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1.
Transfusion ; 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid (TXA) therapy is effective in reducing postoperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in total joint arthroplasty (TJA), yet uncertainty persists regarding comparative efficacy and safety among specific patient subgroups. We assessed the impact of a universal TXA protocol on RBC transfusion, postoperative hemoglobin (Hb), and adverse outcomes to determine whether TXA is safe and effective in TJA, both overall and in clinically relevant subgroups. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed on patients undergoing TJA at our institution spanning 1 year before and after the implementation of a universal protocol to administer intravenous (IV) TXA. The primary outcome was percentage of patients transfused, and secondary outcomes were perioperative Hb and occurrence of adverse events (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, seizure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, and acute kidney injury ). Outcomes were compared in pre- and post-protocol groups with χ2 analysis. Logistic regression compared risk of transfusion in pre- and post-protocol subgroups of patients with differing risk for transfusion (anemia, body mass index [BMI], and sex). RESULTS: No differences were found in baseline patient characteristics across pre- and post-protocol groups (n = 1084 and 912, respectively). TXA use increased from 32.3% to 92.2% while transfusion rates decreased from 10.3% to 4.8% (p < 0.001). Postoperative Day 3 Hb increased from 95.8 to 101.4 g/L (p < 0.001). Logistic regression demonstrated reduced transfusion in post-protocol subgroups regardless of sex, anemia, or BMI (p < 0.001). No increase in adverse events was observed (p = 0.8451). CONCLUSIONS: Universal TXA was associated with a reduction of RBC transfusion, overall and in clinically relevant subgroups, strengthening the rationale for universal therapy.

2.
Can J Anaesth ; 65(8): 901-913, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696581

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hemodilutional anemia is associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery by mechanisms that may include tissue hypoxia. Our hypothesis was to assess if changes in the potential hypoxic biomarkers, including methemoglobin and erythropoietin, correlated with a decrease in hemoglobin (Hb) concentration following hemodilution on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). METHODS: Arterial blood samples were taken from patients (n = 64) undergoing heart surgery and CPB at baseline, during CPB, following CPB, and in the intensive care unit (ICU). Potential hypoxic biomarkers were measured, including methemoglobin, plasma Hb, and erythropoietin. Data were analyzed by repeated measures one-way analysis of variance on ranks and linear regression. RESULTS: Hemoglobin levels decreased following CPB and methemoglobin increased in the ICU (P < 0.001 for both). No correlation was observed between the change in Hb and methemoglobin (P = 0.23). By contrast, reduced Hb on CPB correlated with increased lactate, reduced pH, and increased erythropoietin levels following CPB (P ≤ 0.004 for all). Increased plasma Hb (P < 0.001) also correlated with plasma erythropoietin levels (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: These data support the hypothesis that erythropoietin rather than methemoglobin is a potential biomarker of anemia-induced tissue hypoxia. The observed relationships between decreased Hb during CPB and the increase in lactate, reduced pH, and increase in erythropoietin levels suggest that early changes in plasma erythropoietin may be a pragmatic early biomarker of anemia-induced renal hypoxia. Further study is required to determine if anemia-induced increases in erythropoietin may predict AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01883713). Registered 21 June 2013.

3.
Can J Anaesth ; 62(11): 1179-87, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26335903

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tranexamic acid (TXA) therapy can reduce red blood cell (RBC) transfusion; however, this therapy remains underutilized in many surgical patient populations. We assessed whether implementation of a protocol to facilitate universal administration of TXA in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty would reduce the incidence of RBC transfusion without increasing adverse clinical outcomes. METHODS: We implemented a quality of care policy to provide universal administration of intravenous TXA at a dose of 20 mg·kg(-1) iv to all eligible patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty from October 21, 2013 to April 30, 2014. We compared data from an equal number of patients before and after protocol implementation (n = 422 per group). The primary outcome was RBC transfusion with secondary outcomes including postoperative hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and length of hospital stay. Adverse events were identified from the electronic medical records. Data were analyzed by a Chi square test and adjusted logistic and linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Implementation of the protocol resulted in an increase in TXA utilization from 45.8% to 95.3% [change 49.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 44.1 to 54.5; P < 0.001]. This change was associated with a reduction in the rate of RBC transfusion from 8.8% to 5.2%, (change -3.6%; 95% CI, -0.1 to -7.0; P = 0.043). Pre- and post-protocol mean [standard deviation (SD)] Hb values were similar, including the nadir Hb prior to RBC transfusion [72 (8) g·L(-1) vs 70 (8) g·L(-1), respectively; mean difference -1 g·L(-1); 95% CI, -3 to 5; P = 0.569]. Length of stay was not altered, and no increase in adverse events was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a perioperative TXA protocol was associated with both an increase in TXA use and a reduction in RBC transfusion following hip or knee arthroplasty. Adverse events and length of hospital stay were not influenced by the protocol.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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