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1.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(8): e00129118, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483047

RESUMO

The prevalence of smoking in Brazil has decreased considerably in recent decades, but the country still has a high burden of disease associated with this risk factor. The study aimed to estimate the burden of mortality, morbidity, and costs for society associated with smoking in 2015 and the potential impact on health outcomes and the economy based on price increases for cigarettes through taxes. Two models were developed: the first is a mathematical model based on a probabilistic microsimulation of thousands of individuals using hypothetical cohorts that considered the natural history, costs, and quality of life of these individuals. The second is a tax model applied to estimate the economic benefit and health outcomes in different price increase scenarios in 10 years. Smoking was responsible for 156,337 deaths, 4.2 million years of potential life lost, 229,071 acute myocardial infarctions, 59,509 strokes, and 77,500 cancer diagnoses. The total cost was BRL 56.9 billion (USD 14.7 billion), with 70% corresponding to the direct cost associated with healthcare and the rest to indirect cost due to lost productivity from premature death and disability. A 50% increase in cigarette prices would avoid 136,482 deaths, 507,451 cases of cardiovascular diseases, 64,382 cases of cancer, and 100,365 cases of stroke. The estimated economic benefit would be BRL 97.9 billion (USD 25.5 billion). In conclusion, the burden of disease and economic losses associated with smoking is high in Brazil, and tax increases are capable of averting deaths, illness, and costs to society.

2.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(9): e00180218, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508699

RESUMO

Estimates point to more than seven thousand rare diseases already identified, representing 6 to 10% of all diseases. In Brazil, a rare disease is defined as one that affects up to 65 persons per 100,000. The quantification of costs for the families of patients with such conditions and their impact on income provides information capable of supporting public policies for these youngsters. The study aimed to estimate the cost and loss of earnings, viewed from the perspective of families of children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis, mucopolysaccharidosis, and osteogenesis imperfecta. The study included 99 families of patients treated at a national referral hospital for rare diseases in Rio de Janeiro, based on the principal caregiver's report. The descriptive data analysis showed that the median direct nonmedical cost for families was BRL 2,156.56 (USD 570) for cystic fibrosis, BRL 1,060.00 (USD 280) for mucopolysaccharidosis, and BRL 1,908.00 (USD 505) for osteogenesis imperfecta. Loss of earnings exceeded 100% for all three diseases. A total of 54% of families fail to receive any social benefits. The estimate of coping costs indicated that 69% of the families had incurred loans and that 22.5% had sold household assets to cope with the treatment costs. Catastrophic expenditures were observed in families dealing with the three diseases. The results unveil costs that are rarely estimated, and not only in the field of rare diseases. The findings point to a major burden on the families' income. It is important to incorporate such studies in the discussion of financing, the incorporation of new technologies, and the supply of health services.

3.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 156(1): 4, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256834
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(4): 1527-1536, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066854

RESUMO

This study estimated the costs of vaginal delivery and elective cesarean section without clinical indication, for usual risk pregnant women from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Data was collected from three public maternity hospitals located in the southeast region of Brazil through visits and interviews with professionals. The cost components were human resources, hospital supplies, capital cost and overhead, which were identified, quantified and valued through the micro-costing method. The costs with vaginal delivery, elective cesarean section and daily hospital charge in rooming for the three maternity hospitals were identified. The mean cost of a vaginal delivery procedure was R$ 808.16 and ranged from R$ 585.74 to R$ 916.14 between hospitals. The mean cost of elective cesarean section was R$ 1,113.70, ranging from R$ 652.69 to R$ 1,516.02. The main cost component was human resources for both procedures. When stay in rooming was included, the mean costs of vaginal delivery and cesarean were R$ 1,397.91 (R$ 1,287.50 - R$ 1,437.87) and R$ 1,843.87 (R$ 1,521.54 - R$ 2,161.98), respectively. Cost analyses of perinatal care contribute to the management of health services and are essential for cost-effectiveness analysis.

5.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1005734

RESUMO

Objetivos: Fazer uma proposta para atualização da diretriz com maior padronização dos métodos e realizar análise crítica dos pontos considerados mais relevantes para a formulação de um estudo de análise de impacto orçamentário. Métodos: Revisão da literatura, extração de dados, seleção de etapas básicas para a execução de uma análise de impacto orçamentário, apresentação dos resultados para debate com especialistas. Resultados: Foram recuperados 1.215 títulos, dos quais seis foram elegíveis para síntese qualitativa e definição da estrutura analítica para projetar e construir um modelo de impacto orçamentário: perspectiva da análise; estimar a população-alvo; horizonte temporal; taxa de incorporação da nova tecnologia ao mercado (market share); estimar os custos; fontes de dados; taxa de desconto e apresentação do resultado final. Recomendações: perspectiva da análise deve ser a do pagador; estimativa da população elegível a partir de dados epidemiológicos oriundos do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) preferencialmente; horizonte temporal de dois a cinco anos; buscar a taxa de incorporação em órgãos oficiais; custos diretos estimados a partir da autorização de internação hospitalar e portais de compras governamentais; fontes de dados oficiais e apresentação de resultados em tabela e o impacto incremental ano a ano. Conclusões: Avaliação de Impacto Orçamentário é uma ferramenta feita para auxiliar o gestor, que prima por tentar garantir equilíbrio fiscal ao sistema diante das inúmeras demandas da sociedade. Essa característica é fundamental no mundo atual, onde transparência e a responsabilidade nos gastos são exigências cada vez mais frequentes por parte do cidadão.


Objectives: To make a proposal to update the guideline with a standardization of the methods and do a critical analysis of the points considered most relevant to the formulation of a study of Budget Impact Analysis. Methods: Literature review, data extraction, selection of basic steps to do a budget impact analysis, presentation of results for discussion with experts. Results: 1,215 titles were retrieved, of which 6 were eligible for qualitative synthesis and definition of the analytical framework to design and build a model of budgetary impact: analysis perspective; estimate the target population; temporal horizon; rate of incorporation of the new technology into the market ("market share"); estimate costs; data sources; discount rate and presentation of the final result. Recommendations: the perspective of the analysis should be that of the payer; the estimation of the eligible population from epidemiological data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) preferably; time horizon of 2 to 5 years; rate of incorporation with official data; direct costs estimated from hospital admission authorization and government shopping sites; official data sources and presentation of results in table and incremental impact year by year. Conclusions: Budget Impact Analysis is a tool designed to assist the manager, that trying to guarantee a fiscal balance to the system against the innumerable demands of society. This characteristic is fundamental in today's world where transparency and responsibility in spending are increasingly frequent demands on the part of the citizen.

6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(4): 1527-1536, abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001768

RESUMO

Resumo Esse estudo estimou os custos do parto vaginal e da cesariana eletiva, sem indicação clínica, para gestantes de risco habitual na perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde provedor. A coleta de dados incluiu três maternidades públicas situadas na região Sudeste, nas quais foram realizadas visitas e entrevistas com os profissionais. Os itens de custos incluídos foram recursos humanos, insumos hospitalares, custo de capital e administrativos, que foram identificados, quantificados e valorados pelo método de microcusteio. Foram identificados custos com o parto vaginal, cesariana eletiva e diária em alojamento conjunto para as três maternidades. A média do custo do procedimento parto vaginal foi de R$ 808,16 e variou de R$ 585,74 a R$ 916,14 entre as maternidades. O custo médio da cesariana eletiva foi de R$ 1.113,70 com variação de R$ 652,69 a R$ 1.516,02. O principal item de custo foi os recursos humanos em ambos os procedimentos. Com a inclusão do período de permanência em alojamento conjunto, o custo médio do parto vaginal foi de R$ 1.397,91 (R$ 1.287,50 - R$ 1.437,87) e da cesariana R$ 1.843,8791 (R$ 1.521,54 - R$ 2.161,98), este 32% superior ao primeiro. As análises de custo na atenção perinatal contribuem para a gestão dos serviços de saúde, além de serem essenciais para análises de custo-efetividade.


Abstract This study estimated the costs of vaginal delivery and elective cesarean section without clinical indication, for usual risk pregnant women from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Data was collected from three public maternity hospitals located in the southeast region of Brazil through visits and interviews with professionals. The cost components were human resources, hospital supplies, capital cost and overhead, which were identified, quantified and valued through the micro-costing method. The costs with vaginal delivery, elective cesarean section and daily hospital charge in rooming for the three maternity hospitals were identified. The mean cost of a vaginal delivery procedure was R$ 808.16 and ranged from R$ 585.74 to R$ 916.14 between hospitals. The mean cost of elective cesarean section was R$ 1,113.70, ranging from R$ 652.69 to R$ 1,516.02. The main cost component was human resources for both procedures. When stay in rooming was included, the mean costs of vaginal delivery and cesarean were R$ 1,397.91 (R$ 1,287.50 - R$ 1,437.87) and R$ 1,843.87 (R$ 1,521.54 - R$ 2,161.98), respectively. Cost analyses of perinatal care contribute to the management of health services and are essential for cost-effectiveness analysis.

7.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4666, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-998230

RESUMO

Objective: This cross-sectional research evaluated caries prevalence and treatment need in preschool children using different indexes. Material and Methods: A sample of 931 children (3-5 years old) attending public schools were examined by two calibrated researchers, who recorded the caries prevalence using dmf-t and ICDAS II. The clinical records obtained directed the decision regarding the treatment needs, which were divided into non-invasive and invasive procedures according to the scores registered in the different caries indexes. Descriptive statistics were used to present the data related to each index; qui-square test was used to compare the need of invasive and non-invasive treatment in the different ages. Results: The mean dmf-t was 1.8 ± 2.9, with a 42.9% caries prevalence. Using cut-off points of ICDAS II (≥1, ≥3 and ≥4), the caries prevalence values found were 50.7%, 40.8% and 30.7%, respectively. Fiveyear- old children exhibited the highest caries prevalence, assessed with dmf-t or ≥3 and ≥4 cutoff points of ICDAS II (≥3: p=0.032; ≥4: p=0.015). The percentages of caries-free children were 49.1% and 57.1%, respectively for ICDAS II and dmf-t. Restorative treatment in at least one tooth was required by 30.7% and 40% of the children for ICDAS II and dmf-t. Only ICDAS II could establish the percentage of non-invasive treatments (20%). Both indices pointed out the expressive need of restorative treatment. Conclusion: The use of dmf-t in epidemiological surveys may underestimate caries prevalence whereas the ICDAS II allowed the identification of early carious lesions and the viability of the use of non-invasive procedures as caries control measures in a child population.

8.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 10(3): 298-301, dez. 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-986483

RESUMO

As avaliações econômicas são elaboradas com base em modelos teóricos que procuram representar a realidade. Seu objetivo é a alocação eficiente dos recursos disponíveis para a saúde, sendo, portanto, uma exigência para a incorporação de tecnologias em saúde. A literatura sobre falhas e diferenças de métodos que mudem os resultados de estudos de custo-efetividade é escassa. Neste artigo, foi utilizado o desenho de estudo de caso para ilustrar como a escolha de parâmetros e a definição de pressupostos incorporados aos modelos de análise de decisão podem influenciar os resultados e as conclusões das análises de custo-efetividade e custo-utilidade e, por consequência, a alocação de recursos de saúde. Para tanto, pautamo-nos na discussão de três casos, nos quais observamos que a escolha da estimativa da prevalência, da especificidade de um teste e do horizonte temporal gerou resultados de custo-efetividade divergentes. O que motiva as diferentes escolhas pode ser muito diverso; alertamos para o risco das escolhas baseadas em interesses de promover a nova tecnologia


Economic evaluations are based on theoretical models that seek to represent reality. Its objective is the efficient allocation of resources available for health, and it is therefore a requirement for the incorporation of health technologies. There is scarce literature on flaws and methodological choices that can change the results of cost-effectiveness analyses. In this article, we discuss how the choice of parameters and the definition of assumptions incorporated into decision analysis models can influence the results and conclusions of the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyzes and, consequently, the allocation of health resources. In order to do so, we discuss three cases, where we observed that the choice of prevalence estimation, test specificity and the time horizon generated divergent cost-effectiveness results. What motivates the different choices can be very diverse; we here warn of the risk of interest-based choices of promoting a new technology


Assuntos
Humanos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Avaliação em Saúde , Análise Custo-Benefício
9.
Rev Saude Publica ; 52: 91, 2018 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of natural childbirth and elective C-section for normal risk pregnant women. METHODS: The study was conducted from the perspective of supplemental health, a health subsystem that finances private obstetric care, represented in Brazil by health plan operators. The reference populations were normal risk pregnant women, who could undergo natural childbirth or elective C-section, subdivided into primiparous and multiparous women with previous uterine scar. A decision analysis model was constructed including choice of delivery types and health consequences for mother and newborn, from admission for delivery to maternity hospital discharge. Effectiveness measures were identified from the scientific literature, and cost data obtained by consultation with health professionals, health plan operators' pricing tables, and pricing reference publications of health resources. RESULTS: Natural childbirth was dominant compared with elective C-section for primiparous normal risk pregnant women, presenting lower cost (R$5,210.96 versus R$5,753.54) and better or equal effectiveness for all evaluated outcomes. For multiparous women with previous uterine scar, C-section presented lower cost (R$5,364.07) than natural childbirth (R$5,632.24), and better or equal effectiveness; therefore, C-section is more efficient for this population. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to control and audit C-sections without clinical indication, especially with regard to primiparous women, contributing to the management of perinatal care.

10.
Artigo em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49456

RESUMO

[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Estimar o impacto orçamentário do excesso de cesarianas sem indicação clínica em comparação ao parto vaginal para gestantes de risco habitual no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) no Brasil. Métodos. A análise se baseou em um modelo estático. A população de referência foi a de gestantes de risco habitual. O horizonte temporal foi de 5 anos. Utilizou-se um modelo de regressão de Poisson para projetar o número de nascidos vivos de 2016 a 2020. O cálculo do custo direto da cesariana eletiva e do parto vaginal foi baseado em dois estudos prévios, nos quais foi calculado o valor esperado dos procedimentos através de um modelo de decisão analítico que incluiu as intercorrências clínicas da internação até a alta da maternidade. O cenário de referência dessa análise considerou 29% de cesarianas em excesso no país. Resultados. O custo total da assistência ao parto e nascimento para as primíparas e multíparas sem cicatriz uterina no cenário de referência foi de US$ 707,5 milhões para o ano de 2016. No cenário 1 (melhor cenário), que considerou apenas o parto vaginal para essas gestantes, houve uma redução de custos de US$ 76,5 milhões ao ano. Para multíparas, a comparação do cenário de referência com o melhor cenário gerou economia de mais de US$ 4 milhões ao ano. Conclusões. Os resultados indicam que o incentivo ao parto vaginal gera economia.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To estimate the budgetary impact of excess cesarean deliveries without clinical indication compared to vaginal deliveries in the Unified Health System (SUS) in Brazil. Methods. The analysis was based on a static model. The reference population was that of pregnant women at normal risk. The time horizon was 5 years. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate the number of live births from 2016 to 2020. Calculation of the direct cost of elective cesarean delivery and vaginal delivery was based on two previous studies, in which the expected monetary value of the procedures was calculated through an analytical decision model that included all clinical events from admission until discharge. The reference scenario for this analysis considered 29% of excess cesareans in the country. Results. The total cost of delivery and birth care for primiparous and multiparous women without uterine scar in the reference scenario was US$ 707 500 000 for the year 2016. In scenario 1 (best scenario), which considered only vaginal delivery for these pregnant women, there was a cost reduction of US$ 76 500 000 per year. For multiparous women, comparison of the reference scenario with the best scenario showed savings of more than US$ 4 000 000 per year. Conclusions. The results indicate that the incentive to vaginal delivery generates savings.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Estimar el impacto presupuestario del exceso de cesáreas sin indicación clínica en comparación con el parto vaginal para embarazadas con riesgo habitual en el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS) en Brasil. Métodos. El análisis se basó en un modelo estático. Se empleó como referencia la población de embarazadas con riesgo habitual. El horizonte temporal fue de 5 años. Se utilizó un modelo de regresión de Poisson para proyectar el número de nacidos vivos del 2016 al 2020. El cálculo del costo directo de la cesárea electiva y del parto vaginal se basó en dos estudios previos, en los cuales se estimó el valor previsto de los procedimientos por medio de un modelo analítico de decisión que incluyó las complicaciones clínicas de la hospitalización hasta el alta del servicio de maternidad. En el escenario de referencia de ese análisis se consideró que en el país se realizan 29% de cesáreas en exceso. Resultados. El costo total de la asistencia al parto y al nacimiento para las primíparas y multíparas sin cicatriz uterina en el escenario de referencia fue de US$ 707 500 000 en el año 2016. En el primer escenario (el mejor), en el cual se analizó solo el parto vaginal de esas embarazadas, hubo una reducción de costos de US$ 76 500 000 al año. Para multíparas, la comparación del escenario de referencia con el mejor generó ahorros superiores a US$ 4 000 000 al año. Conclusiones. Los resultados indican que el incentivo del parto vaginal genera ahorros.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Parto Normal , Gestão em Saúde , Avaliação em Saúde , Economia da Saúde , Brasil , Cesárea , Parto Normal , Gestão em Saúde , Avaliação em Saúde , Economia da Saúde , Brasil , Gestão em Saúde , Avaliação em Saúde , Economia da Saúde
12.
Gene ; 2018 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29859286

RESUMO

High-mobility group B (HMGB) proteins have highly conserved, unique DNA-binding domains, HMG boxes, that can bind non-B-type DNA structures, such as bent, kinked and unwound structures, with high affinity. HMGB proteins also promote DNA bending, looping and unwinding. In this study, we determined the role of the Aedes aegypti single HMG-box domain protein AaHMGB; characterized its structure, spatiotemporal expression levels, subcellular localization, and nucleic acid binding activities; and compared these properties with those of its double-HMG-box counterpart protein, AaHMGB1. Via qRT-PCR, we showed that AaHMGB is expressed at much higher levels than AaHMGB1 throughout mosquito development. In situ hybridization results suggested a role for AaHMGB and AaHMGB1 during embryogenesis. Immunolocalization in the midgut revealed that AaHMGB is exclusively nuclear. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy analyses showed that AaHMGB exhibits common features of α-helical structures and is more stably folded than AaHMGB1, likely due to the presence of one or two HMG boxes. Using several DNA substrates or single-stranded RNAs as probes, we observed significant differences between AaHMGB and AaHMGB1 in terms of their binding patterns, activity and/or specificity. Importantly, we showed that the phosphorylation of AaHMGB plays a critical role in its DNA-binding activity. Our study provides additional insight into the roles of single- versus double-HMG-box-containing proteins in nucleic acid interactions for better understanding of mosquito development, physiology and homeostasis.

13.
Cad Saude Publica ; 34(5): e00022517, 2018 05 10.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768579

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of spontaneous vaginal delivery and elective cesarean (with no clinical indication) for normal risk pregnant women, from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified National Health System. An analytical decision model was developed and included the choice of delivery mode and clinical consequences for mothers and newborns, from admission for delivery to hospital discharge. The reference population consisted of normal risk pregnant women with singleton, at-term gestations in cephalic position, subdivided into primiparas and multiparas with prior uterine scar. Cost data were obtained from three public maternity hospitals (two in Rio de Janeiro, one in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil). Direct costs were identified with human resources, hospital inputs, and capital and administrative costs. Effectiveness measures were identified, based on the scientific literature. The study showed that vaginal delivery was more efficient for primiparas, at lower cost (BRL 1,709.58; USD 518.05) than cesarean (BRL 2,245.86; USD 680.56) and greater effectiveness for three of the four target outcomes. For multiparas with prior uterine scar, repeat cesarean was cost-effective for the outcomes averted maternal morbidity, averted uterine rupture, averted neonatal ICU, and averted neonatal death, but the result was not supported by probabilistic sensitivity analysis. For maternal death as the outcome, there was no difference in effectiveness, and labor showed the lowest cost. This study can contribute to the management of perinatal care, expanding measures that encourage adequate delivery according to the population's characteristics.


Assuntos
Cesárea/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia , Parto Obstétrico/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/economia , Brasil , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Morte Materna , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Paridade , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 19, 2018 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29347940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sporotrichosis is a neglected zoonosis caused by pathogenic fungi belonging to the Sporothrix schenckii complex. In Rio de Janeiro state, this disease reached an epidemic status with over 4700 domestic felines and around 4000 humans affected since the mid-90s. The present study evaluated clinical and epidemiological aspects and also the frequency of colonization and infection by these fungi in healthy cats and among those with suspicious cutaneous lesions, inhabiting four Rio de Janeiro state distinct areas. RESULTS: Three hundred and seventy-one cats were included in two groups: 175 healthy cats [CRG] and 196 cats showing lesions suggesting sporotrichosis [SSG]. Mycological diagnosis allowed SSG animals to be divided in positive [104 cats; +SG] and negative [92 cats; -SG] groups. Nails, oral mucosa and lesions swabs were submitted to culture and potential colonies were subculture for micromorphologycal analysis, dimorphism and molecular tests. In the CRG, only one cat was colonized in the oral cavity [0.57%]; in the -SG group, four animals showed colonization of the nail and/or oral cavity [4.3%]; while the highest frequency of colonization [39.4%] was observed in the +SG. All molecularly typed isolates were identified as S. brasiliensis. CONCLUSION: The results obtained here indicate that healthy cats have a minor role in sporotrichosis transmission within the state of Rio de Janeiro. Conversely, a higher participation of diseased feline in sporotrichosis transmission was evidenced, especially by the colonization of their oral cavity. Sporothrix brasiliensis equally affects and colonizes animals from distinct Rio de Janeiro state areas. Thus, we hypothesize that sporotrichosis is a uniform endemic throughout the state, whose transmission depends mainly on the contact with cats with sporotrichosis. Since Rio de Janeiro displays a world unique epidemic model of the disease, not fully understood, data on the infected and non-infected animals can be of major importance for future strategies of sporotrichosis prevention and control. Finally, considering the importance of the current concept of "one health", the experience here observed can be helpful for distinct epizootias and/or zoonosis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Sporothrix/classificação , Esporotricose/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Feminino , Casco e Garras/microbiologia , Masculino , Boca/microbiologia , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Esporotricose/epidemiologia , Esporotricose/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(1): 267-276, Jan. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890480

RESUMO

Resumo O estudo objetivou criar um instrumento de medida que pudesse quantificar os desconfortos associados ao procedimento cirúrgico de pacientes submetidos a cirurgias dento-alveolares (QCirDental). O instrumento QCirDental foi desenvolvido em duas etapas iniciais: (1) geração e seleção das perguntas ou itens e, (2) teste do instrumento com avaliação das propriedades de medida (consistência interna e responsividade). A amostra foi composta por 123 pacientes. Nenhum deles apresentou qualquer dificuldade em entender o QCirDental. O instrumento mostrou excelente consistência interna com coeficiente alfa de Cronbach de 0,83. A análise de componentes principais (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy 0,72 e Bartlett's Test of Sphericity com p < 0,001) mostrou seis (6) dimensões do instrumento que explicam 67,5% da variância. O QCirDental possui excelente consistência interna, sendo um instrumento de fácil leitura e interpretação compatível com uma adequada validade semântica e de conteúdo. Mais de 80% dos pacientes submetidos a extrações dentárias de rotina odontológica apresentam algum desconforto ou incomodo no período transoperatório o que ressalta a necessidade de utilização de um instrumento para avaliação de cuidados.


Abstract The scope of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire (QCirDental) to measure the impacts associated with dental extraction surgery. The QCirDental questionnaire was developed in two steps; (1) question and item generation and selection, and (2) pretest of the questionnaire with evaluation of the its measurement properties (internal consistency and responsiveness). The sample was composed of 123 patients. None of the patients had any difficulty in understanding the QCirDental. The instrument was found to have excellent internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of 0.83. The principal component analysis (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy 0,72 and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity with p < 0.001) showed six (6) dimensions explaining 67.5% of the variance. The QCirDental presented excellent internal consistency, being a questionnaire that is easy to read and understand with adequate semantic and content validity. More than 80% of the patients who underwent dental extraction reported some degree of discomfort within the perioperative period which highlights the necessity to assess the quality of care and impacts of dental extraction surgery.

17.
Cien Saude Colet ; 23(1): 267-276, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29267830

RESUMO

The scope of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire (QCirDental) to measure the impacts associated with dental extraction surgery. The QCirDental questionnaire was developed in two steps; (1) question and item generation and selection, and (2) pretest of the questionnaire with evaluation of the its measurement properties (internal consistency and responsiveness). The sample was composed of 123 patients. None of the patients had any difficulty in understanding the QCirDental. The instrument was found to have excellent internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of 0.83. The principal component analysis (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy 0,72 and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity with p < 0.001) showed six (6) dimensions explaining 67.5% of the variance. The QCirDental presented excellent internal consistency, being a questionnaire that is easy to read and understand with adequate semantic and content validity. More than 80% of the patients who underwent dental extraction reported some degree of discomfort within the perioperative period which highlights the necessity to assess the quality of care and impacts of dental extraction surgery.


Assuntos
Dor/epidemiologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Extração Dentária/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/etiologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 52: 91, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-979026

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of natural childbirth and elective C-section for normal risk pregnant women. METHODS The study was conducted from the perspective of supplemental health, a health subsystem that finances private obstetric care, represented in Brazil by health plan operators. The reference populations were normal risk pregnant women, who could undergo natural childbirth or elective C-section, subdivided into primiparous and multiparous women with previous uterine scar. A decision analysis model was constructed including choice of delivery types and health consequences for mother and newborn, from admission for delivery to maternity hospital discharge. Effectiveness measures were identified from the scientific literature, and cost data obtained by consultation with health professionals, health plan operators' pricing tables, and pricing reference publications of health resources. RESULTS Natural childbirth was dominant compared with elective C-section for primiparous normal risk pregnant women, presenting lower cost (R$5,210.96 versus R$5,753.54) and better or equal effectiveness for all evaluated outcomes. For multiparous women with previous uterine scar, C-section presented lower cost (R$5,364.07) than natural childbirth (R$5,632.24), and better or equal effectiveness; therefore, C-section is more efficient for this population. CONCLUSIONS It is necessary to control and audit C-sections without clinical indication, especially with regard to primiparous women, contributing to the management of perinatal care.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Realizar uma análise de custo-efetividade do parto vaginal e da cesariana eletiva para gestantes de risco habitual. MÉTODOS A perspectiva adotada foi a da saúde suplementar, subsistema de saúde financiador da assistência obstétrica privada, representado no Brasil por operadoras de planos de saúde. As populações de referência foram as gestantes de risco habitual, que poderiam ser submetidas ao parto vaginal ou à cesariana eletiva, subdivididas em primíparas e multíparas com uma cicatriz uterina prévia. Foi construído um modelo de decisão analítico que incluiu a escolha pelos tipos de parto, consequências em saúde para mãe e recém-nascido da internação para o parto à alta da maternidade. As medidas de efetividade foram identificadas a partir da literatura científica. Os dados de custos foram obtidos pela consulta aos profissionais de saúde, tabelas das operadoras dos planos de saúde e publicações de referências de preços de recursos de saúde. RESULTADOS O parto vaginal foi dominante em comparação com a cesariana eletiva para gestantes de risco habitual primíparas e apresentou menor custo (R$5.210,96 versus R$5.753,54) e melhor ou igual efetividade para todos os desfechos avaliados. Para multíparas com uma cicatriz uterina prévia, a cesariana mostrou-se com custo inferior (R$5.364,07) ao do parto vaginal (R$5.632,24) e melhor ou igual efetividade, portanto mais eficiente para essa população. CONCLUSÕES É necessário o controle e a auditoria das cesarianas sem indicação clínica, destacadamente em primíparas, contribuindo para a gestão da atenção perinatal.

19.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 42: e116, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-961772

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivos Estimar o impacto orçamentário do excesso de cesarianas sem indicação clínica em comparação ao parto vaginal para gestantes de risco habitual no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) no Brasil. Métodos A análise se baseou em um modelo estático. A população de referência foi a de gestantes de risco habitual. O horizonte temporal foi de 5 anos. Utilizou-se um modelo de regressão de Poisson para projetar o número de nascidos vivos de 2016 a 2020. O cálculo do custo direto da cesariana eletiva e do parto vaginal foi baseado em dois estudos prévios, nos quais foi calculado o valor esperado dos procedimentos através de um modelo de decisão analítico que incluiu as intercorrências clínicas da internação até a alta da maternidade. O cenário de referência dessa análise considerou 29% de cesarianas em excesso no país. Resultados O custo total da assistência ao parto e nascimento para as primíparas e multíparas sem cicatriz uterina no cenário de referência foi de US$ 707,5 milhões para o ano de 2016. No cenário 1 (melhor cenário), que considerou apenas o parto vaginal para essas gestantes, houve uma redução de custos de US$ 76,5 milhões ao ano. Para multíparas, a comparação do cenário de referência com o melhor cenário gerou economia de mais de US$ 4 milhões ao ano. Conclusões Os resultados indicam que o incentivo ao parto vaginal gera economia.


ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the budgetary impact of excess cesarean deliveries without clinical indication compared to vaginal deliveries in the Unified Health System (SUS) in Brazil. Methods The analysis was based on a static model. The reference population was that of pregnant women at normal risk. The time horizon was 5 years. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate the number of live births from 2016 to 2020. Calculation of the direct cost of elective cesarean delivery and vaginal delivery was based on two previous studies, in which the expected monetary value of the procedures was calculated through an analytical decision model that included all clinical events from admission until discharge. The reference scenario for this analysis considered 29% of excess cesareans in the country. Results The total cost of delivery and birth care for primiparous and multiparous women without uterine scar in the reference scenario was US$ 707 500 000 for the year 2016. In scenario 1 (best scenario), which considered only vaginal delivery for these pregnant women, there was a cost reduction of US$ 76 500 000 per year. For multiparous women, comparison of the reference scenario with the best scenario showed savings of more than US$ 4 000 000 per year. Conclusions The results indicate that the incentive to vaginal delivery generates savings.


RESUMEN Objetivos Estimar el impacto presupuestario del exceso de cesáreas sin indicación clínica en comparación con el parto vaginal para embarazadas con riesgo habitual en el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS) en Brasil. Métodos El análisis se basó en un modelo estático. Se empleó como referencia la población de embarazadas con riesgo habitual. El horizonte temporal fue de 5 años. Se utilizó un modelo de regresión de Poisson para proyectar el número de nacidos vivos del 2016 al 2020. El cálculo del costo directo de la cesárea electiva y del parto vaginal se basó en dos estudios previos, en los cuales se estimó el valor previsto de los procedimientos por medio de un modelo analítico de decisión que incluyó las complicaciones clínicas de la hospitalización hasta el alta del servicio de maternidad. En el escenario de referencia de ese análisis se consideró que en el país se realizan 29% de cesáreas en exceso. Resultados El costo total de la asistencia al parto y al nacimiento para las primíparas y multíparas sin cicatriz uterina en el escenario de referencia fue de US$ 707 500 000 en el año 2016. En el primer escenario (el mejor), en el cual se analizó solo el parto vaginal de esas embarazadas, hubo una reducción de costos de US$ 76 500 000 al año. Para multíparas, la comparación del escenario de referencia con el mejor generó ahorros superiores a US$ 4 000 000 al año. Conclusiones Los resultados indican que el incentivo del parto vaginal genera ahorros.


Assuntos
Humanos , Economia da Saúde , Avaliação em Saúde , Cesárea , Gestão em Saúde , Parto Normal , Brasil
20.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(5): e00022517, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-889977

RESUMO

Resumo: O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma análise de custo-efetividade do parto vaginal espontâneo comparado à cesariana eletiva, sem indicação clínica, para gestantes de risco habitual, sob a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde. Um modelo de decisão analítico foi desenvolvido e incluiu a escolha do tipo de parto e consequências clínicas para mãe e recém-nascido, da internação para o parto até a alta hospitalar. A população de referência foi gestantes de risco habitual, feto único, cefálico, a termo, subdivididas em primíparas e multíparas com uma cicatriz uterina prévia. Os dados de custos foram obtidos de três maternidades públicas, duas situadas no Rio de Janeiro e uma em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foram identificados custos diretos com recursos humanos, insumos hospitalares, custos de capital e administrativos. As medidas de efetividade foram identificadas com base na literatura científica. O estudo evidenciou que o parto vaginal é mais eficiente para gestantes primíparas, com menor custo (R$ 1.709,58) que a cesariana (R$ 2.245,86) e melhor efetividade para três dos quatro desfechos avaliados. Para multíparas, com uma cicatriz uterina prévia, a cesariana de repetição foi custo-efetiva para os desfechos morbidade materna evitada, ruptura uterina evitada, internação em UTI neonatal evitada e óbito neonatal evitado, mas o resultado não foi suportado pela análise de sensibilidade probabilística. Para o desfecho óbito materno não houve diferença de efetividade e o trabalho de parto se mostrou com o menor custo. Este estudo pode contribuir para a gestão da atenção perinatal, ampliando medidas que estimulem o parto adequado de acordo com as características da população.


Abstract: The purpose of this study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of spontaneous vaginal delivery and elective cesarean (with no clinical indication) for normal risk pregnant women, from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified National Health System. An analytical decision model was developed and included the choice of delivery mode and clinical consequences for mothers and newborns, from admission for delivery to hospital discharge. The reference population consisted of normal risk pregnant women with singleton, at-term gestations in cephalic position, subdivided into primiparas and multiparas with prior uterine scar. Cost data were obtained from three public maternity hospitals (two in Rio de Janeiro, one in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil). Direct costs were identified with human resources, hospital inputs, and capital and administrative costs. Effectiveness measures were identified, based on the scientific literature. The study showed that vaginal delivery was more efficient for primiparas, at lower cost (BRL 1,709.58; USD 518.05) than cesarean (BRL 2,245.86; USD 680.56) and greater effectiveness for three of the four target outcomes. For multiparas with prior uterine scar, repeat cesarean was cost-effective for the outcomes averted maternal morbidity, averted uterine rupture, averted neonatal ICU, and averted neonatal death, but the result was not supported by probabilistic sensitivity analysis. For maternal death as the outcome, there was no difference in effectiveness, and labor showed the lowest cost. This study can contribute to the management of perinatal care, expanding measures that encourage adequate delivery according to the population's characteristics.


Resumen: El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar un análisis de costo-efectividad del parto vaginal espontáneo, comparado con la cesárea electiva, sin indicación clínica, para gestantes de riesgo habitual, bajo la perspectiva del Sistema Único de Salud. Un modelo de decisión analítico se desarrolló e incluyó la elección del tipo de parto y consecuencias clínicas para la madre y recién nacido, desde el internamiento para el parto hasta el alta hospitalaria. La población de referencia fueron gestantes de riesgo habitual, feto único, cefálico, a término, subdivididas en primíparas y multíparas, con una cicatriz uterina previa. Los datos de costos se obtuvieron de tres maternidades públicas, dos situadas en Río de Janeiro y una en Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Se identificaron costos directos con recursos humanos, insumos hospitalarios, costos de capital y administrativos. Las medidas de efectividad se identificaron en base a la literatura científica. El estudio evidenció que el parto vaginal es más eficiente para gestantes primíparas, con un menor costo (BRL 1.709,58) que la cesárea (BRL 2.245,86) y mejor efectividad para tres de los cuatro desenlaces evaluados. Para multíparas, con una cicatriz uterina previa, la cesárea de repetición fue costo-efectiva para los desenlaces de morbilidad materna evitada, rotura uterina evitada, internamiento en UTI neonatal evitado y óbito neonatal evitado, pero el resultado no fue apoyado por el análisis de sensibilidad probabilístico. Para el desenlace óbito materno no hubo diferencia de efectividad y el trabajo de parto se mostró con el menor coste. Este estudio puede contribuir a la gestión de la atención perinatal, ampliando medidas que estimulen el parto apropiado, de acuerdo con las características de la población.

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