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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736240


The Polycomb repressive complex 2 is an epigenetic writer and recruiter with a role in transcriptional silencing. Constitutional pathogenic variants in its component proteins have been found to cause two established overgrowth syndromes: Weaver syndrome (EZH2-related overgrowth) and Cohen-Gibson syndrome (EED-related overgrowth). Imagawa et al. (2017) initially reported a singleton female with a Weaver-like phenotype with a rare coding SUZ12 variant-the same group subsequently reported two additional affected patients. Here we describe a further 10 patients (from nine families) with rare heterozygous SUZ12 variants who present with a Weaver-like phenotype. We report four frameshift, two missense, one nonsense, and two splice site variants. The affected patients demonstrate variable pre- and postnatal overgrowth, dysmorphic features, musculoskeletal abnormalities and developmental delay/intellectual disability. Some patients have genitourinary and structural brain abnormalities, and there may be an association with respiratory issues. The addition of these 10 patients makes a compelling argument that rare pathogenic SUZ12 variants frequently cause overgrowth, physical abnormalities, and abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes in the heterozygous state. Pathogenic SUZ12 variants may be de novo or inherited, and are sometimes inherited from a mildly-affected parent. Larger samples sizes will be needed to elucidate whether one or more clinically-recognizable syndromes emerge from different variant subtypes.

Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 203-212, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612693


Using exome sequencing, we have identified de novo variants in MAPK8IP3 in 13 unrelated individuals presenting with an overlapping phenotype of mild to severe intellectual disability. The de novo variants comprise six missense variants, three of which are recurrent, and three truncating variants. Brain anomalies such as perisylvian polymicrogyria, cerebral or cerebellar atrophy, and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum were consistent among individuals harboring recurrent de novo missense variants. MAPK8IP3 has been shown to be involved in the retrograde axonal-transport machinery, but many of its specific functions are yet to be elucidated. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system to target six conserved amino acid positions in Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that two of the six investigated human alterations led to a significantly elevated density of axonal lysosomes, and five variants were associated with adverse locomotion. Reverse-engineering normalized the observed adverse effects back to wild-type levels. Combining genetic, phenotypic, and functional findings, as well as the significant enrichment of de novo variants in MAPK8IP3 within our total cohort of 27,232 individuals who underwent exome sequencing, we implicate de novo variants in MAPK8IP3 as a cause of a neurodevelopmental disorder with intellectual disability and variable brain anomalies.

Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/química , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adolescente , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Locomoção , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/química , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16161, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385778


Haploinsufficiency of Forkhead box protein P1 (FOXP1), a highly conserved transcription factor, leads to developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, speech delay, and dysmorphic features. Most of the reported FOXP1 mutations occur on the C-terminus of the protein and cluster around to the forkhead domain. All reported FOXP1 pathogenic variants result in abnormal cellular localization and loss of transcriptional repression activity of the protein product. Here we present three patients with the same FOXP1 mutation, c.1574G>A (p.R525Q), that results in the characteristic loss of transcription repression activity. This mutation, however, represents the first reported FOXP1 mutation that does not result in cytoplasmic or nuclear aggregation of the protein but maintains normal nuclear localization.

Am J Med Genet A ; 176(4): 969-972, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29446546


Myelin Regulatory Factor (MYRF) is a transcription factor that has previously been associated with the control of the expression of myelin-related genes. However, it is highly expressed in human tissues and mouse embryonic tissues outside the nervous system such as the stomach, lung, and small intestine. It has not previously been reported as a cause of any Mendelian disease. We report here two males with Scimitar syndrome [MIM 106700], and other features including penoscrotal hypospadias, cryptorchidism, pulmonary hypoplasia, tracheal anomalies, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, cleft spleen, thymic involution, and thyroid fibrosis. Gross neurologic functioning appears to be within normal limits. In both individuals a de novo variant in MYRF was identified using exome sequencing. Neither variant is found in gnomAD. Heterozygous variants in MYRF should be considered in patients with variants of Scimitar syndrome and urogenital anomalies.

Am J Med Genet A ; 176(4): 925-935, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29436146


SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by significant neurodevelopmental disabilities with limited to absent speech, behavioral issues, and craniofacial anomalies. Previous studies have largely been restricted to case reports and small series without in-depth phenotypic characterization or genotype-phenotype correlations. Seventy two study participants were identified as part of the SAS clinical registry. Individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of SAS were referred after clinical diagnostic testing. In this series we present the most comprehensive phenotypic and genotypic characterization of SAS to date, including prevalence of each clinical feature, neurodevelopmental milestones, and when available, patient management. We confirm that the most distinctive features are neurodevelopmental delay with invariably severely limited speech, abnormalities of the palate (cleft or high-arched), dental anomalies (crowding, macrodontia, abnormal shape), and behavioral issues with or without bone or brain anomalies. This comprehensive clinical characterization will help clinicians with the diagnosis, counseling and management of SAS and help provide families with anticipatory guidance.