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1.
Mod Pathol ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383960

RESUMO

Rhabdomyosarcomas with TFCP2 fusions represent an emerging subtype of tumors, initially discovered by RNA-sequencing. We report herein the clinicopathological, transcriptional, and genomic features of a series of 14 cases. Cases were retrospectively and prospectively recruited and studied by immunohistochemistry (MYF4, MYOD1, S100, AE1/E3, ALK), fluorescence in situ hybridization with TFCP2 break-apart probe (n = 10/14), array-comparative genomic hybridization (Agilent), whole RNA-sequencing (Truseq Exome, Illumina), or anchored multiplex PCR-based targeted next-generation sequencing (Archer® FusionPlex® Sarcoma kit). Patient's age ranged between 11 and 86 years, including 5 pediatric cases. Tumors were located in the bone (n = 12/14) and soft tissue (n = 2/14). Most bone tumors invaded surrounding soft tissue. Craniofacial bones were over-represented (n = 8/12). Median survival was 8 months and five patients are currently alive with a median follow-up of 20 months. Most tumors displayed a mixed spindle cell and epithelioid pattern with frequent vesicular nuclei. All tumors expressed keratins and showed a rhabdomyogenic phenotype (defined as expression of MYF4 and/or MYOD1). ALK was overexpressed in all but three cases without underlying ALK fusion on break-apart FISH (n = 5) nor next-generation sequencing (n = 14). ALK upregulation was frequently associated with an internal deletion at genomic level. TFCP2 was fused in 5' either to EWSR1 (n = 6) or FUS (n = 8). EWSR1 was involved in both soft tissue cases. FISH with TFCP2 break-apart probe was positive in all tested cases (n = 8), including one case with unbalanced signal. On array-CGH, all tested tumors displayed complex genetic profiles with genomic indexes ranging from 13 to 107.55 and recurrent CDKN2A deletions. FET-TFCP2 rhabdomyosarcomas clustered together and distinctly from other rhabdomyosarcomas subgroups. Altogether, our data confirm and expand the spectrum of the new family of FET-TFCP2 rhabdomyosarcomas, which are associated with a predilection for the craniofacial bones, an aggressive course, and recurrent pathological features. Their association with ALK overexpression might represent a therapeutic vulnerability.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 118: 156-165, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to identify actionable genomic alterations in the gynaecological subpopulation of the ProfiLER programme and to report clinical efficacy of recommended targeted treatment (RTT). METHODS: The ProfiLER programme (NCT01774409) is a multicentric prospective trial aiming to implement molecular profiling in patients with advanced refractory cancers. In this programme, tumour DNA is analysed by targeted next-generation sequencing (69 genes) and by whole genome array comparative genomic hybridisation. Clinical cases and genomic profiles are presented in a dedicated molecular tumour board to guide treatment strategies. We report here an analysis of patients with gynaecological cancers included in this trial. RESULTS: From February 2013 to February 2017, 309 patients with gynaecologic cancer were included; 279 (90%) had sufficient quality, and 131 patients (42.4%) had at least one actionable genomic alteration in cancer cells. Four alterations were shared by at least 3% of the patients: 27 (9.7%) PIK3CA mutations, 15 (5.4%) KRAS mutations, 11 (3.9%) ERBB2 amplifications and 9 (3.2%) CDKN2A deletions. Forty-one treatments were initiated among 39 patients (12.6% of the screened population): 8 (20%) had a partial response, and other 10 (24%) had a stable disease. The median progression-free survival was 2.7 months. The median overall survival was 15.6 months for patients who received a RTT. CONCLUSION: Molecular profiling identified actionable alterations in 42.4% of patients with advanced refractory gynaecologic cancer, but only 12.6% were treated with a RTT. Among them, 46% derived clinical benefit (5.8% of the screened population).

3.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 43(10): 1368-1376, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162285

RESUMO

Recurrent activating Gαq mutations in the spectrum of blue nevi have been well studied. However, the clinicopathologic characteristics of the recently described CYSLTR2-mutant and PLCB4-mutant blue nevi remain limited, owing to their rarity. Herein, we present 7 CYSLTR2-mutant melanocytic neoplasms, including 1 cellular blue nevus, 4 atypical cellular blue nevi, and 2 blue nevus-like melanomas. They occurred on the scalp, breast, flank, forearm, thigh, leg, and ankle of 3 male patients and 4 female patients, with a median age of 43 (25 to 81) years at diagnosis. Five exhibited an exophytic growth, and 6 were heavily pigmented. A fascicular arrangement of medium to large spindle melanocytes was seen in 6 cases, but epithelioid cytology was present in only 2 cases, one of them being focal. A junctional component was present in 3 cases. Immunoreactivity for HMB45 was diffusely present, except in 1 cellular blue nevus. BAP1 nuclear immunoexpression was lost in 1 melanoma case. A canonical CYSLTR2 L129Q hotspot mutation was present in all cases. Altogether, these histopathologic findings suggest that CYSLTR2-mutant melanocytic blue neoplasms frequently exhibit a heavily pigmented exophytic tumor with a silhouette resembling "pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma" rather than usual cellular blue nevus. Moreover, most of these tumors were not clinically recognized as blue nevi and not located in the classic topography of cellular blue nevus aside from the scalp. However, a fascicular arrangement of medium to large-sized spindled melanocytes, as well as a lack of epithelioid or nevoid melanocytes, could be potential diagnostic clues to morphologically distinguish CYSLTR2-mutant tumors from "pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma."

4.
J Cutan Pathol ; 46(11): 810-818, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237704

RESUMO

A cutaneous melanocytic tumor with morphologic overlap with clear cell sarcoma, but defined by CRTC1-TRIM11 gene fusion, was recently described in a series of five adult patients. Here, we expand the clinicopathologic features of this entity by four additional cases which include pediatric presentation, exophytic growth, and propensity to occur on the head. Patients (2F; 2M) had a median age of 41 years (range 11-59). Sites of involvement included leg, ear, and face. Tumors were circumscribed, unencapsulated, mostly limited to the dermis, and varied from 5 to 35 mm. One case was exophytic. Lesional cells were arranged in nests and fascicles, and were monomorphic and fusiform with moderate pale to clear cytoplasm, occasional nuclear pseudo-inclusions, and small to prominent nucleoli. Mitotic rate was variable (rare to 12/10 HPF, median 3/10 HPF). The pediatric case showed increased nuclear pleomorphism, tumor necrosis, and mitotic figures. All cases showed strong, diffuse nuclear staining for SOX10, but were negative or focal for S100 protein, HMB45 and Melan-A expression. Cases were positive by FISH technique and/or RNA sequencing for a TRIM11 rearrangement/fusion, and negative for EWSR1 rearrangement. This series is presented to aid in further characterization of this novel melanocytic tumor.

5.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res ; 32(5): 708-713, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945443

RESUMO

A girl, born with a posterior  lumbosacral giant congenital nevus, developed a central nodule that expanded over a period of 14 months into a 10-cm pedunculated mass. Histological analysis of the mass revealed melanoma of myxoid, small round-cell type with areas of  rhabdomyosarcomatous  transformation confirmed by immunohistochemistry. RNA sequencing identified an in-frame SASS6(e14)-RAF1(e8) fusion in both components and the nevus. A RAF1 FISH break-apart test found a balanced rearrangement pattern in the nevus and an unbalanced pattern in the malignant areas. Wild-type status of NRAS and BRAF was confirmed by NGS techniques. The array-CGH profile displayed copy number alterations commonly found in rhabdomyosarcomas. Despite intensive treatment, widespread metastatic evolution of the melanomatous component was observed.

6.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 43(6): 737-746, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844834

RESUMO

Activating NTRK1 fusions have been described as oncogenic events across the spectrum of Spitz tumors. Herein we report a series of 38 Spitz tumors with NTRK1 fusion. These Spitz tumors have distinctive histopathologic features characterized by filigree-like rete ridges which are elongated, thin and branched, dermal melanocytes arranged in a rosette-like configuration, and marked diminishment of melanocyte size with descent into the dermis. These features are distinct from those of other genetically defined subtypes of Spitz tumors and can aid in microscopic diagnosis and help prioritize in case selection for molecular testing in the rare patients that need targeted therapy.

7.
Cancer Med ; 8(4): 1368-1378, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a group of rare and heterogeneous mesenchymal tumors with a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of long-term survivors and describe their presentation and management in a large cohort of patients with metastatic STS. METHODS: We collected information of patients with metastatic STS managed in Centre Leon Berard between 1985 and 2015 aiming to compare the group of patients alive 5 years after the diagnosis of metastases vs the others. Prognostic factors of patients and tumors characteristics were investigated by logistic regression analysis. For "long-term survivors," we explored therapeutic strategies at metastatic stage. RESULTS: Out of 436 patients enrolled, 39 (9%) were still alive 5 years after diagnostic of metastases with a median survival of 146 months (12 years). This "long-term survivors" group included more female and younger patients, with better performance status, more synovial sarcoma or endometrial stromal sarcoma, more patients with simple genomic sarcomas, lower tumor grade, smaller tumor, and longer disease-free interval. In multivariate analysis, age below 55 at metastatic stage (P = 0.0002) and grade 1 tumor (P < 0.0001) were significantly associated with the "long-term survivors." Their therapeutic management was usually aggressive (intensified or polychemotherapy, repeated local treatment of metastases), leading to 62% of complete response in first-line setting. CONCLUSIONS: Very long-term survivors are observed in metastatic STS. Selection of patients in good condition with less aggressive tumor and administration of intensive treatment may lead to obtain these motivating results in a poor prognosis disease.

8.
Surg Pathol Clin ; 12(1): 63-105, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709449

RESUMO

This article focuses on pleomorphic sarcomas, which are malignant mesenchymal tumors with complex genetic background at the root of their morphologic pleomorphism. They are poorly differentiated tumors that may retain different lines of differentiation, sometimes correlating with clinicopathological or prognostic features. Accurate diagnosis in this group of tumors relies on adequate sampling due to their heterogeneity and assessment with both microscopy and large panels of immunohistochemistry. Molecular analyses have a limited role in their diagnosis as opposed to translocation-related sarcomas but may provide theranostic and important prognostic information in the future.


Assuntos
Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Prognóstico , Sarcoma/classificação , Sarcoma/genética , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/classificação , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/genética
9.
Virchows Arch ; 474(5): 539-550, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756182

RESUMO

Recent advances in genomics have improved the molecular classification of cutaneous melanocytic tumors. Among them, deep penetrating nevi (DPN) and plexiform nevi have been linked to joint activation of the MAP kinase and dysregulation of the ß-catenin pathways. Immunohistochemical studies have confirmed cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of ß-catenin and its downstream effector cyclin D1 in these tumors. We assessed nuclear ß-catenin immunohistochemical expression in a large group of DPN as well as in the four most frequent differential diagnoses of DPN: "blue" melanocytic tumors, Spitz tumors, nevoid and SSM melanomas, and pigmented epithelioid melanocytomas (PEM). Nuclear ß-catenin expression was positive in 98/100 DPN and 2/16 of melanomas (one SSM and one nevoid melanoma with a plexiform clone) and was negative in all 30 Spitz, 26 blue, and 6 PEM lesions. In 41% DPN, ß-catenin expression was positive in more than 30% nuclei. No differences were observed in cytoplasmic and nuclear cyclin D1 expression between these tumor groups, suggesting alternate, ß-catenin-independent, activation pathways. We have subsequently studied nuclear ß-catenin expression in a set of 13 tumors with an ambiguous diagnosis, for which DPN was part of the differential diagnosis. The three out of four patients showing canonical DPN mutation profiles were the only ß-catenin-positive cases. We conclude that nuclear ß-catenin expression, independently from CCND1 expression, in a dermal melanocytic tumor is an argument for its classification as DPN. In ambiguous cases and in early combined DPN lesions, this antibody can be helpful as a screening tool. ß-Catenin is also potentially expressed in a subset of malignant melanomas with CTNNB1 mutations.


Assuntos
Melanoma/patologia , Nevo de Células Epitelioides e Fusiformes/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Nevo Pigmentado/diagnóstico , Nevo Pigmentado/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem , beta Catenina/genética
10.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407212

RESUMO

CIC-fused sarcomas represent an emerging family of tumors, for long connected to the Ewing family group of tumors, but underlined by distinct CIC fusions with different partners. 3' Fusion partners include DUX4, FOXO4, and, as recently emphasized, NUTM1. In this study, we report the clinicopathologic and molecular features of a series of 6 CIC-NUTM1 sarcomas. Mean age at diagnosis was 6 years (2 to 27 y), and 4 patients were male individuals. Primary tumors were located in the central nervous system (n=3), paravertebral soft tissue and epidural spaces (n=1, each), and lung (n=1). Median overall survival was 17.5 months (7 to 37 mo), and all but one patient died of disease. All tumors displayed classic features of CIC-DUX4 sarcomas with round cell to epithelioid microscopic appearance. Most tumors expressed ETV4 and NUTM1 (n=5/6 and 6/6, respectively), whereas WT1cter was positive in only 2 cases. All tested tumors were positive for break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization for CIC and NUTM1. Apart from CIC or NUTM1 genomic breakpoints, no other recurrent copy number alteration was seen on genomic profiles. Fusion transcripts were identified by RNA-sequencing on either formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded or frozen material. CIC and NUTM1 breakpoints were located between exons 16 and 20 and exons 2 and 5, respectively. Altogether, CIC-NUTM1 sarcomas represent a new molecular variant of CIC-fused sarcomas with a predilection for the central nervous system and younger pediatric population. Its phenotype may be confused with NUT carcinomas.

11.
J Med Case Rep ; 12(1): 351, 2018 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma represents 3-5% of adult malignant tumors. Metastases are found in 30-40% of patients and brain metastases occurred in more than 10% of them. Despite significant progress in medical treatment, patients with brain metastases still have a limited survival. Cabozantinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor directed against vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, was recently registered for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Almost no data are, however, available on patients with brain metastases. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1 is a 51-year-old man of North African origin; Case 2 is a 55-year-old European man. Case 1 and Case 2 had metastases of renal carcinoma at initial diagnosis and were treated with vascular endothelial growth factor receptors tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Case 1 had clear cell renal carcinoma and underwent nephrectomy; he then received several lines of tyrosine kinase inhibitor directed against vascular endothelial growth factor receptors and the mTor complex. During the second treatment a brain metastasis was diagnosed and treated with radiosurgery with rapid efficacy. Two years later he received nivolumab, an antibody directed against the programmed death-1 and programmed death-ligand 1 complex, but disease progression was observed with the reappearance of the brain metastasis together with neurologic symptoms. Cabozantinib was administered and induced a rapid clinical improvement as well as tumor regression in all sites including his brain. Sequencing of his tumor evidenced a mutation of the MET gene. Case 2 had a papillary renal carcinoma with brain metastases at time of diagnosis. After radiation of the brain tumors, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor was administered for 3 years. The disease was under control in all sites except in his brain; several new brain metastases requiring new radiation treatments developed. The disease finally progressed at all metastatic sites including his brain and he had several neurological symptoms. Cabozantinib was administered and rapidly induced a clinical improvement; a further computed tomography scan and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed significant tumor regressions. No MET gene mutation or amplification was observed in the tumor analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These case reports indicate that cabozantinib was able, first, to reach brain tumors and second, to induce significant regressions in renal carcinoma brain metastases that were resistant to radiation as well as to previous systemic vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

12.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451731

RESUMO

SMARCA4-deficient thoracic sarcoma (SMARCA4-DTS) is a recently described entity with an aggressive clinical course and specific genetic alterations of the BAF chromatin remodeling complex. In the present study, we reviewed the clinical and pathologic features of 30 cases of SMARCA4-DTS, discussed its main differential diagnoses and the challenging diagnostic scenarios that the average pathologist may face. In addition, we tested the specificity of the "SMARCA4-DTS immunohistochemical signature" (co-loss of SMARCA4 and SMARCA2 with overexpression of SOX2) in a large cohort of intrathoracic malignancies. Patients ranged from 28 to 90 years of age (median: 48 y), with a marked male predominance (male:female=9:1) and they were usually smokers. Tumors were generally large compressive masses located in the mediastinum (n=13), pleura (n=5), lung (n=2) or in 2 or more of these topographies (n=10). Treatment strategies were varied, including 1 case treated with EZH2 inhibitors. Median overall survival was 6 months. Histologically, tumors were poorly differentiated frequently showing rhabdoid features. A subset of cases showed a focal myxoid stroma (7%, n=2/30) and rare cases displayed a previously unreported pattern simulating desmoplastic small round cell tumors (7%, n=2/30). Making a diagnosis was challenging when dealing with biopsy material from massively necrotic tumors and in this setting the expression of SOX2, CD34, and SALL4 proved useful. All tested cases displayed concomitant loss of SMARCA4 and SMARCA2 and most tumors expressed epithelial markers (Pan-keratin or EMA) (n=29/30), SOX2 (n=26/27), and CD34 (n=17/27). SMARCB1 expression was retained in all cases (23/23). SALL4 and Claudin-4 were expressed in a subset of cases (n=7/21 and 2/19, respectively). TTF-1 and P63 were focally expressed in 1 case each. P40 and NUT were not expressed (0/23 and 0/20, respectively) The SMARCA4-DTS immunohistochemical signature was both sensitive and specific, with only a subset of small cell carcinoma of the ovary hypercalcemic type showing overlapping phenotypes. Our study confirms and expands the specific features of SMARCA4-DTS, emphasizing the fact that they can be straightforwardly identified by pathologists.

13.
Mod Pathol ; 31(11): 1683-1693, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955147

RESUMO

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is underlined by recurrent collagen type I alpha 1 chain-platelet-derived growth factor B chain (COL1A1-PDGFB) fusions but ~ 4% of typical dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans remain negative for this translocation in routine molecular screening. We investigated a series of 21 cases not associated with the pathognomonic COL1A1-PDGFB fusion on routine fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing. All cases displayed morphological and clinical features consistent with the diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. RNA-sequencing analysis was successful in 20 cases. The classical COL1A1-PDGFB fusion was present in 40% of cases (n = 8/20), and subsequently confirmed with a COL1A1 break-apart FISH probe in all but one case (n = 7/8). 55% of cases (n = 11/20) displayed novel PDGFD rearrangements; PDGFD being fused either to the 5' part of COL6A3 (2q37.3) (n = 9/11) or EMILIN2 (18p11) (n = 2/11). All rearrangements led to in-frame fusion transcripts and were confirmed at genomic level by FISH and/or array-comparative genomic hybridization. PDGFD-rearranged dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans presented clinical outcomes similar to typical dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Notably, the two EMILIN2-PDGFD cases displayed fibrosarcomatous transformation and homozygous deletions of CDKN2A at genomic level. We report the first recurrent molecular variant of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans involving PDGFD, which functionally mimic bona fide COL1A1-PDGFB fusions, leading presumably to a similar autocrine loop-stimulating PDGFRB. This study also emphasizes that COL1A1-PDGFB fusions can be cytogenetically cryptic on FISH testing in a subset of cases, thereby representing a diagnostic pitfall that pathologists should be aware of.

14.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 42(5): 595-603, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635259

RESUMO

Melanocytic tumors rarely display extensive dermal myxoid deposits except in the myxoid variant of melanoma. We describe in 4 patients the unusual association of morphologic and genetic features. All cases occurred in males and were located on the limbs or proximal girdle area. Age at diagnosis ranged from 8 to 47 years. Size ranged from 6 to 11 mm. Microscopic analysis showed compound, but mainly dermal melanocytic nevi, all presenting a deep dermal expansion with fascicules of amelanotic spindled cells floating in a myxoid background. Cytologic atypia and mitotic activity were low. The superficial portion was either of spitzoid or nevoid cytology with a limited junctional component. In the initial case, the dermal myxoid component was predominant with rare, barely visible, superficial melanocytic nests. This peculiar morphology was responsible for a delayed diagnostic, which required an extensive panel of antibodies ruling out most, potentially myxoid, soft tissue tumors. We later observed the presence of similar, but more limited, dermal morphologic features in 3 other cases. Immunohistochemistry in the deep myxoid areas was melanA, ALK, SOX10, and MiTF. Molecular studies confirmed the ALK rearrangement by an ALK break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization technique and by RNA sequencing. The latter identified 4 different 5'-fusion partners. Two gene fusions were undescribed: FBXO28(e2)-ALK(e19) and NPAS2(e2)-ALK(e19), and 2 previously described: TPM3(e7)-ALK(e20) and PPFIBP1(e9)-ALK(e19). No relapse or metastatic evolution was seen during follow-up (3 to 24 mo). We denominated this potentially challenging new variant of compound nevus linked to a kinase fusion: Melanocytic Myxoid Spindle Cell Tumor with ALK Rearrangement.

15.
J Pathol ; 245(2): 186-196, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29533464

RESUMO

In recent years, undifferentiated small round cell sarcomas (USRCSs) have been divided into a variety of new, rare, sarcoma subtypes, including the group of Ewing-like sarcomas, which have the morphological appearance of Ewing sarcomas, but carry CIC-DUX4, BCOR-CCNB3 and other gene fusions different from the classic EWSR1-ETS gene fusion. Using high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses, we identified a novel recurrent gene fusion, CRTC1-SS18, in two cases of USRCS that lacked any known translocation. RNA-seq results were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, long-range polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. In vitro, we showed that the cells expressing the gene fusion were morphologically distinct and had enhanced oncogenic potential as compared with control cells. Expression profile comparisons with tumours of other sarcoma subtypes demonstrated that both cases clustered close to EWSR1-CREB1-positive tumours. Moreover, these analyses indicated enhanced NTRK1 expression in CRTC1-SS18-positive tumours. We conclude that the novel gene fusion identified in this study adds a new subtype to the USRCSs with unique gene signatures, and may be of therapeutic relevance. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

16.
Cancer Med ; 7(4): 1384-1393, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29533008

RESUMO

A genomic index (GI) tool using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on tumor cells has emerged as independent prognostic factor associated with the risk of metastatic relapse in synovial sarcoma (SS). The aim was to assess GI in pediatric patients with SS, to determine its value as a prognostic factor. All pediatric/adolescent/young adults' (<25 years) with localized SS prospectively included in the European EpSSG-NRSTS05 protocol with a contributive aCGH were selected. Definition of GI was A2 /C, where A is the total number of alterations (segmental gains and losses) and C is the number of involved chromosomes on aCGH results. GI1 group corresponds to cases with no copy number alterations (flat profile, GI = 0) and GI2 group cases with at least one or more copy number alterations (rearranged profile; GI ≥ 1). Samples were available from 61 patients. The median age of the cohort was 13 years (range: 4-24). Overall, 55.7% were GI1 group, and 44.3% GI2 . After a median follow-up of 62 months (range: 0.1-112), 10 tumor events occurred and five patients died. Respectively, for GI1 versus GI2 groups, five-year event-free survival (EFS) was 93.8 ± 4.2% versus 64.9 ± 10.1% (P < 0.006) and five-year Metastatic-Free Survival (MFS) 93.8 ± 4.2% versus 72.9 ± 9.5% (P < 0.04). In multivariate analysis, GI status as adjusted for IRS group, patient age, site, and tumor size remain independent prognostic for EFS with a relative risk (RR) of 6.4 [1.3-31.9] (P < 0.01) and RR for MFS is 4.8 [0.9-25.7] (P < 0.05). Genomic complexity evaluated through GI may explain the metastatic behavior of pediatric SS.

17.
Virchows Arch ; 472(3): 469-476, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464327

RESUMO

The current classification of melanocytic tumors includes clinical, pathological, and molecular data. A subset of lesions remains difficult to classify according to these complex multilayer schemes. We report two cases of deeply infiltrating melanomas with a sclerosing background. The first case occurred on the back of a middle-aged man appearing clinically as a dermatofibroma. The architectural and cytological aspects resembled those of a desmoplastic melanoma but the strong expression of both melanA and HMB45, two stainings usually reported as negative in this entity, raised the question of an alternate diagnosis. The second case was a large, slowly growing, perivulvar tumor in a middle-aged woman. The morphology was complex with a central junctional spitzoid pattern associating an epidermal hyperplasia with large nests of large spindled melanocytes. The dermal component was made of deeply invasive strands and nests of nevoid unpigmented melanocytes surrounded by fibrosis; a perineural invasion was present at the periphery of the lesion. In both cases, aCGH found, among many other anomalies, a chromosomal breakpoint at the BRAF locus. RNA sequencing identified in both an AKAP9-BRAF gene fusion. A complementary resection was performed and no relapses have been observed in the respectively 15 and 6 months of follow-up. Both of these melanomas remained unclassified. We further review the variety of melanocytic tumors associated with such BRAF fusions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ancoragem à Quinase A/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Melanoma/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Nevo Pigmentado/diagnóstico , Nevo Pigmentado/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
18.
Acta Neuropathol ; 135(4): 569-579, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29299667

RESUMO

Paraneoplastic cerebellar degenerations with anti-Yo antibodies (Yo-PCD) are rare syndromes caused by an auto-immune response against neuronal antigens (Ags) expressed by tumor cells. However, the mechanisms responsible for such immune tolerance breakdown are unknown. We characterized 26 ovarian carcinomas associated with Yo-PCD for their tumor immune contexture and genetic status of the 2 onconeural Yo-Ags, CDR2 and CDR2L. Yo-PCD tumors differed from the 116 control tumors by more abundant T and B cells infiltration occasionally organized in tertiary lymphoid structures harboring CDR2L protein deposits. Immune cells are mainly in the vicinity of apoptotic tumor cells, revealing tumor immune attack. Moreover, contrary to un-selected ovarian carcinomas, 65% of our Yo-PCD tumors presented at least one somatic mutation in Yo-Ags, with a predominance of missense mutations. Recurrent gains of the CDR2L gene with tumor protein overexpression were also present in 59% of Yo-PCD patients. Overall, each Yo-PCD ovarian carcinomas carried at least one genetic alteration of Yo-Ags. These data demonstrate an association between massive infiltration of Yo-PCD tumors by activated immune effector cells and recurrent gains and/or mutations in autoantigen-encoding genes, suggesting that genetic alterations in tumor cells trigger immune tolerance breakdown and initiation of the auto-immune disease.

19.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 42(3): 382-391, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29240581

RESUMO

We report 5 cases of primary intradermal nodular unpigmented tumors with a melanocytic immunophenotype associated with a novel CRTC1-TRIM11 fusion. Clinically, the cutaneous nodules were slowly growing in 3 women and 2 men (25 to 82 y old, median, 28 y) with no specific topography. Lesion size ranged from 4 to 12 mm (median, 5 mm). The tumors were strictly located in the dermis with a nodular pattern. The cells were arranged in confluent nests and fascicules. Central fibronecrotic areas were present in 2 cases. Cells were medium to large, sometimes multinucleated, and presented a spindled and epithelioid cytology with prominent nucleoli. Cytonuclear atypia was constant, and mitotic activity in hotspot areas ranged from 1 to 5/mm². Immunohistochemistry found a constant positivity with S100, MiTF, and Sox10, and a heterogenous staining by MelanA or HMB45. NTRK1 was strongly positive in 3 cases. In all cases, RNA sequencing found an invariable CRTC1(e1)-TRIM11(e2) fusion, confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques with a TRIM11 break-apart probe. In 4/4 cases, nuclear TRIM11 expression was positive by immunohistochemistry. Fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques showed no rearrangement of NTRK1 or EWSR1, and array-comparative genomic hybridization displayed no alteration (1 case) or only a whole chromosome 7 gain (2 cases) when performed. No relapse or metastatic event was observed during follow-up [3 to 72 months (median, 14 mo)]. Cutaneous clear cell sarcoma was the main differential diagnosis. Overlapping morphologic features previously described in primary dermal melanomas and paraganglioma-like melanocytic tumors were present. The CRTC1-TRIM11 fusion appears to be specific of an unpigmented nodular tumor combining a melanocytic phenotype and low-grade tumor behavior.

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