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1.
J Neuroimmunol ; 355: 577548, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780799

RESUMO

Meningoencephalitis following yellow fever vaccination is considered a viral neuroinvasive disease. We describe three patients with typical autoimmune encephalitis syndromes that developed 1-27 days following yellow fever vaccination. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate-r antibodies were identified in the CSF and serum of two patients and the other case was associated with anti-neurexin-3 antibodies. One case was confirmed as vaccine-associated neurotropic disease due to reactive CSF yellow fever IgM, which suggested an infectious-autoimmune overlap mechanism. Two aditional cases of Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate-r encephalitis were identified in the literature review. Antibody-positive autoimmune encephalitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of neurologic adverse events following yellow fever vaccination.

2.
Front Neurol ; 11: 531939, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192966

RESUMO

Approximately one third of epilepsy patients do not become seizure free with antiseizure medications. This treatment gap motivates research for new therapeutic options, such as cannabidiol (CBD). CBD differs from other cannabis derivatives because of its consistent efficacy and lack of a psychoactive effect. CBD can be recommended as adjunctive therapy in patients with Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes. The most common adverse effects (AEs) are drowsiness, reduced appetite, diarrhea, and vomiting. Transaminase elevation is the most common AE that leads to CBD discontinuation. Coadministration with valproate may increase the risk of hepatotoxicity. The combination of CBD and clobazam may increase both the effectiveness and the risk of AEs associated with these drugs. The most striking gaps in knowledge are the efficacy and optimal dose of CBD for adults with focal epilepsies, the long-term safety of CBD use, and strategies to improve access to CBD for people living with epilepsy.

3.
Vaccine ; 38(43): 6714-6720, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878709

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: The absence of a positive diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) in immunization stress-related response (ISRR) clusters may have not only a direct impact on affected patients' health but may also reduce compliance to national vaccination programs. It is therefore crucial to develop efficient diagnostic tools and a feasible proposal for proper communication and treatment of ISRR. PURPOSE: To explore the psychogenic nature of patients' convulsive seizures in a suspected outbreak of an ISRR cluster following human papillomavirus vaccination in Rio Branco, Brazil. METHODS: Twelve patients with convulsive seizures were submitted to prolonged intensive video-electroencephalography monitoring, brain magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid diagnostic testing, laboratory subsidiary examinations, and complete neurological and psychiatric evaluations. RESULTS: Ten patients received the positive diagnosis of PNES, and two patients received the diagnosis of idiopathic generalized epilepsy. No biological association was found between the HPV vaccine and the clinical problems presented by the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged VEEG monitoring can contribute significantly to the positive diagnosis of PNES in ISRR clusters and to avoid hesitancy to vaccinate.

4.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(8): 494-500, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than one-third of COVID-19 patients present neurological symptoms ranging from anosmia to stroke and encephalopathy. Furthermore, pre-existing neurological conditions may require special treatment and may be associated with worse outcomes. Notwithstanding, the role of neurologists in COVID-19 is probably underrecognized. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the reasons for requesting neurological consultations by internists and intensivists in a COVID-19-dedicated hospital. METHODS: This retrospective study was carried out at Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil, a 900-bed COVID-19 dedicated center (including 300 intensive care unit beds). COVID-19 diagnosis was confirmed by SARS-CoV-2-RT-PCR in nasal swabs. All inpatient neurology consultations between March 23rd and May 23rd, 2020 were analyzed. Neurologists performed the neurological exam, assessed all available data to diagnose the neurological condition, and requested additional tests deemed necessary. Difficult diagnoses were established in consensus meetings. After diagnosis, neurologists were involved in the treatment. RESULTS: Neurological consultations were requested for 89 out of 1,208 (7.4%) inpatient COVID admissions during that period. Main neurological diagnoses included: encephalopathy (44.4%), stroke (16.7%), previous neurological diseases (9.0%), seizures (9.0%), neuromuscular disorders (5.6%), other acute brain lesions (3.4%), and other mild nonspecific symptoms (11.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Most neurological consultations in a COVID-19-dedicated hospital were requested for severe conditions that could have an impact on the outcome. First-line doctors should be able to recognize neurological symptoms; neurologists are important members of the medical team in COVID-19 hospital care.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Neurologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(8): 494-500, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131736

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Background: More than one-third of COVID-19 patients present neurological symptoms ranging from anosmia to stroke and encephalopathy. Furthermore, pre-existing neurological conditions may require special treatment and may be associated with worse outcomes. Notwithstanding, the role of neurologists in COVID-19 is probably underrecognized. Objective: The aim of this study was to report the reasons for requesting neurological consultations by internists and intensivists in a COVID-19-dedicated hospital. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out at Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil, a 900-bed COVID-19 dedicated center (including 300 intensive care unit beds). COVID-19 diagnosis was confirmed by SARS-CoV-2-RT-PCR in nasal swabs. All inpatient neurology consultations between March 23rd and May 23rd, 2020 were analyzed. Neurologists performed the neurological exam, assessed all available data to diagnose the neurological condition, and requested additional tests deemed necessary. Difficult diagnoses were established in consensus meetings. After diagnosis, neurologists were involved in the treatment. Results: Neurological consultations were requested for 89 out of 1,208 (7.4%) inpatient COVID admissions during that period. Main neurological diagnoses included: encephalopathy (44.4%), stroke (16.7%), previous neurological diseases (9.0%), seizures (9.0%), neuromuscular disorders (5.6%), other acute brain lesions (3.4%), and other mild nonspecific symptoms (11.2%). Conclusions: Most neurological consultations in a COVID-19-dedicated hospital were requested for severe conditions that could have an impact on the outcome. First-line doctors should be able to recognize neurological symptoms; neurologists are important members of the medical team in COVID-19 hospital care.


RESUMO Introdução: Mais de um terço dos pacientes com COVID-19 apresentam sintomas neurológicos que variam de anosmia a AVC e encefalopatia. Além disso, doenças neurológicas prévias podem exigir tratamento especial e estar associadas a piores desfechos. Não obstante, o papel dos neurologistas na COVID-19 é provavelmente pouco reconhecido. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar os motivos para solicitar consultas neurológicas por clínicos e intensivistas em um hospital dedicado à COVID-19. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo realizado no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil, um centro dedicado à COVID-19 com 900 leitos (incluindo 300 leitos para unidades de terapia intensiva). O diagnóstico de COVID-19 foi confirmado por SARS-CoV-2-RT-PCR em swabs nasais. Todas as interconsultas de neurologia hospitalar entre 23 de março e 23 de maio de 2020 foram analisadas. Os neurologistas realizaram o exame neurológico, avaliaram todos os dados disponíveis para diagnosticar a patologia neurológica e solicitaram exames adicionais conforme necessidade. Diagnósticos difíceis foram estabelecidos em reuniões de consenso. Após o diagnóstico, os neurologistas participaram da condução dos casos. Resultados: Foram solicitadas consultas neurológicas para 89 de 1.208 (7,4%) em pacientes internados por COVID-19 durante o período. Os principais diagnósticos neurológicos incluíram: encefalopatia (44,4%), acidente vascular cerebral (16,7%), doenças neurológicas prévias (9,0%), crises epilépticas (9,0%), transtornos neuromusculares (5,6%), outras lesões encefálicas agudas (3,4%) e outros sintomas leves inespecíficos (11,2%). Conclusões: A maioria das consultas neurológicas em um hospital dedicado à COVID-19 foi solicitada para condições graves que poderiam afetar o desfecho clínico. Os médicos na linha de frente devem ser capazes de reconhecer sintomas neurológicos. Os neurologistas são membros importantes da equipe médica no atendimento hospitalar à COVID-19.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Hospitais Universitários , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Neurologia
6.
Preprint em Inglês | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-971

RESUMO

Background: More than one-third of COVID-19 patients present neurological symptomsranging from anosmia to stroke and encephalopathy. Furthermore, pre-existingneurological conditions may require special treatment and may be associated with worseoutcomes. Notwithstanding, the role of neurologists in COVID-19 is probablyunderrecognized. Objective: The aim of this study was to report the reasons forrequesting neurological consultations by internists and intensivists in a COVID-19-dedicated hospital. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out at Hospital dasClínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil, a 900-bedCOVID-19 dedicated center (including 300 intensive care unit beds). COVID-19 diagnosiswas confirmed by SARS-CoV-2-RT-PCR in nasal swabs. All inpatient neurologyconsultations between March 23rd and May 23rd, 2020 were analyzed. Neurologistsperformed the neurological exam, assessed all available data to diagnose theneurological condition, and requested additional tests deemed necessary. Difficultdiagnoses were established in consensus meetings. After diagnosis, neurologists wereinvolved in the treatment. Results: Neurological consultations were requested for 89 outof 1,208 (7.4%) inpatient COVID admissions during that period. Main neurologicaldiagnoses included: encephalopathy (44.4%), stroke (16.7%), previous neurologicaldiseases (9.0%), seizures (9.0%), neuromuscular disorders (5.6%), other acute brainlesions (3.4%), and other mild nonspecific symptoms (11.2%). Conclusions: Mostneurological consultations in a COVID-19-dedicated hospital were requested for severeconditions that could have an impact on the outcome. First-line doctors should be able torecognize neurological symptoms; neurologists are important members of the medicalteam in COVID-19 hospital care.


Introdução: Mais de um terço dos pacientes com COVID-19 apresentam sintomasneurológicos que variam de anosmia a AVC e encefalopatia. Além disso, doençasneurológicas prévias podem exigir tratamento especial e estar associadas a pioresdesfechos. Não obstante, o papel dos neurologistas na COVID-19 é provavelmentepouco reconhecido. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar os motivos para solicitarconsultas neurológicas por clínicos e intensivistas em um hospital dedicado à COVID-19. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo realizado no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade deMedicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil, um centro dedicado à COVID-19 com900 leitos (incluindo 300 leitos para unidades de terapia intensiva). O diagnóstico deCOVID-19 foi confirmado por SARS-CoV-2-RT-PCR em swabs nasais. Todas asinterconsultas de neurologia hospitalar entre 23 de março e 23 de maio de 2020 foramanalisadas. Os neurologistas realizaram o exame neurológico, avaliaram todos os dadosdisponíveis para diagnosticar a patologia neurológica e solicitaram exames adicionaisconforme necessidade. Diagnósticos difíceis foram estabelecidos em reuniões deconsenso. Após o diagnóstico, os neurologistas participaram da condução dos casos.Resultados: Foram solicitadas consultas neurológicas para 89 de 1.208 (7,4%) empacientes internados por COVID-19 durante o período. Os principais diagnósticosneurológicos incluíram: encefalopatia (44,4%), acidente vascular cerebral (16,7%),doenças neurológicas prévias (9,0%), crises epilépticas (9,0%), transtornosneuromusculares (5,6%), outras lesões encefálicas agudas (3,4%) e outros sintomasleves inespecíficos (11,2%). Conclusões: A maioria das consultas neurológicas em umhospital dedicado à COVID-19 foi solicitada para condições graves que poderiam afetaro desfecho clínico. Os médicos na linha de frente devem ser capazes de reconhecersintomas neurológicos. Os neurologistas são membros importantes da equipe médica noatendimento hospitalar à COVID-19.

9.
Bernoche, Claudia; Timerman, Sergio; Polastri, Thatiane Facholi; Giannetti, Natali Schiavo; Siqueira, Adailson Wagner da Silva; Piscopo, Agnaldo; Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Reis, Amélia Gorete Afonso da Costa; Tanaka, Ana Cristina Sayuri; Thomaz, Ana Maria; Quilici, Ana Paula; Catarino, Andrei Hilário; Ribeiro, Anna Christina de Lima; Barreto, Antonio Carlos Pereira; Azevedo, Antonio Fernando Barros de Filho; Pazin, Antonio Filho; Timerman, Ari; Scarpa, Bruna Romanelli; Timerman, Bruno; Tavares, Caio de Assis Moura; Martins, Cantidio Soares Lemos; Serrano, Carlos Vicente Junior; Malaque, Ceila Maria Sant'Ana; Pisani, Cristiano Faria; Batista, Daniel Valente; Leandro, Daniela Luana Fernandes; Szpilman, David; Gonçalves, Diego Manoel; Paiva, Edison Ferreira de; Osawa, Eduardo Atsushi; Lima, Eduardo Gomes; Adam, Eduardo Leal; Peixoto, Elaine; Evaristo, Eli Faria; Azeka, Estela; Silva, Fabio Bruno da; Wen, Fan Hui; Ferreira, Fatima Gil; Lima, Felipe Gallego; Fernandes, Felipe Lourenço; Ganem, Fernando; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Tarasoutchi, Flavio; Souza, Germano Emilio Conceição; Feitosa, Gilson Soares Filho; Foronda, Gustavo; Guimarães, Helio Penna; Abud, Isabela Cristina Kirnew; Leite, Ivanhoé Stuart Lima; Linhares, Jaime Paula Pessoa Filho; Moraes, Junior João Batista de Moura Xavier; Falcão, João Luiz Alencar de Araripe; Ramires, Jose Antônio Franchini; Cavalini, José Fernando; Saraiva, José Francisco Kerr; Abrão, Karen Cristine; Pinto, Lecio Figueira; Bianchi, Leonardo Luís Torres; Lopes, Leonardo Nícolau Geisler Daud; Piegas, Leopoldo Soares; Kopel, Liliane; Godoy, Lucas Colombo; Tobase, Lucia; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Dallan, Luís Augusto Palma; Caneo, Luiz Fernando; Cardoso, Luiz Francisco; Canesin, Manoel Fernandes; Park, Marcelo; Rabelo, Marcia Maria Noya; Malachias, Marcus Vinícius Bolívar; Gonçalves, Maria Aparecida Batistão; Almeida, Maria Fernanda Branco de; Souza, Maria Francilene Silva; Favarato, Maria Helena Sampaio; Carrion, Maria Julia Machline; Gonzalez, Maria Margarita; Bortolotto, Maria Rita de Figueiredo Lemos; Macatrão-Costa, Milena Frota; Shimoda, Mônica Satsuki; Oliveira-Junior, Mucio Tavares de; Ikari, Nana Miura; Dutra, Oscar Pereira; Berwanger, Otávio; Pinheiro, Patricia Ana Paiva Corrêa; Reis, Patrícia Feitosa Frota dos; Cellia, Pedro Henrique Moraes; Santos Filho, Raul Dias dos; Gianotto-Oliveira, Renan; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Guinsburg, Ruth; Managini, Sandrigo; Lage, Silvia Helena Gelas; Yeu, So Pei; Franchi, Sonia Meiken; Shimoda-Sakano, Tania; Accorsi, Tarso Duenhas; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci; Guimarães, Vanessa; Sallai, Vanessa Santos; Ávila, Walkiria Samuel; Sako, Yara Kimiko.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(3): 449-663, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1038561
11.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 10(4): 351-357, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-828654

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Background: Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) is the prototypical cause of rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). Nonetheless, efforts to exclude reversible causes of RPD that mimic prion disease are imperative. The recent expanding characterization of neurological syndromes associated with antibodies directed against neuronal cell surface or sympathic antigens, namely autoimmune encephalitis is shifting paradigms in neurology. Such antigens are well known proteins and receptors involved in synaptic transmission. Their dysfunction results in neuropsychiatric symptoms, psychosis, seizures, movement disorders and RPD. Faciobrachial dystonic seizure (FBDS) is a novel characterized type of seizure, specific for anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Objective: In order to improve clinical recognition we report the cases of two Brazilian patients who presented with characteristic FDBS (illustrated by videos) and anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Methods: We have included all patients with FBDS and confirmed anti-LGI1 encephalitis and video records of FDBS in two tertiary Brazilian centers: Department of Neurology of Hospital das Clínicas, Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo, Brazil and Hospital Geral de Fortaleza, Fortaleza, Brazil between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2015. Results: Both patients presented with clinical features of limbic encephalitis associated with FBDS, hyponatremia and normal CSF. None of them presented with tumor and both showed a good response after immunotherapy. Conclusion: FBDSs may be confounded with myoclonus and occurs simultaneously with rapid cognitive decline. Unawareness of FDBS may induce to misdiagnosing a treatable cause of RPD as CJD.


RESUMO Embasamento: A doença de Creutzfeldt-Jakob (DCJ) é o protótipo de demência rapidamente progressiva (DRP). No entanto, é imperativo que sejam excluídas causas reversíveis de DRPs que possam simular doença priônica. A recente caracterização de síndromes neurológicas associadas a anticorpos direcionados contra antígenos de superfície neuronal ou sinapse, assim denominadas de encefalites autoimunes, está mudando paradigmas em neurologia. Esses antígenos estão envolvidos na transmissão sináptica, sendo que as disfunções destes podem resultar em sintomas neuropsiquiátricos, psicose, crises epilépticas, distúrbios do movimento e DRP. A crise distônica faciobraquial (CDFB) é um tipo de crise recentemente caracterizada e específica da encefalite anti-LGI1. Objetivo: Para promover um melhor reconhecimento da doença relatamos os casos de 2 pacientes brasileiros que apresentaram CDFBs (ilustradas com vídeos) associadas à encefalite anti-LGI1. Métodos: Foram incluídos todos os pacientes com CDFBs e encefalite anti-LGI1 confirmados em 2 centros brasileiros terciários: Departamento de Neurologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil e o Hospital Geral de Fortaleza entre 01 de janeiro de 2011 e 31 de dezembro de 2015. Resultados: Ambos os casos apresentaram quadro clinico típico de encefalite límbica associada a CDFBs e exame do LCR sem alterações. Nenhum caso associou-se à presença de neoplasia e ambos apresentaram boa resposta à imunoterapia. Conclusão: A CDFB podem ser confundidas com mioclonias e ocorrer simultaneamente com rápido declínio cognitivo, o seu não reconhecimento pode induzir ao diagnóstico errôneo de uma causa potencialmente tratável de DRP como sendo DCJ.


Assuntos
Humanos , Demência , Encefalite
12.
Dement Neuropsychol ; 10(4): 351-357, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29213481

RESUMO

Background: Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) is the prototypical cause of rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). Nonetheless, efforts to exclude reversible causes of RPD that mimic prion disease are imperative. The recent expanding characterization of neurological syndromes associated with antibodies directed against neuronal cell surface or sympathic antigens, namely autoimmune encephalitis is shifting paradigms in neurology. Such antigens are well known proteins and receptors involved in synaptic transmission. Their dysfunction results in neuropsychiatric symptoms, psychosis, seizures, movement disorders and RPD. Faciobrachial dystonic seizure (FBDS) is a novel characterized type of seizure, specific for anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Objective: In order to improve clinical recognition we report the cases of two Brazilian patients who presented with characteristic FDBS (illustrated by videos) and anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Methods: We have included all patients with FBDS and confirmed anti-LGI1 encephalitis and video records of FDBS in two tertiary Brazilian centers: Department of Neurology of Hospital das Clínicas, Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo, Brazil and Hospital Geral de Fortaleza, Fortaleza, Brazil between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2015. Results: Both patients presented with clinical features of limbic encephalitis associated with FBDS, hyponatremia and normal CSF. None of them presented with tumor and both showed a good response after immunotherapy. Conclusion: FBDSs may be confounded with myoclonus and occurs simultaneously with rapid cognitive decline. Unawareness of FDBS may induce to misdiagnosing a treatable cause of RPD as CJD.

13.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 8(1)mar. 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-707322

RESUMO

Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a severe but treatable autoimmune disease of the CNS. However, the use of immunotherapy and long-term outcomes have yet to be defined for this disease. We describe a case of an 18-year-old male diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis not associated with tumor, which did not respond to initial treatment with immunoglobulin, followed by corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and evolved with significant clinical improvement after a prolonged course of plasmapheresis. Although it is not possible to affirm the good outcome was due solely to the prolonged plasmapheresis regimen, recently published data shows that improvement may take weeks or months to occur. This case discloses another therapeutic possibility for patients with refractory disease who fail to respond to recommended first-line and second-line therapy.


A encefalite antirreceptor de NMDA é uma grave doença autoimune do sistema nervoso central, mas responsiva a tratamento. No entanto o uso da imunoterapia e o prognóstico a longo prazo ainda não foram estabelecidos para esta doença. Aqui nós descrevemos o caso de um homem de 18 anos de idade diagnosticado com encefalite antirreceptor de NMDA, não associada a tumor, o qual provavelmente não respondeu à terapia inicial com corticosteroides, ciclofosfamida e, o qual evoluiu com melhora clínica importante após um curso prolongado de plasmaférese. Embora não seja possível atribuir o desfecho favorável apenas ao regime de plasmaférese prolongado, uma vez que publicações recentes demonstram que a resposta à imunoterapia pode levar semanas à meses, nosso caso abre uma possibilidade terapêutica nova para casos com doença refratária, não responsivos ao tratamento de primeira e segunda-linha preconizados


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Autoimunes , Plasmaferese , Encefalite , Encefalite Antirreceptor de N-Metil-D-Aspartato , Transtornos Mentais
14.
Dement Neuropsychol ; 8(1): 87-89, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29213885

RESUMO

Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a severe but treatable autoimmune disease of the CNS. However, the use of immunotherapy and long-term outcomes have yet to be defined for this disease. We describe a case of an 18-year-old male diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis not associated with tumor, which did not respond to initial treatment with immunoglobulin, followed by corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and evolved with significant clinical improvement after a prolonged course of plasmapheresis. Although it is not possible to affirm the good outcome was due solely to the prolonged plasmapheresis regimen, recently published data shows that improvement may take weeks or months to occur. This case discloses another therapeutic possibility for patients with refractory disease who fail to respond to recommended first-line and second-line therapy.

15.
Case Rep Neurol Med ; 2013: 636070, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24109529

RESUMO

Enterococcus hirae is a rare isolate in clinical specimens. We describe a case of native aortic valve endocarditis in a 56-year-old man. This is the third reported case of endocarditis due to this organism, the first without recurrence of endocarditis and the first presenting as a neurological deficit.

16.
São Paulo; s.n; 2013. 172 p. ilus, tab.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-721077

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: Acometimento em diversos domínios cognitivos (funções executivas, linguagem, memória episódica e semântica) são complicações reconhecidas da epilepsia associada à esclerose mesial temporal (EMT). Também é reconhecido déficit de memória específico para material verbal e não verbal, segundo a lateralidade da lesão. Atividade epileptiforme (ictal e interictal) pode comprometer funções cognitivas. O impacto do envolvimento eletrográfico contralateral nas funções cognitivas em pacientes com EMT unilateral não foi estudado. METÓDOS: Avaliamos o impacto da atividade epileptiforme contralateral em funções cognitivas em 121 pacientes com EMT unilateral (69 EMT esquerda), destros, com QI>70, oito ou mais anos de escolaridade, sem comorbidades, e 39 controles pareados por sexo, idade e escolaridade. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a monitorização por vídeo-EEG e avaliação neuropsicológica, que incluiu: memória verbal (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, RAVLT), não verbal (Rey Visual Design Learning Test, RVDLT, figura complexa de Rey) funções executivas (Stroop, teste classificação cartões de Wisconsin, repetição de dígitos e fluência verbal - FAS), linguagem (teste nomeação de Boston), escalas de ansiedade e depressão e questionário de queixas de memória. Segundo os achados eletrográficos, classificamos os pacientes com EMT unilateral em direito e esquerdo concordantes (DC, EC), parcialmente concordantes (DPC, EPC) e discordantes (DD, ED), reagrupados, em seguida, por dois critérios: maior discordância (parcialmente concordantes + concordantes) e menor discordância (parcialmente concordantes + discordantes). RESULTADOS: Dados demográficos, características da doença e tratamento não diferiram entre grupos. EC e ED tiveram pior desempenho que controles em memória verbal tardia. Após sete dias, ED tiveram pior desempenho que controles e DC+DPC em evocação livre, em reconhecimento e erros de reconhecimento que os demais grupos...


INTRODUCTION: Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) associated epilepsy leads to cognitive changes in various cognitive domains, including episodic and semantic memory, executive functions, and language. A material-specific model for memory impairment has been proposed. Ictal and interictal epileptiform activity may negatively impact on cognitive functions. The impact of contralateral electrographic involvement on cognitive functions in unilateral MTS has not been studied. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the impact of contralateral interictal and ictal epileptiform activity on cognitive functions in 121 (69 left) right-handed unilateral MTS patients, with an IQ>70, eight or more education years, without comorbidities, and 39 age, gender and education-matched controls. All patients underwent video-EEG monitoring and neuropsychological testing, including verbal (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, RAVLT) and nonverbal memory (Rey Visual Design Learning Test, RVDLT, and Complex-Rey-Osterrieth-Figure), executive functions (Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, digit span and verbal fluency - FAS), language (Boston Naming Test) and self- report scales for anxiety, depression, and memory complaints. According to MTS side and EEG findings groups were classified as right or left concordant (RC,LC), partially concordant (RPC, LPC), discordant (RD, LD). Groups were regrouped by two criteria: major discordance (merging partially concordant and concordant groups) and minor discordance (merging partially concordant and discordant groups). RESULTS: Demographic, disease and treatment features did not differ among groups. On verbal memory, LD and LC performed worse than controls on delayed recall. On 7-day recall, LD scored significantly worse than controls and RC+RPC, recognized fewer words and had more recognition errors than all groups. On nonverbal memory, RD had more errors in RVDLT learning than controls, and showed a trend towards worse performance compared to RC+RPC...


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cognição , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal , Função Executiva , Hipocampo , Testes de Linguagem , Memória , Neuropsicologia
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 69(6): 871-874, Dec. 2011. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-612623

RESUMO

There is evidence in electroencephalography that alpha, theta and delta band oscillations reflect cognitive and memory performances and that quantitative techniques can improve the electroencephalogram (EEG) sensitivity. This paper presents the results of comparative analysis of qEEG variables as reliable markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We compared the sensitivity and specificity between spectral analysis (spectA) and coherence (Coh) within the same group of AD patients. SpectA and Coh were calculated from EEGs of 40 patients with mild to moderate AD and 40 healthy elderly controls. The peak of spectA was smaller in the AD group than in controls. AD group showed predominance of slow spectA in theta and delta bands and a significant reduction of inter-hemispheric Coh for occipital alpha 2 and beta 1 and for frontal delta sub-band. ROC curve supported that alpha band spectA was more sensitive than coherence to differentiate controls from AD.


Há evidências de que as oscilações das bandas teta, alfa e delta no eletroencefalograma podem refletir diferenças na cognição e memória; a sensibilidade deste método diagnóstico pode ser melhorada por técnicas de quantificação. Comparamos a sensibilidade e especificidade entre a análise espectral (spectA) e coerência (Coh) dentro do mesmo grupo de pacientes com doença de Alzheimer (DA) e contra um grupo controle. SpectA e Coh foram calculadas a partir de EEGs de 40 pacientes com DA leve a moderada e 40 idosos saudáveis. O pico do espectro foi menor no grupo DA que nos controles. O grupo DA também apresentou um espectro mais lento nas bandas teta e delta e menor coerência inter-hemisférica para as sub-bandas alfa 2 e beta 1 posterior e delta frontal. A curva ROC suporta que a análise espectral da banda alfa foi mais sensível que a coerência para diferenciar controles de DA.


Assuntos
Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Ritmo beta/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 69(6): 871-4, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22297870

RESUMO

There is evidence in electroencephalography that alpha, theta and delta band oscillations reflect cognitive and memory performances and that quantitative techniques can improve the electroencephalogram (EEG) sensitivity. This paper presents the results of comparative analysis of qEEG variables as reliable markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We compared the sensitivity and specificity between spectral analysis (spectA) and coherence (Coh) within the same group of AD patients. SpectA and Coh were calculated from EEGs of 40 patients with mild to moderate AD and 40 healthy elderly controls. The peak of spectA was smaller in the AD group than in controls. AD group showed predominance of slow spectA in theta and delta bands and a significant reduction of inter-hemispheric Coh for occipital alpha 2 and beta 1 and for frontal delta sub-band. ROC curve supported that alpha band spectA was more sensitive than coherence to differentiate controls from AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Ritmo beta/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Dement Neuropsychol ; 1(1): 104-107, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29213375

RESUMO

The association of visual agnosia and prosopagnosia with cerebral metastasis is very rare. The presence of symmetric and bilateral cerebral metastases of melanoma is also uncommon.We report the case of a 34 year-old man who was admitted to hospital with seizures and a three-month history of headache, with blurred vision during the past month. A previous history of melanoma resection was obtained. CT of the skull showed bilateral heterogeneous hypodense lesions in the occipito-temporal regions, with a ring pattern of contrast enhancement. Surgical resection of both metastatic lesions was performed after which the patient developed visual agnosia and prosopagnosia. On follow-up, he showed partial recovery of visual agnosia, while prosopagnosia was still evident. The relevance of this case is the rare presentation of metastatic malignant melanoma affecting homologous occipito-temporal areas associated with prosopagnosia and associative visual agnosia.

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