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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627692

RESUMO

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) show an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and mortality. Many factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD in patients with T2DM. Among the factors involved, chronic hyperglycemia and the cluster of CVD risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity, play a major role. For many years, the control of hyperglycemia has been complicated by the fact that the use of many available drugs was associated with an increased risk of hypoglycemia. Paradoxically, hypoglycemia per se represents a risk factor for CVD. Recently, new drugs for the control of hyperglycemia have become available: many of them can determine a good control of hyperglycemia with minor risks of hypoglycemia. Among these new classes of drugs, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) offer many advantages. In addition to a strong anti-hyperglycemic action, they possess the ability to act on body weight and other relevant risk factors for CVD. Consistently, some of the GLP-1RAs have demonstrated, in RCT designed to assess their safety, to reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. Furthermore, GLP-1RAs possess properties useful to treat additional conditions, as the capability of improving liver damage in patients with NAFLD or NASH, highly prevalent conditions in people with T2DM. In this document, written by experts of the Italian diabetes society (SID), we will focus our attention on the therapy with GLP-1RAs in patients with T2DM, particularly on the effects on hyperglycemia, cardiovascular disease risk factors, NAFLD/NASH and CVD prevention.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a novel inflammatory biomarker strongly associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Our aim was to evaluate the role of NLR on pulse wave velocity (PWV) after adding-on proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor (PCSK9-i) in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) subjects with ASCVD. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this prospective observational study, we evaluated 45 FH subjects with ASCVD on high-intensity statins plus ezetimibe and with an off-target LDL-C. Study population was divided into two groups according to the mean value of NLR. All patients received PCSK9-i therapy and obtained biochemical analysis as well as PWV evaluation at baseline and after six months of PCSK9-i. After six months of add-on PCSK9-i therapy, a significant reduction of TC, LDL-C, Non-HDL-C, Lp(a) and ApoB plasma levels was observed in the two groups; while low-NLR group exhibited a significant PWV reduction after six-month therapy with PCSK9-i (Δ -16.2%, p < 0.05), no significant changes in PWV were observed in the high-NLR group. CONCLUSIONS: Only FH subjects with low-NLR experienced a significant reduction of PWV after PCSK9-i. Our findings suggest a role of NLR in predicting PCSK9-i effect in FH subjects with ASCVD.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High glomerular filtration rate (HGFR) is associated with cardiovascular damage in the setting of various conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Prediabetes was also associated with increased GFR, however, the association between prediabetes, HGFR and cardiovascular damage has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the association between HGFR and early markers of cardiovascular disease in subjects with prediabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Augmentation pressure (Aug), augmentation index (AIx), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), pulse wave velocity (PWV), intima-media thickness (IMT) and estimated GFR (eGFR) were evaluated in 230 subjects with prediabetes. The eGFR was assessed using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula. HGFR was defined as an eGFR above the 75th percentile. Prediabetic subjects were divided into two groups according to presence/absence of HGFR: 61 subjects with HGFR and 169 subjects without HGFR. Subjects with HGFR showed higher Aug, AIx and lower SEVR compared with prediabetic subjects with lower eGFR (14.1 ± 7.2 vs 10.8 ± 6.2, 32.9 ± 12.7 vs 27.6 ± 11.7, 153.5 ± 27.8 vs 162 ± 30.2, p < 0.05). No differences were found in PWV and IMT values between the two groups. Then, we performed multiple regression analysis to test the relationship between Aug, SEVR and several cardiovascular risk factors. In multiple regression analysis Aug was associated with age, systolic blood pressure (BP), HOMA-IR and eGFR; the major determinants of SEVR were systolic BP, HOMA-IR and eGFR. CONCLUSION: Subjects with prediabetes and HGFR exhibited an increased Aug, AIx and a reduced SEVR. These alterations are associated with eGFR, insulin resistance and systolic BP.

4.
Biomolecules ; 11(9)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572493

RESUMO

Hypoglycemia represents a dark and tormented side of diabetes mellitus therapy. Patients treated with insulin or drug inducing hypoglycemia, consider hypoglycemia as a harmful element, which leads to their resistance and lack of acceptance of the pathology and relative therapies. Severe hypoglycemia, in itself, is a risk for patients and relatives. The possibility to have novel strategies and scientific knowledge concerning hypoglycemia could represent an enormous benefit. Novel available glucagon formulations, even now, allow clinicians to deal with hypoglycemia differently with respect to past years. Novel scientific evidence leads to advances concerning physiopathological mechanisms that regulated glycemic homeostasis. In this review, we will try to show some of the important aspects of this field.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Coffee intake exerts protective effects against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), although without fully cleared mechanisms. In this study we aimed to assess whether coffee consumption may influence the expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the liver. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed a 12-week standard diet (SD), high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD plus decaffeinated coffee solution (HFD + coffee). Expression of specific lncRNAs involved in NAFLD was analyzed by real-time PCR. For the most differentially expressed lncRNAs, the analysis was also extended to their mRNA targets. RESULTS: Decaffeinated coffee intake reduced body weight gain, prevented NAFLD, lowered hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia. NAFLD was associated with lower hepatic expression of Gm16551, a lncRNA inhibiting de novo lipogenesis, and higher expression of H19, a lncRNA promoting fibrogenesis. Coffee intake restored Gm16551 to levels observed in lean mice and downregulated gene expression of its targets acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase 1 and stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1. Furthermore, coffee consumption markedly decreased hepatic expression of H19 and of its target gene collagen alpha-1(I) chain; consistently, in mice fed HFD + coffee liver expression of αSMA protein returned to levels of mice fed SD. Expression of lncRNA involved in circadian clock such as fatty liver-related lncRNA 1 (FLRL1) and fatty liver-related lncRNA 2 (FLRL2) were upregulated by HFD and were also modulated by coffee intake. CONCLUSION: Hepatoprotective effects of coffee may be depending on the modulation of lncRNAs involved in key pathways of NAFLD onset and progression.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199375

RESUMO

Elderly women exhibit a high risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but no definitive data exist about the possible role of postmenopausal increases in visceral adiposity, the loss of lean body mass, or decreases in the sum of the lean mass of arms and legs (appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM)). This retrospective, longitudinal study investigated whether body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis) predicted the development of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or T2D in a cohort of 159 elderly women (age: 71 ± 5 years, follow-up: 94 months) from southern Italy (Clinical Nutrition and Geriatric Units of the "Mater Domini" University Hospital in Catanzaro, Calabria region, and the "P. Giaccone "University Hospital in Palermo, Sicily region). Sarcopenia was defined in a subgroup of 128 women according to the EWGSOP criteria as the presence of low muscle strength (handgrip strength <16 kg) plus low muscle mass (reported as appendicular skeletal muscle mass <15 kg). Participants with a low ASMM had a higher IFG/T2D incidence than those with a normal ASMM (17% vs. 6%, p-adjusted = 0.044); this finding was independent of BMI, fat mass, waist circumference, and habitual fat intake (OR = 3.81, p = 0.034). A higher incidence of IFG/T2D was observed in the subgroup with sarcopenia than those without sarcopenia (33% vs. 7%, p-adjusted = 0.005) independent of BMI and fat mass (OR = 6.75, p = 0.007). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that elderly women with low ASMM had a higher probability of developing IFG/T2D. Further studies are needed to confirm these results in men and in other age groups.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Jejum , Glucose , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Itália , Estudos Longitudinais , Força Muscular , Doenças Musculares , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sicília
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206340

RESUMO

Intestinal organoids are used to analyze the differentiation of enteroendocrine cells (EECs) and to manipulate their density for treating type 2 diabetes. EEC differentiation is a continuous process tightly regulated in the gut by a complex regulatory network. However, the effect of chronic hyperglycemia, in the modulation of regulatory networks controlling identity and differentiation of EECs, has not been analyzed. This study aimed to investigate the effect of glucotoxicity on EEC differentiation in small intestinal organoid platforms. Mouse intestinal organoids were cultured in the presence/absence of high glucose concentrations (35 mM) for 48 h to mimic glucotoxicity. Chronic hyperglycemia impaired the expression of markers related to the differentiation of EEC progenitors (Ngn3) and L-cells (NeuroD1), and it also reduced the expression of Gcg and GLP-1 positive cell number. In addition, the expression of intestinal stem cell markers was reduced in organoids exposed to high glucose concentrations. Our data indicate that glucotoxicity impairs L-cell differentiation, which could be associated with decreased intestinal stem cell proliferative capacity. This study provides the identification of new targets involved in new molecular signaling mechanisms impaired by glucotoxicity that could be a useful tool for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Células Enteroendócrinas/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Organoides , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Células Enteroendócrinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Enteroendócrinas/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/toxicidade , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/fisiopatologia , Células L , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281247

RESUMO

Background: Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) lower LDL-cholesterol and slow atherosclerosis preventing cardiovascular events. While it is known that circulating PCSK9 enhances platelet activation (PA) and that PCSK9i reduce it, the underlying mechanism is not still clarified. Methods: In a multicenter before-after study in 80 heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) patients on treatment with maximum tolerated statin dose ± ezetimibe, PA, soluble-NOX2-derived peptide (sNOX2-dp), and oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL) were measured before and after six months of PCSK9i treatment. In vitro study investigates the effects of plasma from HeFH patients before and after PCK9i on PA in washed platelets (wPLTs) from healthy subjects. Results: Compared to baseline, PCSK9i reduced the serum levels of LDL-c, ox-LDL, Thromboxane (Tx) B2, sNOX2-dp, and PCSK9 (p < 0.001). The decrease of TxB2 correlates with that of ox-LDL, while ox-LDL reduction correlated with PCSK9 and sNOX2-dp delta. In vitro study demonstrated that wPLTs resuspended in plasma from HeFH after PCSK9i treatment induced lower PA and sNOX2-dp release than those obtained using plasma before PCSK9i treatment. This reduction was vanished by adding ox-LDL. ox-LDL-induced PA was blunted by CD36, LOX1, and NOX2 inhibition. Conclusions: PCSK9i treatment reduces PA modulating NOX2 activity and in turn ox-LDL formation in HeFH patients.


Assuntos
Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , LDL-Colesterol/análise , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Itália , Lipoproteínas LDL/análise , Lipoproteínas LDL/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NADPH Oxidase 2/análise , NADPH Oxidase 2/sangue , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética
9.
Acta Diabetol ; 58(7): 949-957, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745063

RESUMO

AIMS: Subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are characterized by an increased amount of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) that promotes a continuous inflammatory stimulus. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of PCSK9-i on inflammatory biomarkers, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, monocyte-to-high-density lipoprotein ratio (MHR), and on early atherosclerosis damage analyzed by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a cohort of FH subjects. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we evaluated 56 FH subjects on high-intensity statins plus ezetimibe and with an off-target LDL-C. All subjects were placed on PCSK9-i therapy and obtained biochemical analysis as well as PWV evaluation at baseline and after six months of PCSK9-i therapy. RESULTS: After six months of add-on PCSK9-i therapy, only 42.9% of FH subjects attained LDL-C targets. As expected, a significant reduction of LDL-C (- 49.61%, p < 0.001) was observed after PCSK9-i therapy. Neutrophil count (NC) and MHR were reduced by PCSK9-i (-13.82% and -10.47%, respectively, p value for both < 0.05) and PWV significantly decreased after PCSK9-i therapy (- 20.4%, p < 0.05). Finally, simple regression analyses showed that ∆ PWV was significantly associated with ∆ LDL-C (p < 0.01), ∆ NC and ∆ MHR (p value for both < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, PCSK9-i therapy significantly improved lipid and inflammatory profiles and PWV values in FH subjects; our results support the positive effect of PCSK9-i in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/fisiopatologia , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/efeitos dos fármacos , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ezetimiba/administração & dosagem , Ezetimiba/efeitos adversos , Ezetimiba/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Itália , Contagem de Leucócitos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Onda de Pulso
10.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(3): 869-879, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may be crucial in subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). We aimed to evaluate the effect of the inhibitors of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9-i) on steatosis biomarkers such as triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) and hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and analyse the role of TG/HDL in this population before and after adding-on PCSK9-i. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this observational study, we evaluated 26 genetically confirmed FH patients with NAFLD and an LDL-C off-target despite high-intensity statins plus ezetimibe. All patients added PCSK9-i treatment and obtained biochemical analysis and TyG and HSI evaluation at baseline and after six months of PCSK9-i. No difference of steatosis biomarkers was found after adding-on PCSK9-i therapy. In a secondary analysis, we divided the study population in two groups according to TG/HDL median value: high TG/HDL group (H-TG/HDL) and low TG/HDL group (L-TG/HDL). TyG and HSI were significantly lower in the L-TG/HDL than H-TG/HDL group (for TyG 9.05 ± 0.34 vs 9.51 ± 0.32; for HSI 38.43 ± 1.35 vs 41.35 ± 1.83, p value for both < 0.05). After six months of PCSK9-i therapy, TyG and HSI were significantly reduced in the L-TG/HDL group after PCSK9-i therapy (-7.5% and -8.4% respectively, p value for both < 0.05) and these biomarkers were lower compared to H-TG/HDL group (for TyG 8.37 ± 0.14 vs 9.19 ± 0.12; for HSI 35.19 ± 1.32 vs 39.48 ± 1.33, p value for both < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, PCSK9-i therapy significantly ameliorate steatosis biomarkers in FH patients with low TG/HDL; our results appear to be consistent with a beneficial role of PCSK9-i on steatosis biomarkers in FH subjects with NAFLD.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/complicações , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue
11.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 37(2): e3367, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558162

RESUMO

AIMS: We investigated the role of TG to HDL ratio (TG/HDL) on atherosclerosis extension, defined as presence of coronary artery calcium (CAC), carotid and femoral plaque, in prediabetes or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional, single centre study involving 440 prediabetes or newly diagnosed controlled T2D subjects. Participants underwent CAC analysis by computed tomography and carotid and femoral plaque evaluation by ultrasonography and were stratified in high TG/HDL (H-TG/HDL) or low TG/HDL (L-TG/HDL) group according to TG/HDL median value. We estimated atherosclerosis extension according to the number of involved vascular districts. RESULTS: CAC was higher in the H-TG/HDL group than L-TG/HDL group (29.15 [0.0-95.68] vs 0.0 [0.0-53.97] AU, P < .01) and CAC > 0 was more prevalent in the H-TG/HDL group than L-TG/HDL group (64.5% vs 45%, P < .001). Femoral atherosclerosis was higher in the H-TG/HDL group than L-TG/HDL group (57.3% vs 43.6%, P < .01). H-TG/HDL group exhibited a lower prevalence of subjects with 0-TWP compared to L-TG/HDL group (21.8% vs 38.6%, P < .01) and higher percentages of subjects with 2-TWP or 3-TWP than L-TG/HDL group (for 2-TWP 29.5% vs 21.5%, P < .05; for 3-TWP 32.7% vs 20.9%, P < .01). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that a H-TG/HDL was inversely associated to 0-TWP (P < .05) and positively associated with 2-TWP (P < .05) and 3-TWP (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that TG/HDL is a marker of increased atherosclerotic extension in prediabetes and newly diagnosed T2D and may be useful to identify subjects with a higher cardiovascular risk profile.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic degenerative disease with a median survival of 2-5 years after diagnosis. Therefore, IPF patient identification represents an important and challenging clinical issue. Current research is still searching for novel reliable non-invasive biomarkers. Therefore, we explored the potential use of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs as biomarkers for IPF. METHODS: We first performed a whole transcriptome analysis using microarray (n = 14: 7 Control, 7 IPF), followed by the validation of selected transcripts through qPCRs in an independent cohort of 95 subjects (n = 95: 45 Control, 50 IPF). Diagnostic performance and transcript correlation with functional/clinical data were also analyzed. RESULTS: 1059 differentially expressed transcripts were identified. We confirmed the downregulation of FOXF1 adjacent non-coding developmental regulatory RNA (FENDRR) lncRNA, hsa_circ_0001924 circularRNA, utrophin (UTRN) and Y-box binding protein 3 (YBX3) mRNAs. The two analyzed non-coding RNAs correlated with Forced Vital Capacity (FVC)% and Diffusing Capacity of the Lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO)% functional data, while coding RNAs correlated with smock exposure. All analyzed transcripts showed excellent performance in IPF identification with Area Under the Curve values above 0.87; the most outstanding one was YBX3: AUROC 0.944, CI 95% = 0.895-0.992, sensitivity = 90%, specificity = 88.9%, p-value = 1.02 × 10-13. CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified specific transcript signatures in IPF suggesting that validated transcripts and microarray data could be useful for the potential future identification of RNA molecules as non-invasive biomarkers for IPF.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico , RNA Longo não Codificante/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Masculino
14.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171638

RESUMO

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) subjects have high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and may be at high risk of erectile dysfunction and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the effect of PCSK9-i on sexual function evaluated by the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire (MSHQ) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire and on pulse wave velocity (PWV) in FH male subjects. In this prospective observational study, we evaluated 30 FH male patients on high-intensity statins plus ezetimibe and with an LDL-C off-target. All patients added PCSK9-i treatment and obtained clinical assessment at baseline and after six months of PCSK9-i. As expected, LDL-C significantly decreased after adding-on PCSK9-i (-48.73%, p < 0.001). MSHQ and PWV significantly improved after adding-on PCSK9-i (for MSHQ 93.63 ± 6.28 vs. 105.41 ± 5.86, p < 0.05; for PWV 9.86 ± 1.51 vs. 7.7 ± 1.42, p < 0.05); no significant change of IIEF-5 was found. Finally, a simple regression showed that ∆ MSHQ was significantly associated with ∆ LDL-C and ∆ PWV (p value for both <0.05). In conclusion, PCSK9-i therapy significantly improves lipid profile, PWV, and sexual function in FH male patients; our results support the favorable function of PCSK9-i on these parameters.

15.
Biomolecules ; 10(10)2020 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020399

RESUMO

The insulin resistance state of pancreatic α-cells seems to be related to glucagon hypersecretion in type 2 diabetes. Treatment that can improve the insulin sensitivity of α-cells could control glucagon levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive role of D-chiro-inositol (DCI), which has insulin receptor-sensitizer effects on insulin signaling pathways and glucagon secretion in pancreatic α-TC1 clone 6 cells. Cells were chronically treated with palmitate to induce insulin resistance in the presence/absence of DCI. DCI treatment improved the insulin signaling pathway and restored insulin-mediated glucagon suppression in α-TC1-6 cells exposed to palmitate. These results indicate that DCI treatment prevents the insulin resistance of α-TC1-6 cells chronically exposed to palmitate. Our data provide evidence that DCI could be useful to improve the insulin sensitivity of pancreatic α-cells in diabetes treatment.

16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114365

RESUMO

Thyroid cancer (TC) represents the most common malignancy of the endocrine system, with an increased incidence across continents attributable to both improvement of diagnostic procedures and environmental factors. Among the modifiable risk factors, insulin resistance might influence the development of TC. A relationship between circadian clock machinery disfunction and TC has recently been proposed. The circadian clock machinery comprises a set of rhythmically expressed genes responsible for circadian rhythms. Perturbation of this system contributes to the development of pathological states such as cancer. Several clock genes have been found deregulated upon thyroid nodule malignant transformation. The molecular mechanisms linking circadian clock disruption and TC are still unknown but could include insulin resistance. Circadian misalignment occurring during shift work, jet lag, high fat food intake, is associated with increased insulin resistance. This metabolic alteration, in turn, is associated with a well-known risk factor for TC i.e., hyperthyrotropinemia, which could also be induced by sleep disturbances. In this review, we describe the mechanisms controlling the circadian clock function and its involvement in the cell cycle, stemness and cancer. Moreover, we discuss the evidence supporting the link between circadian clockwork disruption and TC development/progression, highlighting its potential implications for TC prevention, diagnosis and therapy.

17.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(11): 1926-1936, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928628

RESUMO

AIMS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by an increased risk of developing long-term cardiovascular complications. Several underlying mechanisms have been proposed for the diabetes-related increase in cardiovascular risk, i.e. chronic hyperglycemia, duration of the disease, drug-induced hypoglycemia, coexistence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors, etc. In the last few years, new pharmacological approaches capable of treating chronic hyperglycemia without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia have emerged for the treatment of diabetes. DATA SYNTHESIS: With data mainly obtained from randomized controlled trials recruiting patients with type 2 diabetes in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, some of these newer antihyperglycemic drugs have shown to significantly reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, the combined control of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, e.g. dyslipidemia, hypertension, etc., has demonstrated to be effective in reducing the burden of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: In this document written by some experts of the Italian diabetes society (SID), we will focus our attention on oral antihyperglycemic agents for people with type 2 diabetes in primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, excluding for brevity the injection therapies for diabetes, such as insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Controle Glicêmico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Prevenção Primária , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Clin Lipidol ; 14(2): 231-240, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by increased cardiovascular risk; despite-high intensity statins, only few patients with FH achieve the recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of six-month add-on therapy with proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9-i) or ezetimibe on lipid profile and pulse wave velocity (PWV) in patients with FH. METHODS: In this observational study, we evaluated 98 genetically confirmed patients with FH with an LDL-C off-target despite high-intensity statins with or without ezetimibe; of these, 53 patients (statin plus ezetimibe) added PCSK9-i (PCSK9-i group) and 45 (statin only) added ezetimibe (EZE group) per applicable guidelines and reimbursement rules. All patients obtained biochemical analysis and PWV evaluation at baseline and after six months of optimized treatment. RESULTS: After 6 months of add-on therapy, most patients achieving LDL-C targets were in the PCSK9-i group (77.3% PCSK9-i group vs 37.8% EZE group, P < .001). The PCSK9-i group achieved both a greater LDL-C and PWV reduction than the EZE group [-51% vs -22.8%, P < .001 and -15% vs -8.5%, P < .01, respectively]. In a linear regression analysis, we showed a coefficient (r) of 0.334 for the relationship between ΔPWV and ΔLDL (P < .05); moreover, in an exploratory analysis, the relationship appeared to be stronger in patients with FH without cardiovascular events (r = 0.422, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Lipid and PWV profiles in patients with FH significantly improved after addition of PCSK9-i or ezetimibe to high-intensity statin therapy; moreover, ΔPWV was associated with ΔLDL. Our results are consistent with a beneficial role of these novel therapies in FH subjects.

20.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(6): 579-590, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546230

RESUMO

Objective: Statin therapy has been linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in high-risk populations; however, the pathophysiology of this association remains to be clarified. We investigated glucagon suppression and its relationship with insulin resistance in prediabetic subjects undergoing atorvastatin therapy; in addition, we studied molecular insulin signaling in pancreatic α-cells exposed to atorvastatin in vitro. Design and methods: Fifty subjects with prediabetes were divided into two groups based on atorvastatin therapy. All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Early (0-30 min), late (30-120 min) and overall (0-120 min) glucagon suppression were evaluated. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by the insulin sensitivity index (ISI0-120). Insulin signaling pathway and insulin-mediated glucagon suppression were investigated in pancreatic αTC1-6 cells chronically exposed (24 or 48 h) to atorvastatin (100 ng/mL). Results: Individuals on statin therapy (n = 26) showed a significantly reduced early (0-30 min) (P = 0.003) and overall (0-120 min) (P = 0.01) glucagon suppression compared with controls (n = 24). In multivariate regression analysis, early glucagon suppression (0-30 min) exhibited a significant correlation with statin therapy. Regression analysis showed a significant association between ISI 0-120 and early0-30 (r = 0.33, P < 0.05) and overall0-120 (r = 0.38, P < 0.05) glucagon suppression. Moreover, in αTC1-6 cells atorvastatin treatment affected insulin-mediated glucagon suppression, insulin receptor phosphorylation and IRS-1-AKT pathway signaling. Conclusions: Prediabetic patients undergoing statin therapy exhibit impaired glucagon suppression associated with lower insulin sensitivity. Our data revealed a new molecular aspect behind the deregulation of insulin sensitivity secondary to statin exposure.


Assuntos
Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Glucagon/sangue , Glucagon/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue
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