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1.
Fam Pract ; 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018438

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lung ultrasound (LUS) has become the first diagnostic imaging approach to assess lung involvement in COVID-19. While LUS proved to be safe, reliable, and accurate, not many primary care physicians (PCP) are capable to employ this instrument in the first evaluation of COVID-19 outpatients. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a brief training program in LUS for PCP. METHODS: Italian local authorities promoted a training program in LUS for PCP engaged in COVID-19 outpatients' evaluation. The course took place in a COVID-19 unit and included a hands-on practice on real COVID-19 patients. We conducted a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results of the training program. RESULTS: A total of 32 PCP completed the training. About 100% of participants reported an increase in competence and confidence in the use of LUS after the training. Self-reported confidence in detecting major COVID-19 LUS abnormalities was high (B-lines 8/10, pleural abnormalities 6.5/10). B-lines were accurately identified with a reliability of 81%, with a sensitivity of 96%, and a negative predictive value of 98%. Trainees were some less accurate in detecting pleural abnormalities (reliability 63%) but with a high specificity (99%). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that a short training program, but comprising a hands-on practice, is capable to bring even almost novices to achieve a high overall accuracy and reliability in detecting lung involvement in COVID-19. This may result in a significant improvement of the performances of PCP involved in the first evaluation of COVID-19 cases in primary care facilities.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(2)2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35053498

RESUMO

The American College of Radiology (ACR) released the Liver Imaging Report and Data System (LI-RADS) scheme, which categorizes hepatic nodules in risk classes from LR-1 to LR-5 (according to the degree of risk to be HCC) and LR-M (probable malignancy not specific for HCC). The aim of this study was to test whether HCC with different LR patterns on CEUS have different overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). We retrospectively enrolled 167 patients with the first definitive diagnosis of single HCC (by using CT/MRI or histological techniques if CT/MRI were inconclusive) for whom CEUS examination was available. The median size of HCC lesions was 2.2 cm (range 1.0-7.2 cm). According to CEUS LI-RADS classification, 28 patients were in LR-3, 48 in LR-4, 83 in LR-5, and 8 in LR-M. Patient liver function and nodule characteristics were not statistically different between CEUS LI-RADS classes. Using univariate analysis, CEUS LI-RADS class was not found to be a predictor of survival (p = 0.347). In conclusion, HCC showing the CEUS LI-RADS classes LR-3 and LR-4 have no better clinical outcome than typical HCC. Such data support the EASL policy, aimed at conclusive diagnostic investigations of indeterminate nodules up to obtaining histological proof to avoid leaving aggressive HCC not timely treated.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(24)2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944996

RESUMO

Case-control observational studies suggested that aspirin might prevent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in high-risk patients, even if randomized clinical trials are lacking. Information regarding aspirin in subjects who already developed HCC, especially in its advanced stage, are scarce. While aspirin might be a low-cost option to improve the prognosis, multiple confounders and safety concerns are to be considered. In our retrospective analyses of a prospective dataset (n = 699), after assessing the factors associated with aspirin prescription, we applied an inverse probability treatment weight analysis to address the prescription bias. Analyses of post-sorafenib survival were also performed to reduce the influence of subsequent medications. Among the study population, 133 (19%) patients were receiving aspirin at the time of sorafenib prescription. Aspirin users had a higher platelet count and a lower prevalence of esophageal varices, macrovascular invasion, and Child-Pugh B status. The benefit of aspirin was confirmed in terms of overall survival (HR 0.702, 95% CI 0.543-0.908), progression-free survival, disease control rate (58.6 vs. 49.5%, p < 0.001), and post-sorafenib survival even after weighting. Minor bleeding events were more frequent in the aspirin group. Aspirin use was associated with better outcomes, even after the correction for confounders. While safety concerns arguably remain a problem, prospective trials for patients at low risk of bleeding are warranted.

5.
Gut ; 2021 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) represents a new inclusive definition of the whole spectrum of liver diseases associated to metabolic disorders. The main objective of this study was to compare patients with MAFLD and non-MAFLD with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) included in a nationally representative cohort. METHODS: We analysed 6882 consecutive patients with HCC enrolled from 2002 to 2019 by 23 Italian Liver Cancer centres to compare epidemiological and future trends in three subgroups: pure, single aetiology MAFLD (S-MAFLD); mixed aetiology MAFLD (metabolic and others, M-MAFLD); and non-MAFLD HCC. RESULTS: MAFLD was diagnosed in the majority of patients with HCC (68.4%). The proportion of both total MAFLD and S-MAFLD HCC significantly increased over time (from 50.4% and 3.6% in 2002-2003, to 77.3% and 28.9% in 2018-2019, respectively, p<0.001). In Italy S-MAFLD HCC is expected to overcome M-MAFLD HCC in about 6 years. Patients with S-MAFLD HCC were older, more frequently men and less frequently cirrhotic with clinically relevant portal hypertension and a surveillance-related diagnosis. They had more frequently large tumours and extrahepatic metastases. After weighting, and compared with patients with non-MAFLD, S-MAFLD and M-MAFLD HCC showed a significantly lower overall (p=0.026, p=0.004) and HCC-related (p<0.001, for both) risk of death. Patients with S-MAFLD HCC showed a significantly higher risk of non-HCC-related death (p=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of MAFLD HCC in Italy is rapidly increasing to cover the majority of patients with HCC. Despite a less favourable cancer stage at diagnosis, patients with MAFLD HCC have a lower risk of HCC-related death, suggesting reduced cancer aggressiveness.

6.
Liver Int ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is the second most frequent liver cancer. The overall survival of iCCA and other biliary tract cancers (BTC) remains poor. Recently, the ABC-06 trial reported the superiority of FOLFOX vs clinical observation as a second-line treatment. Still, the survival benefit was less than expected. We hypothesized that the pattern of progression of iCCA can drive post-progression survival (PPS), similar to hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: Multicentre retrospective evaluation of consecutive iCCA patients who progressed after frontline systemic treatment with gemcitabine as monotherapy or in combination with platinum. Radiological assessment of progression was evaluated according to RECIST 1.1. The progression pattern was divided according to the presence/absence of new extrahepatic lesions (NEH). RESULTS: We included 206 patients from 5 centres. The median OS was 14.1 months and its independent predictors (hazard ratio [HR], 95% confidence interval [CI]) were previous surgery 0.699 [0.509-0.961], performance status >2.445 [1.788-3.344], permanent first-line discontinuation 16.072 [5.102-50.633], registration of ascites 2.226 [1.448-3.420] or bilirubin >3 mg/dl 3.004 [1.935-4.664] during the follow-up, and disease progression 2.523 [1.261-5.050]. The appearance of NEH independently predicted OS 2.18 [1.55-3.06] in patients with radiological progression. Amongst 138 patients eligible for second-line treatment, PPS was 16.8 and 5.9 months in cases without and with NEH, respectively (P = .001). Progression owing to NEH lesions was an independent predictor of PPS 1.873 [1.333-2.662], together with performance status, time to progression to the frontline treatment, bilirubin >3 mg/dl and ascites. CONCLUSIONS: PPS of iCCA is influenced by progression pattern, with important implications for second-line trial design and analysis.

7.
J Hepatol ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793869

RESUMO

Any oncological treatment must aim at maximizing patient survival with the best quality of life and not merely at eliminating the tumor. Since the liver has a vital function, any radical treatment severely compromising liver function will result in a shortening of life expectancy, rather than a prolongation. Furthermore, even non-severe liver damage may imply the risk of impeding the opportunity to receive further effective therapies. This is particularly important in the case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), since this tumor is associated with underlying cirrhosis in the majority of patients, and cirrhosis itself is not only a potentially lethal disease and independent prognostic factor in HCC, but it also makes liver function fragile. Accordingly, some information about liver dysfunction is included in most staging systems for HCC, in an attempt to suggest treatments that the functional liver reserve can adequately tolerate. Unfortunately, the prediction of functional liver damage in the case of antitumor treatments is very challenging and still suboptimal in any given specific patient. Moreover, while the assessment of the functional reserve has been sufficiently elucidated in the surgical setting to avoid postoperative liver failure, it has instead been less clarified for non-surgical therapies, despite the fact that this aspect appears to have become of particular relevance today, when several lines of effective non-surgical treatments, including systemic therapies, have become available. The present article will a) critically review the implications of the assessment of liver functional reserve in patients with HCC, b) illustrate the different available tools to assess the liver functional reserve and c) discuss the role of functional assessment in the setting of each type of non-surgical therapy for HCC.

8.
Radiology ; : 211244, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783596

RESUMO

Background The Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) assigns a risk category for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to imaging observations. Establishing the contributions of major features can inform the diagnostic algorithm. Purpose To perform a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis to establish the probability of HCC for each LI-RADS major feature using CT/MRI and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) LI-RADS in patients at high risk for HCC. Materials and Methods Multiple databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus) were searched for studies from January 2014 to September 2019 that evaluated the accuracy of CT, MRI, and CEUS for HCC detection using LI-RADS (CT/MRI LI-RADS, versions 2014, 2017, and 2018; CEUS LI-RADS, versions 2016 and 2017). Data were centralized. Clustering was addressed at the study and patient levels using mixed models. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were determined for each major feature using multivariable stepwise logistic regression. Risk of bias was assessed using Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) (PROSPERO protocol: CRD42020164486). Results A total of 32 studies were included, with 1170 CT observations, 3341 MRI observations, and 853 CEUS observations. At multivariable analysis of CT/MRI LI-RADS, all major features were associated with HCC, except threshold growth (OR, 1.6; 95% CI: 0.7, 3.6; P = .07). Nonperipheral washout (OR, 13.2; 95% CI: 9.0, 19.2; P = .01) and nonrim arterial phase hyperenhancement (APHE) (OR, 10.3; 95% CI: 6.7, 15.6; P = .01) had stronger associations with HCC than enhancing capsule (OR, 2.4; 95% CI: 1.7, 3.5; P = .03). On CEUS images, APHE (OR, 7.3; 95% CI: 4.6, 11.5; P = .01), late and mild washout (OR, 4.1; 95% CI: 2.6, 6.6; P = .01), and size of at least 20 mm (OR, 1.6; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.5; P = .04) were associated with HCC. Twenty-five studies (78%) had high risk of bias due to reporting ambiguity or study design flaws. Conclusion Most Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System major features had different independent associations with hepatocellular carcinoma; for CT/MRI, arterial phase hyperenhancement and washout had the strongest associations, whereas threshold growth had no association. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

9.
J Pers Med ; 11(10)2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683182

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to correlate laboratory data and postprocedural parameters after conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with the radiological response. The study consisted of a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from 70 consecutive patients who underwent cTACE. Laboratory parameters were assessed daily after cTACE and compared to pretreatment values. Post-treatment radiological response was assessed using mRECIST at one month from cTACE, and factors associated with treatment response (complete and objective response) were assessed by logistic regression analysis. The optimal cutoff points in predicting the complete response of target lesions were a 52% ALT and a 46% AST increase after cTACE compared to the pre-treatment values. Using multivariate analyses, >46% AST and >52% ALT increases with respect to the pre-treatment value were significantly correlated with the objective response (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively) and the complete response (p = 0.02 and p = 0.02, respectively). No patients experienced liver function deterioration after cTACE, and no specific treatment was required. This study showed that post-treatment transient transaminase elevation was predictive of objective response to superselective cTACE in clinical practice, representing a simple tool to guide treatment strategy of HCC patients in a tailored approach.

10.
J Clin Med ; 10(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361985

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are the new frontier for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Since the first trial with tremelimumab, a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 inhibitor, increasing evidence has confirmed that these drugs can significantly extend the survival of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As a matter of fact, the overall survival and objective response rates reported in patients with advanced HCC treated with ICIs are the highest ever reported in the second-line setting and, most recently, the combination of the anti-programmed death ligand protein-1 atezolizumab with bevacizumab-an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody-demonstrated superiority to sorafenib in a Phase III randomized clinical trial. Therefore, this regimen has been approved in several countries as first-line treatment for advanced HCC and is soon expected to be widely used in clinical practice. However, despite the promising results of trials exploring ICIs alone or in combination with other agents, there are still some critical issues to deal with to optimize the prognosis of advanced HCC patients. For instance, the actual proportion of patients who are deemed eligible for ICIs in the real-life ranges from 10% to 20% in the first-line setting, and is even lower in the second-line scenario. Moreover, long-term data regarding the safety of ICIs in the population of patients with cirrhosis and impaired liver function are lacking. Lastly, no biomarkers have been identified to predict response, and thus to help clinicians to individually tailor treatment. This review aimed to summarize the state of the art immunotherapy in HCC and, by analyzing a large, multicenter cohort of Italian patients with HCC, to assess the potential applicability of the combination of atezolizumab/bevacizumab in the real-life setting.

11.
Liver Cancer ; 10(4): 370-379, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414124

RESUMO

Introduction: Cabozantinib has been approved by the European Medicine Agency (EMA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) previously treated with sorafenib. Cabozantinib is also being tested in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors in the frontline setting. Real-life clinical data of cabozantinib for HCC are still lacking. Moreover, the prognostic factors for HCC treated with cabozantinib have not been investigated. Methods: We evaluated clinical data and outcome of HCC patients who received cabozantinib in the legal context of named patient use in Italy. Results: Ninety-six patients from 15 centres received cabozantinib. All patients had preserved liver function (Child-Pugh A), mostly with an advanced HCC (77.1%) in a third-line setting (75.0%). The prevalence of performance status (PS) > 0, macrovascular invasion (MVI), extrahepatic spread, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) >400 ng/mL was 50.0, 30.2, 67.7, and 44.8%, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival were 12.1 (95% confidence interval 9.4-14.8) and 5.1 (3.3-6.9) months, respectively. Most common treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were fatigue (67.7%), diarrhoea (54.2%), anorexia (45.8%), HFSR (43.8%), weight loss (24.0%), and hypertension (24.0%). Most common treatment-related Grade 3-4 AEs were fatigue (6.3%), HFSR (6.3%), and increased aminotransferases (6.3%). MVI, ECOG-PS > 0, and AFP >400 ng/mL predicted a worse OS. Discontinuation for intolerance and no new extrahepatic lesions at the progression were associated with better outcomes. Conclusions: In a real-life Western scenario (mostly in a third-line setting), cabozantinib efficacy and safety data were comparable with those reported in its registration trial. Data regarding the prognostic factors might help in patient selection and design of clinical trials.

13.
J Hepatocell Carcinoma ; 8: 741-757, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239844

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Sorafenib is the first multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for HCC and it has represented the standard of care for advanced HCC for almost 10 years, offering a survival benefit when compared to placebo. However, this benefit is limited, showing rare objective responses and a disease control rate approaching 50-60%, with most patients experiencing disease progression at 6 months. These scant results dictate the urgent need for strategies to overcome both primary and acquired resistance. Herein we report several mechanisms supporting resistance to sorafenib in HCC patients, including activation of oncogenic pathways. Among these, the AKT/mTOR pathway plays a crucial role being at the crossroad of multiple driving events. Autophagy, multidrug-resistant phenotype, hypoxia-related mechanisms and endoplasmic reticulum stress are gaining more and more relevance as crucial events driving the response to anticancer drugs, including sorafenib. Several HCC-specific miRNAs take part to the regulation of these cellular processes. Remarkably, molecularly targeted strategies able to overcome resistance in these settings have also been reported. So far, the vast majority of data has been derived from laboratory studies, which means the need for an extensive validation. Indeed, most of the possible drug associations displaying promising effects in improving sorafenib efficacy herein described derive from preclinical explorations. Notably, data obtained in animal models can be inconsistent with regard to the human disease for efficacy, safety, side effects, best formulation and pharmacokinetics. However, they represent the necessary preliminary step to improve the management of advanced HCC.

14.
Dig Liver Dis ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266794

RESUMO

The integration of human and artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine has only recently begun but it has already become obvious that intelligent systems can dramatically improve the management of liver diseases. Big data made it possible to envisage transformative developments of the use of AI for diagnosing, predicting prognosis and treating liver diseases, but there is still a lot of work to do. If we want to achieve the 21st century digital revolution, there is an urgent need for specific national and international rules, and to adhere to bioethical parameters when collecting data. Avoiding misleading results is essential for the effective use of AI. A crucial question is whether it is possible to sustain, technically and morally, the process of integration between man and machine. We present a systematic review on the applications of AI to hepatology, highlighting the current challenges and crucial issues related to the use of such technologies.

15.
Liver Int ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lenvatinib is a standard of care option in first-line therapy of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we aim to identify, in patients with HCC treated with lenvatinib, a possible association between occurrence and grading of adverse events (AEs) and outcome. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 606 Japanese and Italian patients treated with lenvatinib in first-line setting and investigated the possible correlation between the onset of AEs, toxicity grade (G) and outcome measures such as overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: The appearance of arterial hypertension G ≥ 2 independently predicted prolonged OS [hazard ratio (HR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46-0.93, P = .0188], whereas decreased appetite G ≥ 2 independently predicted decreased OS (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.25-2.32, P = .0007) by multivariate analysis. Appearance of hand-foot skin reaction independently predicted prolonged PFS (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.93, P = .0149), whereas decreased appetite G ≥ 2 predicted decreased PFS (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.04-1.77, P = .0277). CONCLUSIONS: Our main findings are that the occurrence of arterial hypertension G ≥ 2 is a predictor of longer survival, whereas decreased appetite G ≥ 2 predicts for a poor prognosis. A careful management of AEs under lenvatinib treatment for HCC is required, to improve patients' quality of life, minimize the need for treatment discontinuation and achieve optimal outcome.

16.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 47(10): 2803-2820, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284932

RESUMO

New ultrasound methods that can be used to quantitatively assess liver fat content have recently been developed. These quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods are based on the analysis of radiofrequency echoes detected by the transducer, allowing calculation of parameters for quantifying the fat in the liver. In this position paper, after a section dedicated to the importance of quantifying liver steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and another section dedicated to the assessment of liver fat with magnetic resonance, the current clinical studies performed using QUS are summarized. These new methods include spectral-based techniques and techniques based on envelope statistics. The spectral-based techniques that have been used in clinical studies are those estimating the attenuation coefficient and those estimating the backscatter coefficient. Clinical studies that have used tools based on the envelope statistics of the backscattered ultrasound are those performed by using the acoustic structure quantification or other parameters derived from it, such as the normalized local variance, and that performed by estimating the speed of sound. Experts' opinions are reported.

17.
Semin Liver Dis ; 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298576

RESUMO

The American College of Radiology has released the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) scheme which categorizes focal liver lesions (FLLs) in patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to the degree of risk of nodules to be HCC. It subgroups FLL in LR-1 (definitely benign), LR-2 (probably benign), LR-3 (intermediate probability of malignancy), LR-4 (probably HCC), LR-5 (definitely HCC), and LR-M (probable malignancy not specific for HCC). Computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) LI-RADS diagnostic algorithm have the goal to standardize the acquisition, interpretation, reporting, and data collection for imaging examinations in patients at risk for HCC. Nevertheless, there remain controversial issues that should be dealt with. The aim of this review is to discuss the pros and cons of the interpretation and reporting part of CT/MRI and CEUS LI-RADS diagnostic algorithm to permit future refinements of the scheme and optimize patient and nodule management.

18.
J Hepatocell Carcinoma ; 8: 477-492, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079777

RESUMO

Regorafenib was the first drug to demonstrate a survival benefit as a second-line agent after sorafenib failure in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent studies have shown that its mechanism of action is not only limited to its very broad spectrum of inhibition of angiogenesis, tumor proliferation, spread, and metastasis, but also to its immunomodulatory properties that have favorable effects on the very intricate role that the tumor microenvironment plays in carcinogenesis and tumor growth. In this review, we discuss rationale and evidence supporting regorafenib efficacy in HCC and that led to its approval as a second-line treatment, after sorafenib failure. We also discuss the evidence from clinical practice studies that confirm the results previously achieved in clinical trials. Finally, we analyze the potential role of regorafenib in emerging combined treatment approach with immunotherapy strategies using immune checkpoint blockade and its potential extension to patient categories not included in the registrative study.

19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(17): 4848-4858, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108184

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In REFLECT, lenvatinib demonstrated an effect on overall survival (OS) by confirmation of noninferiority to sorafenib in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. This analysis assessed correlations between serum or tissue biomarkers and efficacy outcomes from REFLECT. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Serum biomarkers (VEGF, ANG2, FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23) were measured by ELISA. Gene expression in tumor tissues was measured by the nCounter PanCancer Pathways Panel. Pharmacodynamic changes in serum biomarker levels from baseline, and associations of clinical outcomes with baseline biomarker levels, were evaluated. RESULTS: Four hundred and seven patients were included in the serum analysis set (lenvatinib n = 279, sorafenib n = 128); 58 patients were included in the gene-expression analysis set (lenvatinib n = 34, sorafenib n = 24). Both treatments were associated with increases in VEGF; only lenvatinib was associated with increases in FGF19 and FGF23 at all time points. Lenvatinib-treated responders had greater increases in FGF19 and FGF23 versus nonresponders at cycle 4, day 1 (FGF19: 55.2% vs. 18.3%, P = 0.014; FGF23: 48.4% vs. 16.4%, P = 0.0022, respectively). Higher baseline VEGF, ANG2, and FGF21 correlated with shorter OS in both treatment groups. OS was longer for lenvatinib than sorafenib [median, 10.9 vs. 6.8 months, respectively; HR, 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.33-0.85; P-interaction = 0.0397] with higher baseline FGF21. In tumor tissue biomarker analysis, VEGF/FGF-enriched groups showed improved OS with lenvatinib versus the intermediate VEGF/FGF group (HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16-0.91; P = 0.0253). CONCLUSIONS: Higher baseline levels of VEGF, FGF21, and ANG2 may be prognostic for shorter OS. Higher baseline FGF21 may be predictive for longer OS with lenvatinib compared with sorafenib, but this needs confirmation.

20.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 14: 17562848211016959, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104211

RESUMO

Regorafenib is a diphenylurea oral multikinase inhibitor, structurally comparable to sorafenib, which targets a variety of kinases implicated in angiogenic and tumor growth-promoting pathways. Regorafenib was the first agent to positively show significant survival advantage as a second-line therapy in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had previously failed first-line treatment with sorafenib. Recent evidence has shown that its antitumor efficacy is due to a comprehensive spectrum of tumor neo-angiogenesis and proliferation inhibition and immunomodulatory effects on the tumor microenvironment, which plays a crucial role in tumor development. This review addresses the rationale and supporting evidence for regorafenib's efficacy in HCC that led to regorafenib's approval as a second-line therapy. In addition, we review proof from clinical practice studies that validate the RESORCE trial results. We discuss regorafenib's potential role in the newly emerging therapeutic strategy based on combination with immune checkpoint blockade and its possible extensibility to patient categories not enrolled in the registrative study.

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