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1.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 169: 103567, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896250

RESUMO

The development of innovative technologies and the advances in the genetics and genomics, have offered new opportunities for personalized treatment in oncology. Although the selection of the patient based on the molecular characteristics of the neoplasm has the potential to revolutionize the therapeutic scenario of oncology, this approach is extremely challenging. The access, homogeneity, and economic sustainability of the required genomic tests should be warranted in the clinical practice, as well as the specific scientific and clinical expertise for the choice of medical therapies. All these elements make essential the collaboration of different specialists within the Molecular Tumor Boards (MTBs). In this position paper, based on experts' opinion, the AIOM-SIAPEC/IAP-SIBioC-SIC-SIF-SIGU-SIRM Italian Scientific Societies critically discuss the available molecular profiling technologies, the proposed criteria for the selection of patients candidate for evaluation by the MTB, the criteria for the selection and analysis of biological samples, and the regulatory and pharmaco-economic issues.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(23)2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34885016

RESUMO

The present research describes 25 years of cardiovascular mortality in a cohort of patients in Northern Italy. The study included patients with malignant cancer enrolled in the period of 1996-2019, and describes cardiovascular and cancer mortality in relation to sex, age, year of diagnosis, months of survivorship, tumor site, and standardized mortality ratio (SMR). Out of 67,173 patients, 38,272 deaths (57.7%) were recorded: 4466 from cardiovascular disease (CVD) (6.6%), and 28,579 (42.6%) from cancer. The proportion of CVD death increased from 4.5% in the first two years after diagnosis, to 7.3% after more than 10 years, while the proportion of deaths from cancer decreased from 70.5% to 9.4%. The CVD SMR comparing cancer patients with the general population was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.82-0.92) in 1996-1999, rising to 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84-1.08) in 2015-2019, without differences in terms of sex or age. The risk of dying from CVD was higher compared with the general population (SMR 1.31; 95% CI: 1.24-1.39) only in the first two years after diagnosis. The trend over time underscored that CVD deaths increased in patients with breast, bladder, prostate, and colorectal cancers, and, in the more recent period, for kidney cancer and melanoma patients. Our data confirmed that cardiovascular mortality is an important issue in the modern management of cancer patients, suggesting the need for an extensive interdisciplinary approach.

4.
Front Oncol ; 11: 766500, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970487

RESUMO

The NIVACOR trial is a phase II study assessing the efficacy and safety of nivolumab in combination with FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab in first-line setting in patients affected by metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) RAS/BRAF mutated. We report safety run-in results in the first 10 patients enrolled. Patients received triplet chemotherapy with FOLFOXIRI scheme plus bevacizumab, in association with nivolumab every 2 weeks for 8 cycles (induction phase) followed by bevacizumab plus nivolumab every 2 weeks (maintenance phase), until progression of disease or unacceptable toxicities. The first ten patients were evaluated: 7 experienced at least one adverse event (AE) related to FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab and 2 related to nivolumab. The most frequent grade 1-2 AEs related to FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab were diarrhea and fatigue (71%), nausea and vomiting (57%); 3 (43%) had grade 3-4 neutropenia, and 2 (20%) patients developed grade 1-2 AEs nivolumab related: skin rash and salivary gland infection. Two patients delayed the dose because of serious AEs, proteinuria and salivary gland infection; one patient discontinued experimental treatment due to the ileo-urethral fistula and concurrent Clostridium infection diarrhea. No treatment- related death occurred. The safety run-in analysis of NIVACOR trial reassured using co-administration of FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab and nivolumab was well tolerated with an acceptable toxicity profile. Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/, (NCT04072198).

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(22)2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830870

RESUMO

The single-arm phase II CAVE mCRC trial evaluated the combination of cetuximab plus avelumab as rechallenge strategy in RAS wild-type (WT) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients, with clinical response to first-line anti-EGFR-based chemotherapy, who progressed and received a subsequent line of therapy. The correlation of skin toxicity (ST) and different clinico-molecular variables with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and response rate (RR) was assessed at univariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 33/77 (42.9%) patients experienced grade 2-3 ST and displayed median OS (mOS) of 17.8 months (CI 95%, 14.9-20.6); whereas 44/77 (57.1%) patients with grade 0-1 ST exhibited mOS of 8.2 months (CI 95%, 5.5-10.9), (hazard ratio (HR), 0.51; CI 95%, 0.29-0.89; p = 0.019). Median PFS (mPFS) was 4.6 months (CI 95%, 3.4-5.7) in patients with grade 2-3 ST, compared to patients with grade 0-1 ST with mPFS of 3.4 months (CI 95%, 2.7-4.1; HR, 0.49; CI 95%, 0.3-0.8; p = 0.004). Grade 2-3 ST (HR, 0.51; CI 95%, 0.29-0.89; p = 0.019) and RAS/BRAF/EGFR WT circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) (HR, 0.50; CI 95%, 0.27-0.9; p = 0.019) had a statistically significant effect on OS at univariate analysis. At the multivariate analysis, RAS/BRAF/EGFR WT ctDNA status maintained statistical significance (HR, 0.49; CI 95%, 0.27-0.9; p = 0.023), whereas there was a trend towards ST grade 2-3 (HR, 0.54; CI 95%, 0.29-1.01; p = 0.054). Skin toxicity is a promising biomarker to identify patients with mCRC that could benefit of anti-EGFR rechallenge.

6.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(11): 749-756, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early access of medicines occurs with an uncertainty in the evidence even higher than the one experienced when price and reimbursement status is negotiated. Our aim is discussing the role of managed entry agreements (MEA) within early access programs (EAP) in Italy. METHODS: The discussion relied on a Focus Group, participated by twelve experts, including clinicians and representatives of regulatory authorities, regional and local pharmaceutical departments, pharmaceutical companies, and an association advocating for active citizenship. RESULTS: The Focus Group emphasised that the topic under discussion should be embedded into a more general reform of EAP in Italy. The 648 List mostly includes mature products and indications that are rarely launched into the market afterwards. The 5% Fund is affected by an important administrative burden uncertainty of the timing of reimbursement. CONCLUSIONS: Starting from the discussion on MEA and EAP, the Focus Group recommended a new legislation better regulating EAP, that early access concerns specific classes of medicines selected on the grounds of the need to guarantee a rapid access and to collect real world data, that early access can be accompanied by outcome-based and population-based MEA, and that MEA are embedded into the subsequent price and reimbursement negotiation.

7.
Eur Urol ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nivolumab showed an overall survival (OS) benefit in pretreated metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The role of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in mRCC remains to be defined. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SBRT in combination with nivolumab in second- and third-line mRCC patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The NIVES study was a phase II, single-arm, multicenter trial in patients with mRCC with measurable metastatic sites who progressed after antiangiogenic therapy, of whom at least one was suitable for SBRT. INTERVENTION: The patients received SBRT to a lesion at a dose of 10 Gy in three fractions for 7 d from the first infusion of nivolumab. Nivolumab was given at an initial dose of 240 mg every 14 d for 6 mo and then 480 mg q4-weekly in responding patients. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We hypothesized that nivolumab plus SBRT improves the objective response rate (ORR) compared with nivolumab alone from 25% (derived from historical controls) to 40%. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), OS, disease control rate (DCR) of irradiated and nonirradiated metastases, and safety. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled from July 2017 to March 2019. The ORR was 17% and the DCR was 55%. The median PFS was 5.6 mo (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-7.1) and median OS 20 mo (95% CI, 17-not reached). After 1.5 yr of follow-up, 23 patients died. The median time to treatment response was 2.8 mo and median duration of response was 14 mo. No new safety concerns arose. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find sufficient evidence to suggest that nivolumab in combination with SBRT provides an added benefit in pretreated mRCC patients; it should however be evaluated in patients with oligometastatic or oligoprogressive disease. PATIENT SUMMARY: Nivolumab in combination with stereotactic body radiotherapy does not provide evidence of increased outcomes in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients. However this approach was safe and showed a good response of the irradiated lesions.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2128667, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648011

RESUMO

Importance: Many patients with cancer who would benefit from psychosocial care do not receive it. Implementation strategies may favor the integration of psychosocial care into practice and improve patient outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Humanization in Cancer Care (HuCare) Quality Improvement Strategy vs standard care as improvement of at least 1 of 2 domains (emotional or social function) of patient health-related quality of life at baseline and 3 months. A key secondary aim included investigation of the long-term effect. Design, Setting, and Participants: HuCare2 was a multicenter, incomplete, stepped-wedge cluster randomized clinical trial, conducted from May 30, 2016, to August 28, 2019, in three 5-center clusters of cancer centers representative of hospital size and geographic location in Italy. The study was divided into 5 equally spaced epochs. Implementation sequence was defined by a blinded statistician; the nature of the intervention precluded blinding for clinical staff. Participants included consecutive adult outpatients with newly diagnosed cancer of any type and stage starting medical cancer treatment. Interventions: The HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy comprised (1) clinician communication training, (2) on-site visits for context analysis and problem-solving, and (3) implementation of 6 evidence-based recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the difference between the means of changes of individual scores in emotional or social functions of health-related quality of life detected at baseline and 3-month follow-up (within each group) and during the postintervention epoch compared with control periods (between groups). Long-term effect of the intervention (at 12 months) was assessed as a secondary outcome. Intention-to-treat analysis was used. Results: A total of 762 patients (475 [62.3%] women) were enrolled (400 HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy and 362 usual care); mean (SD) age was 61.4 (13.1) years. The HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy significantly improved emotional function during treatment (odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22; P = .008) but not social function (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.89-1.09; P = .80). Effect on emotional function persisted at 12 months (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.10; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In this trial, the HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy significantly improved the emotional function aspect of health-related quality of life during cancer treatment and at 12 months, indicating a change in clinician behavior and in ward organization. These findings support the need for strategies to introduce psychosocial care; however, more research is needed on factors that may maximize the effects. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03008993.

9.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the toxicity patterns and effectiveness of doublet chemotherapy when administered at reduced doses of 20% (FOLFOX or FOLFIRI) in combination with anti-EGFR antibodies (cetuximab or panitumumab) in old, vulnerable patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study of RAS and BRAF wild-type, vulnerable patients aged ≥70 years with previously untreated mCRC. The primary endpoint was safety, and secondary endpoints were overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: One hundred and eighteen patients were collected from 14 selected Italian centres. The median age was 75 (range, 70-85). Geriatric screening by G8 tool gave a score ≤ 14 in all patients. In total, 75 and 43 patients received FOLFOX or FOLFIRI, respectively, in combination with panitumumab (53%) or cetuximab (47%). The overall incidence of grade (G) 3-4 neutropenia was 11.8%, and for skin rash 11%. The most frequent adverse events were G1-2 skin rash (49.1%), G1-2 diarrhea (21.1%) and G1-2 nausea (17.7%). The ORR was 57.3%. Stable disease was observed in 29.1% of patients, with a disease control rate of 86.4%. With a median follow-up of 18 months, the median PFS was 10.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.5-11.4), while the median OS was 18.0 months (95% CI: 16.0-19.9). No statistically significant difference was observed between the regimens in terms of ORR, PFS (p = 0.908), and OS (p = 0.832). CONCLUSION: This study shows that with an appropriate design, including reduced doses, vulnerable older patients best tolerate chemotherapy when combined with anti-EGFR antibodies.

10.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(10): 1438-1447, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a preclinical rationale for inhibiting angiogenesis in mesothelioma. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the anti-VEGFR-2 antibody ramucirumab combined with gemcitabine in patients with pretreated malignant pleural mesothelioma. METHODS: RAMES was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial done at 26 hospitals in Italy. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2, and histologically proven malignant pleural mesothelioma progressing during or after first-line treatment with pemetrexed plus platinum. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks plus either intravenous placebo (gemcitabine plus placebo group) or ramucirumab 10 mg/kg (gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group) on day 1 every 3 weeks, until tumour progression or unacceptable toxicity. Central randomisation was done according to a minimisation algorithm method, associated with a random element using the following stratification factors: ECOG performance status, age, histology, and first-line time-to-progression. The primary endpoint was overall survival, measured from the date of randomisation to the date of death from any cause. Efficacy analyses were assessed in all patients who had been correctly randomised and received their allocated treatment, and safety analyses were assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of their assigned treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03560973, and with EudraCT, 2016-001132-36. FINDINGS: Between Dec 22, 2016, and July 30, 2018, of 165 patients enrolled 161 were correctly assigned and received either gemcitabine plus placebo (n=81) or gemcitabine plus ramucirumab (n=80). At database lock (March 8, 2020), with a median follow-up of 21·9 months (IQR 17·7-28·5), overall survival was longer in the ramucirumab group (HR 0·71, 70% CI 0·59-0·85; p=0·028). Median overall survival was 13·8 months (70% CI 12·7-14·4) in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and 7·5 months (6·9-8·9) in the gemcitabine plus placebo group. Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were reported in 35 (44%) of 80 patients in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and 24 (30%) of 81 in the gemcitabine plus placebo group. The most common treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (16 [20%] for gemcitabine plus ramucirumab vs ten [12%] for gemcitabine plus placebo) and hypertension (five [6%] vs none). Treatment-related serious adverse events were reported in five (6%) in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and in four (5%) patients in the gemcitabine plus placebo group; the most common was thromboembolism (three [4%] for gemcitabine plus ramucirumab vs two [2%] for gemcitabine plus placebo). There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Ramucirumab plus gemcitabine significantly improved overall survival after first-line standard chemotherapy, with a favourable safety profile. This combination could be a new option in this setting. FUNDING: Eli Lilly Italy. TRANSLATION: For the Italian translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Mesotelioma Maligno/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Mesotelioma Maligno/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma Maligno/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pleurais/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Pain Res ; 14: 2255-2264, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335054

RESUMO

Background: Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) remains an important clinical obstacle despite the availability of several guidelines and pharmacological options for its management. Here, we surveyed common practices and perceptions about OIC among physicians who prescribe opioids in Italy. Methods: The online survey included 26 questions about OIC. Responses were analyzed descriptively and aggregated by physician specialty. Results: A total of 501 physicians completed the survey. Most respondents (67%) did not feel adequately educated about OIC despite general consensus regarding interest in the topic. Overall, 62-75% of physicians regularly evaluated intestinal function or OIC symptoms in patients receiving opioid therapy. The most common method for assessment was patient diary; few physicians used a validated instrument such as the Rome IV criteria. Psychiatrists and addiction specialists showed the lowest interest and poorest practices. Most respondents (78%) preferred macrogol prophylaxis followed by macrogol plus another laxative for first-line treatment of OIC symptoms. Peripheral-acting mu opioid receptor antagonists (PAMORAs) were not widely used among physicians; 61% had never prescribed a PAMORA for OIC. Conclusion: Our findings reveal important differences in clinical practice for OIC across physician specialties. Additional formative efforts are necessary to improve awareness about best practices in OIC.

12.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(10): 1529-1535, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382998

RESUMO

Importance: Rechallenge therapy with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) drugs has been suggested in patients with chemo-refractory RAS wild-type (WT) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) after initial response to anti-EGFR-based first-line treatment. The association of treatment with cetuximab plus avelumab with overall survival (OS) may be worthy of investigation in this setting. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of cetuximab rechallenge therapy plus avelumab. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-arm, multicenter phase 2 trial enrolled patients from August 2018 to February 2020. Eligible patients with RAS WT mCRC had a complete or partial response to first-line chemotherapy plus anti-EGFR drugs, developed acquired resistance, and failed second-line therapy. Baseline circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) for KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and EGFR-S492R mutation analysis was done. Interventions: Patients received avelumab (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks) and cetuximab (400 mg/m2 and, subsequently, 250 mg/m2 weekly) until disease progression or unacceptable toxic effects. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was OS. Secondary end points were progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), and safety. Results: Seventy-seven patients were enrolled (42 men, 35 women; median age, 63 years); 71 had microsatellite stable tumors (MSS), 3 microsatellite instability-high tumors (MSI-H), 3 unknown. The study met the primary end point, with median OS (mOS) of 11.6 months (95% CI, 8.4-14.8 months). Median PFS (mPFS) was 3.6 months (95% CI, 3.2-4.1 months). Common grade-3 adverse events were cutaneous eruption, 11 (14%), and diarrhea, 3 (4%). For 67 of 77 (87%) patients, baseline analysis of plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) for KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and EGFR-S492R variations was feasible. Forty-eight patients had WT disease, whereas 19 had mutations. Patients with RAS/BRAF WT ctDNA had mOS of 17.3 months (95% CI, 12.5-22.0 months) compared with 10.4 months (95% CI, 7.2-13.6 months) in patients with mutated ctDNA (hazard ratio [HR], 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27-0.90; P = .02). The mPFS was 4.1 months (95% CI, 2.9-5.2 months) in RAS/BRAF WT patients compared with 3.0 months (95% CI, 2.6-3.5 months) in patients with mutated ctDNA (HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23-0.75; P = .004). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this single-arm phase 2 trial suggest that cetuximab plus avelumab is an active, well tolerated rechallenge therapy in RAS WT mCRC. Plasma ctDNA analysis before treatment may allow selection of patients who could benefit. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04561336.

13.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 165: 103436, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371157

RESUMO

The personalized medicine is in a rapidly evolving scenario. The identification of actionable mutations is revolutionizing the therapeutic landscape of tumors. The morphological and histological tumor features are enriched by the extensive genomic profiling, and the first tumor-agnostic drugs have been approved regardless of tumor histology, guided by predictive and druggable genetic alterations. This new paradigm of "mutational oncology", presents a great potential to change the oncologic therapeutic scenario, but also some critical aspects need to be underlined. A process governance is mandatory to ensure the genomic testing accuracy and homogeneity, the economic sustainability, and the regulatory issues, ultimately granting the possibility of translating this model in the "real world". In this position paper, based on experts' opinion, the AIOM-SIAPEC-IAP-SIBIOC-SIF Italian Scientific Societies revised the new agnostic biomarkers, the diagnostic technologies available, the current availability of agnostic drugs and their present indication.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Sociedades Científicas , Humanos , Itália , Oncologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Medicina de Precisão
14.
Future Oncol ; 17(26): 3529-3539, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254524

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and liquid biopsy are new technologies that can allow overall tumor profiling in a single analysis and play an important role in the implementation of precision oncology. However, the lack of guidelines in this setting has limited the development of precision oncology in Italy. This article summarizes recommendations for the appropriate use of NGS in tumor gene profiling, as well as access to tests and target drugs, that were prepared by a group of key opinion leaders and relevant stakeholders. In particular, the need to create laboratory networks capable of carrying out NGS tests in Italy is highlighted. It also appears necessary to establish an adequate reimbursement system for NGS tests. However, the expert panel recommends that the use of NGS tests in clinical practice should be limited to specific tumor types, based on the number and complexity of biomarkers and the availability of treatments.

15.
Front Oncol ; 11: 670415, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221986

RESUMO

Pembrolizumab is a programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) inhibitor that has been approved for treatment of a wide variety of malignancies including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Immune-mediated colitis is a known adverse effect of pembrolizumab which can lead to the treatment interruption, although not compromising the control of the oncological disease. Herein, we report the case of a 59-year-old woman on pembrolizumab for advanced NSCLC which developed a severe and persistent colitis treated with infliximab for several months following anti-PD-1 antibody discontinuation. This strategy resulted in an improvement but not complete recovery of the gastrointestinal toxicity despite revealed sustained response and control of the oncological disease with prolonged survival over 24 months.

16.
Pain Ther ; 10(2): 1139-1153, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081260

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Opioids are a valuable tool to help achieve control of pain. However, opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is an important limitation of treatment with this class of drugs. METHODS: To better understand the impact of OIC on patient-reported outcomes, we carried out a survey involving patients being treated with opioids. Both ad hoc questions and the PROMIS and PAC-SYM and PAC-QOL scores were used. RESULTS: Of the 597 participants, 150 (25%) had cancer-related pain, and 447 (75%) had non-cancer pain; 66% experienced OIC. PROMIS pain interference questions indicated that pain is more likely to interfere with a patient's life when they have OIC. PAC-QOL and PAC-SYM revealed that 58% of patients with non-cancer pain and OIC reported at least one "severe" or "very severe" constipation symptom, compared to 83% with cancer-related pain. Younger age and less time on opioids were associated with greater impact of OIC on quality of life. Only 41% of patients were satisfied with how their constipation was managed. Over 50% of those with non-cancer pain said that they modified their opioid regimen due to constipation, vs. 6% of those with cancer pain. Constipation had been discussed with the healthcare provider (HCP) in 48% of non-cancer patients and in 73% of cancer patients. In those with chronic pain and OIC, 24% expressed varying degrees of dissatisfaction with the healthcare system, vs. 37% in those with cancer pain and OIC. CONCLUSION: Our results provide additional evidence that management of OIC is inadequate in many cases. Moreover, they indicate that there is a definite need for better education about OIC among HCPs.

17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(9)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067076

RESUMO

This systematic review with meta-analysis aimed to assess the effect of diffuse liver diseases (DLD) on the risk of synchronous (S-) or metachronous (M-) liver metastases (LMs) in patients with solid neoplasms. Relevant databases were searched for systematic reviews and cross-sectional or cohort studies published since 1990 comparing the risk of LMs in patients with and without DLD (steatosis, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, fibrosis) in non-liver solid cancer patients. Outcomes were prevalence of S-LMs, cumulative risk of M-LMs and LM-free survival. Risk of bias (ROB) was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We report the pooled relative risks (RR) for S-LMs and hazard ratios (HR) for M-LMs. Subgroup analyses included DLD, primary site and continent. Nineteen studies were included (n = 37,591 patients), the majority on colorectal cancer. ROB appraisal results were mixed. Patients with DLD had a lower risk of S-LMs (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.34-0.76), with a higher effect for cirrhosis and a slightly higher risk of M-LMs (HR 1.11 95% CI, 1.03-1.19), despite a lower risk of M-LMs in patients with vs without viral hepatitis (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40-0.82). There may have been a publication bias in favor of studies reporting a lower risk for patients with DLD. DLD are protective against S-LMs and slightly protective against M-LMs for viral hepatitis only.

18.
Adv Ther ; 38(7): 3589-3621, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086265

RESUMO

The prescribing and use of opioid analgesics is increasing in Italy owing to a profusion in the number and types of opioid analgesic products available, and the increasing prevalence of conditions associated with severe pain, the latter being related to population aging. Herein we provide the expert opinion of an Italian multidisciplinary panel on the management of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) and bowel dysfunction. OIC and opioid-induced bowel dysfunction are well-recognised unwanted effects of treatment with opioid analgesics that can profoundly affect quality of life. OIC can be due to additional factors such as reduced mobility, a low-fibre diet, comorbidities, and concomitant medications. Fixed-dose combinations of opioids with mu (µ) opioid receptor antagonists, such as oxycodone/naloxone, have become available, but have limited utility in clinical practice because the individual components cannot be independently titrated, creating a risk of breakthrough pain as the dose is increased. A comprehensive prevention and management strategy for OIC should include interventions that aim to improve fibre and fluid intake, increase mobility or exercise, and restore bowel function without compromising pain control. Recommended first-line pharmacological treatment of OIC is with an osmotic laxative (preferably polyethylene glycol [macrogol]), or a stimulant laxative such as an anthraquinone. A second laxative with a complementary mechanism of action should be added in the event of an inadequate response. Second-line treatment with a peripherally acting µ opioid receptor antagonist (PAMORA), such as methylnaltrexone, naloxegol or naldemedine, should be considered in patients with OIC that has not responded to combination laxative treatment. Prokinetics or intestinal secretagogues, such as lubiprostone, may be appropriate in the third-line setting, but their use in OIC is off-label in Italy, and should therefore be restricted to settings such as specialist centres and clinical trials.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Constipação Induzida por Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Prova Pericial , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Receptores Opioides mu
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 906, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Right-sided colorectal cancer (CRC) has worse survival than does left-sided CRC. The objective of this study was to further assess the impact of right-side location on survival and the role of the extent of lymphadenectomy. METHODS: All CRCs diagnosed between 2000 and 2012 in Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy, were included. Data for stage, grade, histology, screening history, and number of removed lymph nodes (LN) were collected. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR), with relative 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), of right vs. left colon and of removing < 12, 12-21 or > 21 lymph nodes by cancer site. RESULTS: During the study period, 29,358 patients were registered (8828 right colon, 18,852 left colon, 1678 transverse). Patients with right cancer were more often older, females, with advanced stage and high grade, and higher number of removed LNs. Five-year survival was lower in the right than in the left colon (55.2% vs 59.7%). In multivariable analysis, right colon showed a lower survival when adjusting for age, sex, and screening status (HR 1.12, 95%CI 1.04-1.21). Stratification by number of lymph nodes removed (12-21 or > 21) was associated with better survival in right colon (HR 0.54, 95%CI 0.40-0.72 and HR 0.40, 95%CI 0.30-0.55, respectively) compared to left colon (HR 0.89, 95%CI 0.76-1.06 and HR 0.83, 95%CI 0.69-1.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that right CRC has worse survival; the association is not due to screening status. An adequate removal of lymph nodes is associated with better survival, although the direction of the association in terms of causal links is not clear.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico
20.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until now, no robust data supported the efficacy, safety and recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with cancer receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). METHODS: The prospective multicenter observational INfluenza Vaccine Indication During therapy with Immune checkpoint inhibitors (INVIDIa-2) study investigated the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving ICIs, enrolled in 82 Italian centers from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the time-adjusted incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until April 30, 2020. Secondary endpoints regarded ILI severity and vaccine safety. RESULTS: The study enrolled 1279 patients; 1188 patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint analysis. Of them, 48.9% (581) received influenza vaccination. The overall ILI incidence was 8.2% (98 patients). Vaccinated patients were significantly more frequently elderly (p<0.0001), males (p=0.004), with poor European Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (p=0.009), affected by lung cancer (p=0.01), and by other non-cancer comorbidities (p<0.0001) when compared with unvaccinated. ILI incidence was not different basing on influenza vaccination: the time-to-ILI was similar in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients (p=0.62). ILI complications were significantly less frequent for patients receiving the vaccination (11.8% vs 38.3% in unvaccinated, p=0.002). ILI-related intravenous therapies were significantly less frequent in vaccinated patients than in unvaccinated (11.8% vs 29.8%, p=0.027). ILI lethality was, respectively, 0% in vaccinated and 4.3% in unvaccinated patients. Vaccine-related adverse events were rare and mild (1.5%, grades 1-2). CONCLUSION: The INVIDIa-2 study results support a positive recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving immunotherapy.

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