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1.
Age Ageing ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frail older persons may have an atypical presentation of COVID-19. The value of rRT-PCR testing for identifying SARS-CoV-2 nursing homes (NH) residents is not known. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether (i) atypical symptoms may predict rRT-PCR results and (ii) rRT-PCR results may predict immunization against SARS-CoV-2 in NH residents. DESIGN: A retrospective longitudinal study. SETTING: eight NHs with at least ten rRT-PCR-positive residents. SUBJECTS: 456 residents. METHODS: Typical and atypical symptoms recorded in residents' files during the 14 days before and after rRT-PCR testing were analyzed. Residents underwent blood testing for IgG-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein 6 to 8 weeks after testing. Univariate and multivariate analyses compared symptoms and immunization rates in rRT-PCR-positive and negative residents. RESULTS: 161 residents had a positive rRT-PCR (35.3%), 17.4% of whom were asymptomatic before testing. Temperature > 37.8°C, oxygen saturation < 90%, unexplained anorexia, behavioural change, exhaustion, malaise, and falls before testing were independent predictors of a further positive rRT-PCR. Among the rRT-PCR-positive residents, 95.2% developed SARS-CoV-2 antibodies vs 7.6% in the rRT-PCR-negative residents. Among the residents with a negative rRT-PCR, those who developed SARS-CoV-2 antibodies more often had typical or atypical symptoms (p = 0.02 and < 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study supports a strategy based on (i) testing residents with typical or unexplained atypical symptoms for an early identification of the first SARS-CoV-2 cases, (ii) rT-PCR testing for identifying COVID-19 residents, (iii) repeated wide-facility testing (including asymptomatic cases) as soon as a resident is tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and (iv) implementing SARS-CoV-2 infection control measures in rRT-PCR-negative residents when they have unexplained typical or atypical symptoms.

2.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554363

RESUMO

The implementation of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) may enhance the efficiency of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing, as RDTs are widely accessible and easy to use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a diagnosis strategy based on a combination of antigen and immunoglobulin M (IgM) or immunoglobulin G (IgG) serological RDTs. Plasma and nasopharyngeal samples were collected between 14 March and 11 April 2020 at hospital admission from 45 patients with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed COVID-19 and 20 negative controls. SARS-CoV-2 antigen (Ag) was assessed in nasopharyngeal swabs using the Coris Respi-Strip. For IgM/IgG detection, SureScreen Diagnostics and Szybio Biotech RDTs were used in addition to laboratory assays (Abbott Alinity i SARS-CoV-2 IgG and Theradiag COVID-19 IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Using the Ag RDT, 13 out of 45 (29.0%) specimens tested positive, the sensitivity was 87.0% for cycle threshold (Ct ) values ≤25% and 0% for Ct values greater than 25. IgG detection was associated with high Ct values and the amount of time after the onset of symptoms. The profile of isolated IgM on RDTs was more frequently observed during the first and second week after the onset of symptoms. The combination of Ag and IgM/IgG RDTs enabled the detection of up to 84.0% of COVID-19 confirmed cases at hospital admission. Antigen and antibody-based RDTs showed suboptimal performances when used alone. However when used in combination, they are able to identify most COVID-19 patients admitted in an emergency department.

3.
Sex Transm Infect ; 97(2): 134-140, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397802

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In 2017, to reduce the proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) in the undiagnosed HIV population in France (38%), HIV screening is advised each 3 months and STI screening is advised each year in multipartner MSM. Despite the range of testing solutions, over 40% of MSM were not tested for HIV and over 50% for STIs in the past year. Based on international experiments that offer screening solutions via online advertising, the French National Health Agency launched a programme (MemoDepistages) to provide a free self-sampling kit (SSK) for HIV and STIs. This article analyses the sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics of MSM in terms of kit acceptance and sample return. METHODS: Participants were registered for the programme online after ordering an SSK. The study included men aged over 18 years, living in one of the four selected French regions, and willing to disclose their postal and email address; they had health insurance, acknowledged more than one male partner in the past year, indicated a seronegative or unknown HIV status and were not taking medically prescribed pre-exposure prophylaxis drugs. Samples were collected by users and posted directly to the laboratory. Characteristics associated with kit acceptance and sample return were analysed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 7158 eligible MSM were offered to participate in the programme, with 3428 ordering the kit (47.9%) and 1948 returning their sample, leading to a return rate of 56.8% and an overall participation rate of 27.2%. Acceptance and return rates were strongly associated with sociodemographic characteristics, mainly education level but not with behavioural characteristics. Non-college graduates had lower acceptance (44.2%) and return rates (47.7%). CONCLUSION: The programme rapidly recruited a large number of MSM. It removed geographical inequalities related to screening access.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206973

RESUMO

We assessed the expression of CD169, a type I interferon-inducible receptor, on monocytes (mCD169) in 53 adult patients admitted to the hospital during the COVID-19 outbreak for a suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. mCD169 was strongly overexpressed in 30 out of 32 (93.7%) confirmed COVID-19 cases, compared to three out of 21 (14.3%) patients in whom the diagnosis of COVID-19 was finally ruled out. mCD169 was associated with the plasma interferon alpha level and thrombocytopenia. mCD169 testing may be helpful for the rapid triage of suspected COVID-19 patients during an outbreak.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 373, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210946

RESUMO

Blood collected and dried on a paper card - dried blood spot (DBS) - knows a growing interest as a sampling method that can be performed outside care facilities by capillary puncture, and transported in a simple and safe manner by mail. The benefits of this method for blood collection and transport has recently led the World Health Organization to recommend DBS for HIV and hepatitis B and C diagnosis. The clinical utility of DBS sampling to improve diagnostics and care of HIV and hepatitis B and C infection in hard to reach populations, key populations and people living in low-income settings was highlighted. Literature about usefulness of DBS specimens in the therapeutic cascade of care - screening, confirmation, quantification of nucleic acids, and resistance genotyping -, was reviewed. DBS samples are suitable for testing antibodies, antigens, or nucleic acids using most laboratory methods. Good sensibility and specificity have been reported for infant HIV diagnosis and diagnosis of hepatitis B and C. The performance of HIV RNA testing on DBS to identified virological failure on antiretroviral therapy is also high but not optimal because of the dilution of dried blood in the elution buffer, reducing the analytical sensitivity, and because of the contamination by intracellular HIV DNA. Standardized protocols are needed for inter-laboratory comparisons, and manufacturers should pursue regulatory approval for in vitro diagnostics using DBS specimens. Despite these limitations, DBS sampling is a clinically relevant tool to improve access to infectious disease diagnosis worldwide.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is impaired in HIV-infected individuals. We explored maternal factors associated with EBV acquisition in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants and the relationship between EBV infection and serious adverse events (SAE) during the first year of life. METHODS: Two hundred and one HEU infants from Uganda enrolled in the ANRS12174 trial were tested for anti-viral capsid antigen (VCA) antibodies at week 50 of life. The date of infection was estimated by testing of EBV DNA at weeks 1, 6, 14, 26, 38 and 50 postpartum on dried blood spot (DBS). RESULTS: Eighty-seven (43%) infants were tested positive for anti-VCA IgG at week 50. Among the 59 infants positive for EBV DNA, 25% were infected within the first 26 weeks. Almost half of them (12%) were infected before week 14. Shedding of EBV in breast milk was associated with EBV DNA in maternal plasma (P=.009), HIV RNA detection (P=.039), lower CD4 count (P=.001) and was correlated with plasma EBV DNA levels (P=.002). EBV infant infection at week 50 was associated with shedding of EBV in breast milk (P=.009) and young maternal age (P=.029). Occurrence of a clinical SAE, including malaria and pneumonia, was associated with higher levels of EBV DNA in infants (P=.010). CONCLUSIONS: By assessing EBV infection in HEU infants we observed that infection during the first year of life is determined by HIV and EBV maternal factors and that EBV DNA levels was higher among infants with clinical SAE.

7.
Bull World Health Organ ; 96(11): 750-759, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455530

RESUMO

Objective: To estimate population-wide hepatitis B and C seroprevalence using dried blood spot samples acquired for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance as part of the 2010-2011 Demographic and Health Survey in Burkina Faso. Methods: We used the database acquired during the multistage, clustered, population-based survey, in which 15 377 participants completed questionnaires and provided dried blood spot samples for HIV testing. We extracted sociodemographic and geographic data including age, sex, ethnicity, education, wealth, marital status and region for each participant. We performed hepatitis B and C assays on 14 886 HIV-negative samples between March to October 2015, and calculated weighted percentages of hepatitis seroprevalence for each variable. Findings: We estimated seroprevalence as 9.1% (95% confidence interval, CI: 8.5-9.7) for the hepatitis B surface antigen and 3.6% (95% CI: 3.3-3.8) for hepatitis C virus antibodies, classifying Burkina Faso as highly endemic for hepatitis B and low-intermediate for hepatitis C. The seroprevalence of hepatitis was higher in men than in women, and varied significantly for both with age, education, ethnicity and region. Extremely high HCV-Ab seroprevalence (13.2%; 95% CI: 10.6-15.7) was identified in the Sud-Ouest region, in particular within the youngest age group (15-20 years), indicating an ongoing epidemic. Conclusion: Our population-representative hepatitis seroprevalence estimates in Burkina Faso advocate for the inclusion of hepatitis serological tests and risk factor questionnaire items in future surveys, the results of which are crucial for the development of appropriate health policies and infection control programmes.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0162137, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27603919

RESUMO

Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection regardless of the active (ATB) or latent (LTBI) forms of tuberculosis (TB). In this study, Mtb-specific T cell response against region of deletion 1 (RD1) antigens were explored by a microbead multiplex assay performed in T-SPOT TB assay (T-SPOT) supernatants from 35 patients with ATB and 115 patients with LTBI. T-SPOT is positive when over 7 IFN-γ secreting cells (SC)/250 000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are enumerated. However, over 100 IFN-γ SC /250 000 PBMC were more frequently observed in the ATB group compared to the LTBI group. By contrast, lower cytokine concentrations and lower cytokine productions relative to IFN-γ secretion were observed for IL 4, IL-12, TNF-α, GM-CSF, Eotaxin and IFN-α when compared to LTBI. Thus, high IFN-γ release and low cytokine secretions in relation with IFN-γ production appeared as signatures of ATB, corroborating that multicytokine Mtb-specific response against RD1 antigens reflects host capacity to contain TB reactivation. In this way, testing cytokine profile in IGRA supernatants would be helpful to improve ATB screening strategy including immunologic tests.


Assuntos
Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/métodos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Tuberculose/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico
9.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 38(5): 817-25, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23303044

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is recognized as one of the earliest and most intense pathological processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the antioxidant vitamin E has been shown to efficiently prevent amyloid plaque formation and neurodegeneration. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) has a major role in vitamin E transfers in vivo, and PLTP deficiency in mice is associated with reduced brain vitamin E levels. To determine the impact of PLTP on amyloid pathology in vivo, we analyzed the vulnerability of PLTP-deficient (PLTP-KO) mice to the toxic effects induced by intracerebroventricular injection of oligomeric amyloid-ß 25-35 (Aß 25-35) peptide, a non-transgenic model of AD. Under basal conditions, PLTP-KO mice showed increased cerebral oxidative stress, increased brain Aß 1-42 levels, and a lower expression of the synaptic function marker synaptophysin, as compared with wild-type mice. This PLTP-KO phenotype was associated with increased memory impairment 1 week after Aß25-35 peptide injection. Restoration of brain vitamin E levels in PLTP-KO mice through a chronic dietary supplementation prevented Aß 25-35-induced memory deficits and reduced cerebral oxidative stress and toxicity. We conclude that PLTP, through its ability to deliver vitamin E to the brain, constitutes an endogenous neuroprotective agent. Increasing PLTP activity may offer a new way to develop neuroprotective therapies.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/toxicidade , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/genética , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/toxicidade , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/deficiência , Análise de Variância , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Reconhecimento Psicológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Esfingomielinas/metabolismo , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo
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