasis polyculture systems for several thousand years [5].


Assuntos
Domesticação , Phoeniceae/anatomia & histologia , Phoeniceae/genética , Omã
3.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0175232, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28410422

RESUMO

Date palm (Phoenix dactyliferaL.) is the mainstay of oasis agriculture in the Saharan region. It is cultivated in a large part of the Mediterranean coastal area of the Sahara and in most isolated oases in the Algerian desert. We sampled 10 oases in Algeria to understand the structure of date palm diversity from the coastal area to a very isolated desert location. We used 18 microsatellite markers and a chloroplast minisatellite to characterize 414 individual palm trees corresponding to 114 named varieties. We found a significant negative inbreeding coefficient, suggesting active farmer selection for heterozygous individuals. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified, a ubiquitous set of varieties found across the different oases, and two clusters, one of which was specific to the northern area, and the other to the drier southern area of the Algerian Sahara. The ubiquitous cluster presented very striking chloroplast diversity, signing the frequency of haplotypes found in Saudi Arabia, the most eastern part of the date palm range. Exchanges of Middle Eastern and Algerian date palms are known to have occurred and could have led to the introduction of this particular chlorotype. However, Algerian nuclear diversity was not of eastern origin. Our study strongly suggests that the peculiar chloroplastic diversity of date palm is maintained by farmers and could originate from date palms introduced from the Middle East a long time ago, which since then, hasbeen strongly introgressed. This study illustrates the complex structure of date palm diversity in Algerian oases and the role of farmers in shaping such cryptic diversity.


Assuntos
Agricultura , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Phoeniceae/genética , Argélia , Cloroplastos/genética , DNA de Plantas/química , DNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Heterozigoto , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
4.
J Hered ; 108(3): 288-298, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28186241

RESUMO

Given the geographical complexity of the Andes, species distributions hold interesting information regarding the history of isolation and gene flow across geographic barriers and ecological gradients. Moreover, current threats to the region's enormous plant diversity pose an additional challenge to the understanding of these patterns. We explored the geographic structure of genetic diversity within the Ceroxylon quindiuense species complex (wax palms) at a regional scale, using a model-based approach to disentangle the historical mechanisms by which these species have dispersed over a range encompassing 17° of latitude in the tropical Andes. A total of 10 microsatellite loci were cross-amplified in 8 populations of the 3 species comprising the C. quindiuense complex. Analyses performed include estimates of molecular diversity and genetic structure, testing for genetic bottlenecks and an evaluation of the colonization scenario under approximate Bayesian computation. We showed that there was a geographical diversity gradient reflecting the orogenetic pattern of the northern Andes and its end at the cordilleras facing the Caribbean Sea. A general pattern of diversity suggests that the cordilleras of Colombia have served as historical recipients of gene flow occurring only scantly along the northern Andes. We provided evidence of important isolation between the largest populations of this complex, suggesting that both historical constraints to dispersal but also current anthropogenic effects might explain the high levels of population structuring. We provide a list of advisable measures for conservation stakeholders.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Fluxo Gênico , Arecaceae/genética , Dinâmica Populacional
5.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0152394, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27010707

RESUMO

Investigating crop origins is a priority to understand the evolution of plants under domestication, develop strategies for conservation and valorization of agrobiodiversity and acquire fundamental knowledge for cultivar improvement. The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) belongs to the genus Phoenix, which comprises 14 species morphologically very close, sometimes hardly distinguishable. It has been cultivated for millennia in the Middle East and in North Africa and constitutes the keystone of oasis agriculture. Yet, its origins remain poorly understood as no wild populations are identified. Uncultivated populations have been described but they might represent feral, i.e. formerly cultivated, abandoned forms rather than truly wild populations. In this context, this study based on morphometrics applied to 1625 Phoenix seeds aims to (1) differentiate Phoenix species and (2) depict the domestication syndrome observed in cultivated date palm seeds using other Phoenix species as a "wild" reference. This will help discriminate truly wild from feral forms, thus providing new insights into the evolutionary history of this species. Seed size was evaluated using four parameters: length, width, thickness and dorsal view surface. Seed shape was quantified using outline analyses based on the Elliptic Fourier Transform method. The size and shape of seeds allowed an accurate differentiation of Phoenix species. The cultivated date palm shows distinctive size and shape features, compared to other Phoenix species: seeds are longer and elongated. This morphological shift may be interpreted as a domestication syndrome, resulting from the long-term history of cultivation, selection and human-mediated dispersion. Based on seed attributes, some uncultivated date palms from Oman may be identified as wild. This opens new prospects regarding the possible existence and characterization of relict wild populations and consequently for the understanding of the date palm origins. Finally, we here describe a pipeline for the identification of the domestication syndrome in seeds that could be used in other crops.


Assuntos
Phoeniceae/embriologia , Sementes/fisiologia
6.
Genetica ; 144(2): 181-90, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26895027

RESUMO

The breeding of crop species relies on the valorisation of ancestral or wild varieties to enrich the cultivated germplasm. The Tunisian date palm genetic patrimony is being threatened by diversity loss and global climate change. We have conducted a genetic study to evaluate the potential of spontaneous coastal resources to improve the currently exploited Tunisian date palm genetic pool. Eighteen microsatellite loci of Phoenix dactylifera L. were used to compare the genetic diversity of coastal accessions from Kerkennah, Djerba, Gabès and continental date palm accessions from Tozeur. A collection of 105 date palms from the four regions was analysed. This study has provided us with an extensive understanding of the local genetic diversity and its distribution. The coastal date palm genotypes exhibit a high and specific genetic diversity. These genotypes are certainly an untapped reservoir of agronomically important genes to improve cultivated germplasm in continental date palm.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Phoeniceae/genética , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Repetições Minissatélites , Melhoramento Vegetal , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tunísia
7.
Ann Bot ; 116(5): 847, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26378059

RESUMO

Since the publication of this paper, it has become apparent that an error was made in the legend to Fig. 3 and the colours referring to occidental and oriental are the wrong way round. The authors apologise for this error, and a correct version of the legend to Fig. 3 is given below.

8.
Ann Bot ; 116(1): 101-12, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26113618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Date palms (Phoenix dactylifera, Arecaceae) are of great economic and ecological value to the oasis agriculture of arid and semi-arid areas. However, despite the availability of a large date palm germplasm spreading from the Atlantic shores to Southern Asia, improvement of the species is being hampered by a lack of information on global genetic diversity and population structure. In order to contribute to the varietal improvement of date palms and to provide new insights on the influence of geographic origins and human activity on the genetic structure of the date palm, this study analysed the diversity of the species. METHODS: Genetic diversity levels and population genetic structure were investigated through the genotyping of a collection of 295 date palm accessions ranging from Mauritania to Pakistan using a set of 18 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and a plastid minisatellite. KEY RESULTS: Using a Bayesian clustering approach, the date palm genotypes can be structured into two different gene pools: the first, termed the Eastern pool, consists of accessions from Asia and Djibouti, whilst the second, termed the Western pool, consists of accessions from Africa. These results confirm the existence of two ancient gene pools that have contributed to the current date palm diversity. The presence of admixed genotypes is also noted, which points at gene flows between eastern and western origins, mostly from east to west, following a human-mediated diffusion of the species. CONCLUSIONS: This study assesses the distribution and level of genetic diversity of accessible date palm resources, provides new insights on the geographic origins and genetic history of the cultivated component of this species, and confirms the existence of at least two domestication origins. Furthermore, the strong genetic structure clearly established here is a prerequisite for any breeding programme exploiting the effective polymorphism related to each gene pool.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Geografia , Phoeniceae/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Cloroplastos/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Discriminante , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo Genético , Análise de Componente Principal
9.
Appl Plant Sci ; 2(1)2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25202594

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: To complement existing sets of primarily dinucleotide microsatellite loci from noncoding sequences of date palm, we developed primers for tri- and hexanucleotide microsatellite loci identified within genes. Due to their conserved genomic locations, the primers should be useful in other palm taxa, and their utility was tested in seven other Phoenix species and in Chamaerops, Livistona, and Hyphaene. • METHODS AND RESULTS: Tandem repeat motifs of 3-6 bp were searched using a simple sequence repeat (SSR)-pipeline package in coding portions of the date palm draft genome sequence. Fifteen loci produced highly consistent amplification, intraspecific polymorphisms, and stepwise mutation patterns. • CONCLUSIONS: These microsatellite loci showed sufficient levels of variability and transferability to make them useful for population genetic, selection signature, and interspecific gene flow studies in Phoenix and other Coryphoideae genera.

10.
Ann Bot ; 114(7): 1483-95, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25006179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sexual dimorphism, at both the flower and plant level, is widespread in the palm family (Arecaceae), in contrast to the situation in angiosperms as a whole. The tribe Chamaedoreeae is of special interest for studies of the evolution of sexual expression since dioecy appears to have evolved independently twice in this group from a monoecious ancestor. In order to understand the underlying evolutionary pathways, it is important to obtain detailed information on flower structure and development in each of the main clades. METHODS: Dissection and light and scanning electron microscopy were performed on developing flowers of Gaussia attenuata, a neotropical species belonging to one of the three monoecious genera of the tribe. KEY RESULTS: Like species of the other monoecious genera of the Chamaedoreeae (namely Hyophorbe and Synechanthus), G. attenuata produces a bisexual flower cluster known as an acervulus, consisting of a row of male flowers with a basal female flower. Whereas the sterile androecium of female flowers terminated its development at an early stage of floral ontogeny, the pistillode of male flowers was large in size but with no recognizable ovule, developing for a longer period of time. Conspicuous nectary differentiation in the pistillode suggested a possible role in pollinator attraction. CONCLUSIONS: Gaussia attenuata displays a number of floral characters that are likely to be ancestral to the tribe, notably the acervulus flower cluster, which is conserved in the other monoecious genera and also (albeit in a unisexual male form) in the dioecious genera (Wendlandiella and a few species of Chamaedorea). Comparison with earlier data from other genera suggests that large nectariferous pistillodes and early arrest in staminode development might also be regarded as ancestral characters in this tribe.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arecaceae/anatomia & histologia , Arecaceae/genética , Evolução Biológica , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Óvulo Vegetal/anatomia & histologia , Óvulo Vegetal/genética , Óvulo Vegetal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Reprodução , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
PLoS One ; 8(10): e74139, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24194823

RESUMO

Wax palms are an important element of the cloud forests in the tropical Andes. Despite heavy deforestation, the density of adults seems to be similar in deforested pastures as in forests. We aimed to infer the mechanisms responsible for this apparent resilience in pastures and we tested two hypotheses to explain it: 1) adult palms survived in pastures because they were spared from logging, and 2) adults occurred in pastures through the resilience of large juvenile rosettes, which survived through subterranean meristems and later developed into adults. For this purpose, we characterized the demographic structure of C. quindiuense in a total of 122 plots of 400 m(2) in forests and pastures at two sites with contrasted land use histories in Colombia and Peru. Additionally, we implemented growth models that allowed us to estimate the age of individuals at four sites. These data were combined with information collected from local land managers in order to complete our knowledge on the land use history at each site. At two sites, the presence of old individuals up to 169 years and a wide age range evidenced that, at least, a portion of current adults in pastures were spared from logging at the time of deforestation. However, at the two other sites, the absence of older adults in pastures and the narrow age range of the populations indicated that individuals came exclusively from rosette resilience. These interpretations were consistent with the land use history of sites. In consequence, the combination of the two hypotheses (spared individuals and rosette resilience) explained patterns of C. quindiuense in pastures on a regional scale. Regeneration through subterranean meristems in palms is an important, yet overlooked mechanism of resilience, which occurs in a number of palm species and deserves being integrated in the conceptual framework of disturbance ecology.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/fisiologia , Arecaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Longevidade/fisiologia , Colômbia , Florestas , Modelos Biológicos , Peru , Dinâmica Populacional , Clima Tropical
12.
New Phytol ; 197(2): 409-415, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23231423

RESUMO

Whether sex chromosomes are differentiated is an important aspect of our knowledge of dioecious plants, such as date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). In this crop plant, the female individuals produce dates, and are thus the more valuable sex. However, there is no way to identify the sex of date palm plants before reproductive age, and the sex-determining mechanism is still unclear. To identify sex-linked microsatellite markers, we surveyed a set of 52 male and 55 female genotypes representing the geographical diversity of the species. We found three genetically linked loci that are heterozygous only in males. Male-specific alleles allowed us to identify the gender in 100% of individuals. These results confirm the existence of an XY chromosomal system with a nonrecombining XY-like region in the date palm genome. The distribution of Y haplotypes in western and eastern haplogroups allowed us to trace two male ancestral paternal lineages that account for all known Y diversity in date palm. The very low diversity associated with Y haplotypes is consistent with clonal paternal transmission of a nonrecombining male-determining region. Our results establish the date palm as a biological model with one of the most ancient sex chromosomes in flowering plants.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Filogenia , Recombinação Genética , Alelos , Evolução Molecular , Loci Gênicos/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Haplótipos/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
13.
Zookeys ; (365): 71-82, 2013 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24453552

RESUMO

The genus Phoenix (Arecaceae) comprises 14 species distributed from Cape Verde Islands to SE Asia. It includes the economically important species Phoenix dactylifera. The paucity of differential morphological and anatomical useful characters, and interspecific hybridization, make identification of Phoenix species difficult. In this context, the development of reliable DNA markers for species and hybrid identification would be of great utility. Previous studies identified a 12 bp polymorphic chloroplast minisatellite in the trnG (GCC)-trnfM (CAU) spacer, and showed its potential for species identification in Phoenix. In this work, in order to develop an efficient DNA barcode marker for Phoenix, a longer cpDNA region (700 bp) comprising the mentioned minisatellite, and located between the psbZ and trnfM (CAU) genes, was sequenced. One hundred and thirty-six individuals, representing all Phoenix species except P. andamanensis,were analysed. The minisatellite showed 2-7 repetitions of the 12 bp motif, with 1-3 out of seven haplotypes per species. Phoenix reclinata and P. canariensis had species-specific haplotypes. Additional polymorphisms were found in the flanking regions of the minisatellite, including substitutions, indels and homopolymers. All this information allowed us to identify unambiguously eight out of the 13 species, and overall 80% of the individuals sampled. Phoenix rupicola and P. theophrasti had the same haplotype, and so had P. atlantica, P. dactylifera, and P. sylvestris (the "date palm complex" sensu Pintaud et al. 2013). For these species, additional molecular markers will be required for their unambiguous identification. The psbZ-trnfM (CAU) region therefore could be considered as a good basis for the establishment of a DNA barcoding system in Phoenix, and is potentially useful for the identification of the female parent in Phoenix hybrids.

15.
Rev. peru. biol. (Impr.) ; 18(3): 279-282, dic. 2011. map
Artigo em Inglês | LIPECS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1111409

RESUMO

Detailed distribution of Astrocaryum sect. Huicungo (Arecaceae) in Peru is presented and discussed. Twelve out of the 15 species that compose this section are found in the Peruvian territory from North to South in the eastern Andean foothills and western Amazonian lowlands. All these species have a parapatric distribution, except for Astrocaryum macrocalyx and A. urostachys, which share a very limited area. Limits of distribution areas may be related to geographical, geomorphological and ecological barriers (river, geological rising, soil drainage). In some cases, however, the contact between species is almost contiguous; no natural barrier could be detected in the field.


Se presenta y se discute la distribución detallada de las especies de Astrocaryum sect. Huicungo (Arecaceae) en Perú. Doce de las 15 especies que componen esta sección se encuentran en el territorio peruano, del Norte al Sur en el piedemonte de los Andes orientales y en la llanura amazónica. Todas las especies presentan una distribución parapátrica, salvo Astrocaryum macrocalyx y A. urostachys que se superponen en una franja muy reducida. Las áreas de distribución son separadas por pasillos estrechos, que se pueden relacionar a barreras geográficas, geomorfológicas y ecológicas (ríos, levantamientos geológicos, drenaje del suelo). En algunos casos, las especies se suceden en el espacio sin que se haya podido identificar barreras naturales separándolas.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Biogeografia , Ecossistema Amazônico
16.
Ann Bot ; 108(8): 1433-44, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21828068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Molecular phylogenetic studies of palms (Arecaceae) have not yet provided a fully resolved phylogeny of the family. There is a need to increase the current set of markers to resolve difficult groups such as the Neotropical subtribe Bactridinae (Arecoideae: Cocoseae). We propose the use of two single-copy nuclear genes as valuable tools for palm phylogenetics. METHODS: New primers were developed for the amplification of the AGAMOUS 1 (AG1) and PHYTOCHROME B (PHYB) genes. For the AGAMOUS gene, the paralogue 1 of Elaeis guineensis (EgAG1) was targeted. The region amplified contained coding sequences between the MIKC K and C MADS-box domains. For the PHYB gene, exon 1 (partial sequence) was first amplified in palm species using published degenerate primers for Poaceae, and then specific palm primers were designed. The two gene portions were sequenced in 22 species of palms representing all genera of Bactridinae, with emphasis on Astrocaryum and Hexopetion, the status of the latter genus still being debated. KEY RESULTS: The new primers designed allow consistent amplification and high-quality sequencing within the palm family. The two loci studied produced more variability than chloroplast loci and equally or less variability than PRK, RPBII and ITS nuclear markers. The phylogenetic structure obtained with AG1 and PHYB genes provides new insights into intergeneric relationships within the Bactridinae and the intrageneric structure of Astrocaryum. The Hexopetion clade was recovered as monophyletic with both markers and was weakly supported as sister to Astrocaryum sensu stricto in the combined analysis. The rare Astrocaryum minus formed a species complex with Astrocaryum gynacanthum. Moreover, both AG1 and PHYB contain a microsatellite that could have further uses in species delimitation and population genetics. CONCLUSIONS: AG1 and PHYB provide additional phylogenetic information within the palm family, and should prove useful in combination with other genes to improve the resolution of palm phylogenies.


Assuntos
Proteína AGAMOUS de Arabidopsis/genética , Arecaceae/classificação , Arecaceae/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Fitocromo B/genética , Sequência de Bases , Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA de Plantas , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia
17.
PLoS One ; 6(5): e19954, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21637837

RESUMO

Chloroplast DNA sequences are of great interest for population genetics and phylogenetic studies. However, only a small set of markers are commonly used. Most of them have been designed for amplification in a large range of Angiosperms and are located in the Large Single Copy (LSC). Here we developed a new set of 100 primer pairs optimized for amplification in Monocotyledons. Primer pairs amplify coding (exon) and non-coding regions (intron and intergenic spacer). They span the different chloroplast regions: 72 are located in the LSC, 13 in the Small Single Copy (SSC) and 15 in the Inverted Repeat region (IR). Amplification and sequencing were tested in 13 species of Monocotyledons: Dioscorea abyssinica, D. praehensilis, D. rotundata, D. dumetorum, D. bulbifera, Trichopus sempervirens (Dioscoreaceae), Phoenix canariensis, P. dactylifera, Astrocaryum scopatum, A. murumuru, Ceroxylon echinulatum (Arecaceae), Digitaria excilis and Pennisetum glaucum (Poaceae). The diversity found in Dioscorea, Digitaria and Pennisetum mainly corresponded to Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) while the diversity found in Arecaceae also comprises Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR). We observed that the most variable loci (rps15-ycf1, rpl32-ccsA, ndhF-rpl32, ndhG-ndhI and ccsA) are located in the SSC. Through the analysis of the genetic structure of a wild-cultivated species complex in Dioscorea, we demonstrated that this new set of primers is of great interest for population genetics and we anticipate that it will also be useful for phylogeny and bar-coding studies.


Assuntos
Primers do DNA/metabolismo , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Magnoliopsida/genética , Filogenia , Sequência de Bases , Repetições Minissatélites/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo Genético , Polinucleotídeos/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Ann Bot ; 108(8): 1417-32, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21325340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Arecoideae is the largest and most diverse of the five subfamilies of palms (Arecaceae/Palmae), containing >50 % of the species in the family. Despite its importance, phylogenetic relationships among Arecoideae are poorly understood. Here the most densely sampled phylogenetic analysis of Arecoideae available to date is presented. The results are used to test the current classification of the subfamily and to identify priority areas for future research. METHODS: DNA sequence data for the low-copy nuclear genes PRK and RPB2 were collected from 190 palm species, covering 103 (96 %) genera of Arecoideae. The data were analysed using the parsimony ratchet, maximum likelihood, and both likelihood and parsimony bootstrapping. KEY RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Despite the recovery of paralogues and pseudogenes in a small number of taxa, PRK and RPB2 were both highly informative, producing well-resolved phylogenetic trees with many nodes well supported by bootstrap analyses. Simultaneous analyses of the combined data sets provided additional resolution and support. Two areas of incongruence between PRK and RPB2 were strongly supported by the bootstrap relating to the placement of tribes Chamaedoreeae, Iriarteeae and Reinhardtieae; the causes of this incongruence remain uncertain. The current classification within Arecoideae was strongly supported by the present data. Of the 14 tribes and 14 sub-tribes in the classification, only five sub-tribes from tribe Areceae (Basseliniinae, Linospadicinae, Oncospermatinae, Rhopalostylidinae and Verschaffeltiinae) failed to receive support. Three major higher level clades were strongly supported: (1) the RRC clade (Roystoneeae, Reinhardtieae and Cocoseae), (2) the POS clade (Podococceae, Oranieae and Sclerospermeae) and (3) the core arecoid clade (Areceae, Euterpeae, Geonomateae, Leopoldinieae, Manicarieae and Pelagodoxeae). However, new data sources are required to elucidate ambiguities that remain in phylogenetic relationships among and within the major groups of Arecoideae, as well as within the Areceae, the largest tribe in the palm family.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/classificação , Arecaceae/genética , Sequência de Bases , Núcleo Celular/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA de Plantas , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia
19.
Rev. peru. biol. (Impr.) ; 17(2): 163-166, ago. 2010. ilus, map
Artigo em Inglês | LIPECS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1111335

RESUMO

Ceroxylon weberbaueri Burret, a poorly known species, is recollected from its type locality. An amended description is provided and the species is neotypified.


Ceroxylon weberbaueri Burret, una especie poco conocida, ha sido recolectada en su localidad tipo. Se provee una descripción morfológica actualizada, y una neotipificación.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Arecaceae/anatomia & histologia , Arecaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Rev. peru. biol. (Impr.) ; 15(supl.1): 7-29, nov. 2008. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LIPECS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1111256

RESUMO

Este artículo presenta un inventario de la flora de palmeras autóctonas de Suramérica, conformada por 457 especies y 50 géneros. Se analiza la distribución de este grupo vegetal en siete entidades fitogeográficas y se discuten los principales factores que influyen sobre la evolución de las palmeras en América del Sur.


This article presents an inventory of South American palms including 457 species and 50 genera. The distribution of palms within seven phytogeographical entities is analyzed. Factors which influence the evolution of palms in South America are discussed.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Arecaceae/classificação , Ecossistema Amazônico , Ecossistema Andino , Flora , América do Sul , Costa
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...