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1.
Dalton Trans ; 49(19): 6407-6417, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352455

RESUMO

Nickel nanoclusters are very promising for catalysis-related applications, especially involving chemical reactions with polluting molecules, such as carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur monoxides, which are directly or indirectly involved in serious environmental pollution problems. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to improve the understanding of the interaction between Ni nanoclusters and diatomic molecules, such as CO, NO, and SO, to provide insights into real subnano catalysts. Thus, here, we report an ab initio investigation based on density functional theory calculations within van der Waals D3 corrections to investigate the adsorption properties of CO, NO, and SO on Ni nanoclusters. From energetic and electronic criteria applied to Nin nanoclusters (n = 2-15), we selected Ni6 (octahedron) and Ni10 (triangular pyramid) nanoclusters as supports. According to our analyses, the molecular adsorption increases the stability of Ni nanoclusters, especially for Ni6 systems. The interaction intensity is larger for SO than for NO and CO in adsorbed systems, and the strong OS-Ni interaction is responsible for the well-known sulfur poisoning on transition-metal systems. The lowest energy adsorption sites are onefold for CO/Ni6, NO/Ni6, and CO/Ni10; twofold for NO/Ni10; and threefold for SO/Ni6 and CO/Ni10, where CO and NO molecules sustain linear and perpendicular geometries, while SO geometry changes to a bent configuration resulting from a sideways adsorption. The equilibrium bond lengths of the molecules expand upon adsorption, from 0.9% (NO/Ni6/10) to 11.3% (SO/Ni6/10), consequently, the internal molecular bond strengths decrease, since there is a reduction in the molecular stretching frequencies. This result occurs most strongly for SO followed by NO and CO systems, which was confirmed by an estimation of the energetic contribution of the distortion after the adsorption process. Thus, the strong S-Ni interaction, given by SO chemisorption on hollow sites with a sideways interaction, implies an energetic decrease and, consequently, a part of the energy gained from the SO-Ni interaction is from the SO and nanocluster distortions. Ultimately, using the energy decomposition analysis (from SAPT0) for XO/Ni6 systems, we improved the understanding of the CO and NO (SO) singlet (doublet) spin multiplicities' interaction with Ni6 nanoclusters.

2.
J Chem Inf Model ; 60(2): 537-545, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917570

RESUMO

In this work, we report an ab initio investigation based on density functional theory calculations within van der Waals D3 corrections to investigate the adsorption properties and activation of CO2 on transition-metal (TM) 13-atom clusters (TM = Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag), which is a key step for the development of subnano catalysts for the conversion of CO2 to high-value products. From our analyses, which include calculations of several properties and the Spearman correlation analysis, we found that CO2 adopts two distinct structures on the selected TM13 clusters, namely, a bent CO2 configuration in which the OCO angle is about 125 to 150° (chemisorption), which is the lowest energy CO2/TM13 configuration for TM = Ru, Rh, Pd. As in the gas phase, the linear CO2 structure yields the lowest energy for CO2/Ag13 and several higher energy configurations for TM = Ru, Rh, Pd. The bent CO2 (activated) is driven by a chemisorption CO2-TM13 interaction due to the charge transfer from the TM13 clusters toward CO2, while a weak physisorption interaction is obtained for the linear CO2 on the TM13 clusters. Thus, the CO2 activation occurs only in the first case and it is driven by charge transfer from the TM13 clusters to the CO2 molecule (i.e., CO2-δ), which is confirmed by our Bader charge analysis and vibrational frequencies.

3.
Dalton Trans ; 49(2): 492-503, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834332

RESUMO

Knowledge about the appropriate indicators to point out the best components in a catalytic process is a basic prerequisite for obtaining insights into optimized reactions as, for example, in the chemical vapour deposition method, which enables the growth of carbon nanotubes. In this work, we report a density functional theory study of 13-atom transition-metal nanoclusters interacting with (5,0) zigzag and (3,3) armchair carbon nanotube fragments, considering all transition-metal species from the periodic table as possible candidates for the chemical vapour deposition method. The icosahedral configuration was found to be a good model to simulate the seed of nucleation in the case of the short carbon nanotube fragments that are initially formed during the growth process. From full geometric optimizations, without any constraints, we found that the energetic and structural nanocluster properties change as a function of the occupation of the bonding and anti-bonding d-states. The center of gravity of the occupied d-states for nanoclusters is found to be a good indicator to reveal the best candidates for the interaction with the carbon nanotubes, namely, Sc-Cu, Y-Nb, Pd, Lu, Hf, and Pt. The interaction between all transition-metal nanoclusters with both armchair and zigzag segments is favorable in terms of the adhesion energy, where the adhesion is larger for systems with smaller occupation of the d-states. The bond strength is more pronounced for systems with zigzag fragments than those with armchair fragments, which is confirmed by the smaller average bond length between the metal atoms of the nanocluster and the C atoms of the zigzag segment. Our prediction about the best 13-atom transition-metal candidates is reinforced by the linear relationship between the adhesion energy and the center of gravity of the occupied d-states. Thus, the adhesion energy presents increased intensity for the interaction between carbon nanotube fragments and nanoclusters in relation to the smaller occupation of the d-states. Consequently, our model is able to provide a good descriptor for indicating the best 13-atom transition-metal candidates in the chemical vapour deposition process.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(46): 29480-29492, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456409

RESUMO

The tetrairidium (Ir4) clusters are subnanometric systems vastly applied in catalysis, especially, because of the higher activity than mononuclear Ir complexes, intrinsic and controllable stability in relation to supports, and non-coalescence properties. The main catalytic properties of nanoclusters (activity and selectivity) are directly associated with their size, shape, and interactions with the environment, whose understanding requires study at the atomistic level. Here, the Ir4 clusters are studied considering the energetic stability for different chemical environments, bare versus protected, using density functional theory calculations within the generalized gradient approximation with van der Waals corrections and spin-orbit coupling, employing the all-electron projected augmented wave method. The square planar isomer is confirmed for the bare case as the lowest energy configuration considering semilocal and non-local exchange-correlation functionals, however, for different chemical environments (Ir4 protected by CO, O2, PH3, and SH2 ligands) the energy stability scenario is different; for CO, O2, and PH3 ligands the tetrahedron is the most stable isomer, in agreement with experimental insights, while for SH2 ligands the square motif is the most stable isomer. To improve the understanding of these systems, structural and electronic analysis were performed, in addition to energy decomposition analysis, to explore the bonding situation in Ir4 compounds. Our results showed an important relationship between the geometrical behavior and the nature and magnitude of Ir2Ir2 interactions, showing how the chemical environment affects the Ir4 nanoclusters. In general, the compounds with tetrahedron motifs showed a weakening of the σ and π bonds in relation to the square ones.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(23): 15484-15502, 2017 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28580970

RESUMO

Subnanometric transition-metal (TM) clusters have attracted great attention due to their unexpected physical and chemical properties, leastwise compared to their bulk counterparts. An in-depth understanding of the evolution of the properties as a function of the number of atoms for such systems is a basic prerequisite to leverage countless applications, from catalysis to magnetic storage, as well as to answer fundamental questions related to their intrinsic stability. Here, we reported a systematic density functional study to investigate the structural, electronic properties and stability of all TMn (30 elements) unary clusters as a function of the number of atoms (n = 2-15). We provided the complete structural patterns for all TM periodic table groups, considering the growth evolution as well as the main trends of the structural and electronic properties. The combination of the occupation of the bonding/anti-bonding d-states and the s-d hybridization is found to be the main stabilization mechanism, helping in the understanding of the structural patterns. Most TMn clusters have a magic number of atoms, for which there are peaks in s-d hybridization and null electric dipole moments. Thus, our extensive and comparative study addresses size effects along with the evolution of d-orbital occupation for the TMn gas-phase cluster properties.

6.
J Chem Phys ; 146(16): 164304, 2017 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28456198

RESUMO

Although several studies have been reported for Pt55 and Au55 nanoclusters, our atomistic understanding of the interplay between the adsorbate-surface interactions and the mechanisms that lead to the formation of the distorted reduced core (DRC) structures, instead of the icosahedron (ICO) structure in gas phase, is still far from satisfactory. Here, we report a density functional theory (DFT) investigation of the role of the adsorption effects of PH3 (one lone pair of electrons) and SH2 (two lone pairs) on the relative stability of the Pt55 and Au55 nanoclusters. In gas phase, we found that the DRC structures with 7 and 9 atoms in the core region are about 5.34 eV (Pt55) and 2.20 eV (Au55) lower in energy than the ICO model with Ih symmetry and 13 atoms in the core region. However, the stability of the ICO structure increases by increasing the number of adsorbed molecules from 1 to 18, in which both DRC and ICO structures are nearly degenerate in energy at the limit of 18 ligands, which can be explained as follows. In gas phase, there is a strong compression of the cationic core region by the anionic surface atoms induced by the attractive Coulomb interactions (core+-surface-), and hence, the strain release is obtained by reducing the number of atoms in the cationic core region, which leads to the 55 atoms distorted reduced core structures. Thus, the Coulomb interactions between the core+ and surface- contribute to break the symmetry in the ICO55 structure. On the other hand, the addition of ligands on the anionic surface reduces the charge transfer between the core and surface, which contributes to decrease the Coulomb interactions and the strain on the core region of the ICO structure, and hence, it stabilizes a compact ICO structure. The same conclusion is obtained by adding van der Waals corrections to the plain DFT calculations. Similar results are obtained by the addition of steric effects, which are considered through the adsorption of triphenylphosphine (PPh3) molecules on Au55, in which the relative stability between ICO and DRC is the same as for PH3 and SH2. However, for Pt55, we found an inversion of stability due to the PPh3 ligand effects, where ICO has higher stability than DRC by 2.40 eV. Our insights are supported by several structural, electronic, and energetic analyses.

7.
J Chem Phys ; 144(5): 054310, 2016 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26851924

RESUMO

Several studies have found that the Pt55 nanocluster adopts a distorted reduced core structure, DRC55, in which there are 8-11 atoms in the core and 47-44 atoms in the surface, instead of the compact and high-symmetry icosahedron structure, ICO55, with 13 and 42 atoms in the core and surface, respectively. The DRC structure has also been obtained as the putative global minimum configuration (GMC) for the Zn55 (3d), Cd55 (4d), and Au55 (5d) systems. Thus, the DRC55 structure has been reported only for systems with a large occupation of the d-states, where the effects of the occupation of the valence anti-bonding d-states might play an important role. Can we observe the DRC structure for 55-atom transition-metal systems with non-occupation of the anti-bonding d-states? To address this question, we performed a theoretical investigation of the Y 55, Zr55, Nb55, Mo55, Tc55, and Pt55 nanoclusters, employing density functional theory calculations. For the putative GMCs, we found that the Y 55 adopts the ICO55 structure, while Nb55 and Mo55 adopt a bulk-like fragment based on the hexagonal close-packed structure and Tc55 adopts a face-centered cubic fragment; however, Zr55 adopts a DRC55 structure, like Zn55, Cd55, Pt55, and Au55. Thus we can conclude that the preference for DRC55 structure is not related to the occupation of the anti-bonding d-states, but to a different effect, in fact, a combination of structural and electronic effects. Furthermore, we obtained that the binding energy per atom follows the occupation of the bonding and anti-bonding model, i.e., the stability of the studied systems increases from Y to Tc with a small oscillation for Mo, which also explains the equilibrium bond lengths. We obtained a larger magnetic moment for Y 55 (31 µB) which can be explained by the localization of the d-states in Y at nanoscale, which is not observed for the remaining systems (0-1 µB).

8.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(47): 11565-73, 2015 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26524466

RESUMO

We report a density functional theory investigation of the adsorption properties of CO, NO, and OH on the Cu13, Pt7Cu6, and Pt13 clusters in the cationic, neutral, and anionic states with the aim to improve our atomistic understanding of the adsorption properties on bimetallic clusters compared with monometallic clusters. The adsorption energy of CO and NO are substantially stronger on Pt13 than on Cu13, and hence, CO and NO bind preferentially on Pt sites on Pt7Cu6. Thus, it can contribute to drive the migration of the Pt atoms from the core to the surface region in large PtCu nanoalloys. The CO and NO adsorption energies on the bimetallic cluster are enhanced by a few percent compared with the energies of the monometallic clusters, which shows that the Pt-Cu interaction can contribute to an increase in the adsorption energy. In contrast with CO and NO trends, the OH adsorption energies on Cu13, Pt7Cu6, and Pt13 deviates only up to 0.31 eV, and hence, there is no clear preference for Cu or Pt sites on Pt7Cu6 or an enhancement of the adsorption energy on the bimetallic systems. We found a reduction of the CO and NO vibrational frequencies upon adsorption, which indicates a weakening of the CO and NO binding energies, and it is supported by a slight increase in the bond lengths. However, the OH vibrational frequency increases upon adsorption, which indicates an enhancement of the OH binding energy, which is supported by a slight decrease in the bond length by about 0.01 Å. It can be explained by the large charge transfer from the clusters to the O atom, which enhances the electrostatic interaction in the O-H bonding.

9.
J Phys Chem A ; 118(45): 10813-21, 2014 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25329243

RESUMO

In general, because of the high computational demand, most theoretical studies addressing cationic and anionic clusters assume structural relaxation from the ground state neutral geometries. Such approach has its limits as some clusters could undergo a drastic structural deformation upon gaining or losing one electron. By engaging symmetry-unrestricted density functional calculations with an extensive search among various structures for each size and state of charge, we addressed the investigation of the technologically relevant Cu(n) and Pt(n) clusters for n = 2-14 atoms in the cationic, neutral, and anionic states to analyze the behavior of the structural, electronic, and energetic properties as a function of size and charge state. Moreover, we considered potentially high-energy isomers allowing foresight comparison with experimental results. Considering fixed cluster sizes, we found that distinct charge states lead to different structural geometries, revealing a clear tendency of decreasing average coordination as the electron density is increased. This behavior prompts significant changes in all considered properties, namely, energy gaps between occupied and unoccupied states, magnetic moment, detachment energy, ionization potential, center of gravity and "bandwidth" of occupied d-states, stability function, binding energy, electric dipole moment and sd hybridization. Furthermore, we identified a strong correlation between magic Pt clusters with peaks in sd hybridization index, allowing us to conclude that sd hybridization is one of the mechanisms for stabilization for Pt(n) clusters. Our results form a well-established basis upon which a deeper understanding of the stability and reactivity of metal clusters can be built, as well as the possibility to tune and exploit cluster properties as a function of size and charge.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(38): 17242-8, 2011 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21879054

RESUMO

The crystalline structure of transition-metals (TM) has been widely known for several decades, however, our knowledge on the atomic structure of TM clusters is still far from satisfactory, which compromises an atomistic understanding of the reactivity of TM clusters. For example, almost all density functional theory (DFT) calculations for TM clusters have been based on local (local density approximation--LDA) and semilocal (generalized gradient approximation--GGA) exchange-correlation functionals, however, it is well known that plain DFT fails to correct the self-interaction error, which affects the properties of several systems. To improve our basic understanding of the atomic and electronic properties of TM clusters, we report a DFT study within two nonlocal functionals, namely, the hybrid HSE (Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof) and GGA+U functionals, of the structural and electronic properties of the Co(13), Rh(13), and Hf(13) clusters. For Co(13) and Rh(13), we found that improved exchange-correlation functionals decrease the stability of open structures such as the hexagonal bilayer (HBL) and double simple-cubic (DSC) compared with the compact icosahedron (ICO) structure, however, DFT-GGA, DFT-GGA+U, and DFT-HSE yield very similar results for Hf(13). Thus, our results suggest that the DSC structure obtained by several plain DFT calculations for Rh(13) can be improved by the use of improved functionals. Using the sd hybridization analysis, we found that a strong hybridization favors compact structures, and hence, a correct description of the sd hybridization is crucial for the relative energy stability. For example, the sd hybridization decreases for HBL and DSC and increases for ICO in the case of Co(13) and Rh(13), while for Hf(13), the sd hybridization decreases for all configurations, and hence, it does not affect the relative stability among open and compact configurations.


Assuntos
Cobalto/química , Háfnio/química , Ródio/química , Elétrons , Modelos Moleculares , Teoria Quântica
11.
J Chem Phys ; 134(13): 134105, 2011 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21476741

RESUMO

First-principles density-functional theory studies have reported open structures based on the formation of double simple-cubic (DSC) arrangements for Ru(13), Rh(13), Os(13), and Ir(13), which can be considered an unexpected result as those elements crystallize in compact bulk structures such as the face-centered cubic and hexagonal close-packed lattices. In this work, we investigated with the projected augmented wave method the dependence of the lowest-energy structure on the local and semilocal exchange-correlation (xc) energy functionals employed in density-functional theory. We found that the local-density approximation (LDA) and generalized-gradient formulations with different treatment of the electronic inhomogeneities (PBE, PBEsol, and AM05) confirm the DSC configuration as the lowest-energy structure for the studied TM(13) clusters. A good agreement in the relative total energies are obtained even for structures with small energy differences, e.g., 0.10 eV. The employed xc functionals yield the same total magnetic moment for a given structure, i.e., the differences in the bond lengths do not affect the moments, which can be attributed to the atomic character of those clusters. Thus, at least for those systems, the differences among the LDA, PBE, PBEsol, and AM05 functionals are not large enough to yield qualitatively different results.

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