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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 96, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542229

RESUMO

Studies considering the causal role of body mass index (BMI) for the predisposition of major depressive disorder (MDD) based on a Mendelian Randomization (MR) approach have shown contradictory results. These inconsistent findings may be attributable to the heterogeneity of MDD; in fact, several studies have documented associations between BMI and mainly the atypical subtype of MDD. Using a MR approach, we investigated the potential causal role of obesity in both the atypical subtype and its five specific symptoms assessed according to the Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), in two large European cohorts, CoLaus|PsyCoLaus (n = 3350, 1461 cases and 1889 controls) and NESDA|NTR (n = 4139, 1182 cases and 2957 controls). We first tested general obesity measured by BMI and then the body fat distribution measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Results suggested that BMI is potentially causally related to the symptom increase in appetite, for which inverse variance weighted, simple median and weighted median MR regression estimated slopes were 0.68 (SE = 0.23, p = 0.004), 0.77 (SE = 0.37, p = 0.036), and 1.11 (SE = 0.39, p = 0.004). No causal effect of BMI or WHR was found on the risk of the atypical subtype or for any of the other atypical symptoms. Our findings show that higher obesity is likely causal for the specific symptom of increase in appetite in depressed participants and reiterate the need to study depression at the granular level of its symptoms to further elucidate potential causal relationships and gain additional insight into its biological underpinnings.

2.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(6): 309-330, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681593

RESUMO

It is imperative to understand the specific and shared etiologies of major depression and cardio-metabolic disease, as both traits are frequently comorbid and each represents a major burden to society. This study examined whether there is a genetic association between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits and if this association is stratified by age at onset for major depression. Polygenic risk scores analysis and linkage disequilibrium score regression was performed to examine whether differences in shared genetic etiology exist between depression case control status (N cases = 40,940, N controls = 67,532), earlier (N = 15,844), and later onset depression (N = 15,800) with body mass index, coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in 11 data sets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Generation Scotland, and UK Biobank. All cardio-metabolic polygenic risk scores were associated with depression status. Significant genetic correlations were found between depression and body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes. Higher polygenic risk for body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes was associated with both early and later onset depression, while higher polygenic risk for stroke was associated with later onset depression only. Significant genetic correlations were found between body mass index and later onset depression, and between coronary artery disease and both early and late onset depression. The phenotypic associations between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits may partly reflect their overlapping genetic etiology irrespective of the age depression first presents.

3.
Nat Genet ; 52(4): 437-447, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231276

RESUMO

Minimal phenotyping refers to the reliance on the use of a small number of self-reported items for disease case identification, increasingly used in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here we report differences in genetic architecture between depression defined by minimal phenotyping and strictly defined major depressive disorder (MDD): the former has a lower genotype-derived heritability that cannot be explained by inclusion of milder cases and a higher proportion of the genome contributing to this shared genetic liability with other conditions than for strictly defined MDD. GWAS based on minimal phenotyping definitions preferentially identifies loci that are not specific to MDD, and, although it generates highly predictive polygenic risk scores, the predictive power can be explained entirely by large sample sizes rather than by specificity for MDD. Our results show that reliance on results from minimal phenotyping may bias views of the genetic architecture of MDD and impede the ability to identify pathways specific to MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Drug Dev Res ; 81(1): 102-113, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617956

RESUMO

The severity of symptoms as well as efficacy of antidepressants in major depressive disorder (MDD) is modified by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in different genes, which may contribute in an additive or synergistic fashion. We aimed to investigate depression severity in participants with MDD under treatment with antidepressants in relation to the combinatory effect of selected genetic variants combined using a genetic risk score (GRS). The sample included 150 MDD patients on regular AD therapy from the population-based Swiss PsyCoLaus cohort. We investigated 44 SNPs previously associated with antidepressant response by ranking them with regard to their association to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D) score using random forest. The three top scoring SNPs (rs12248560, rs878567, rs17710780) were subsequently combined into an unweighted GRS, which was included in linear and logistic regression models using the CES-D score, occurrence of a major depressive episode (MDE) during follow-up and regular antidepressant treatment during the 6 months preceding follow-up assessment as outcomes. The GRS was associated with MDE occurrence (p = .02) and ln CES-D score (p = .001). The HTR1A rs878567 variant was associated with ln CES-D after adjustment for demographic and clinical variables [p = .02, lower scores for minor allele (G) carriers]. Additionally, rs12248560 (CYP2C19) CC homozygotes showed a six-fold higher likelihood of regular AD therapy at follow-up compared to minor allele homozygotes [TT; ultrarapid metabolizers (p = .03)]. Our study suggests that the cumulative consideration of pharmacogenetic risk variants more reliably reflects the impact of the genetic background on depression severity than individual SNPs.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Suíça , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Cephalalgia ; 40(4): 347-356, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645113

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Migraine and major depressive disorder show a high rate of comorbidity, but little is known about the associations between the subtypes of major depressive disorder and migraine. In this cross-sectional study we aimed at investigating a) the lifetime associations between the atypical, melancholic, combined and unspecified subtype of major depressive disorder and migraine with and without aura and b) the associations between major depressive disorder and its subtypes and the severity of migraine. METHODS: A total of 446 subjects with migraine (migraine without aura: n = 294; migraine with aura: n = 152) and 2511 controls from the population-based CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study, Switzerland, were included. Associations between major depressive disorder subtypes and migraine characteristics were tested using binary logistic or linear regression. RESULTS: Melancholic, combined and unspecified major depressive disorder were associated with increased frequency of migraine with aura, whereas only melancholic major depressive disorder was associated with increased frequency of migraine without aura. Lifetime and unspecified major depressive disorder were associated with severe migraine intensity among subjects with migraine with aura but not migraine without aura, while combined major depressive disorder was associated with higher migraine frequency independently from migraine subtype. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that melancholic but not atypical major depressive disorder is associated with migraine and migraine subtypes. Future studies exploring pathophysiological mechanisms shared between melancholic depression and migraine are warranted.

6.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(11): 946-955, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking and alcohol use have been associated with common genetic variants in multiple loci. Rare variants within these loci hold promise in the identification of biological mechanisms in substance use. Exome arrays and genotype imputation can now efficiently genotype rare nonsynonymous and loss of function variants. Such variants are expected to have deleterious functional consequences and to contribute to disease risk. METHODS: We analyzed ∼250,000 rare variants from 16 independent studies genotyped with exome arrays and augmented this dataset with imputed data from the UK Biobank. Associations were tested for five phenotypes: cigarettes per day, pack-years, smoking initiation, age of smoking initiation, and alcoholic drinks per week. We conducted stratified heritability analyses, single-variant tests, and gene-based burden tests of nonsynonymous/loss-of-function coding variants. We performed a novel fine-mapping analysis to winnow the number of putative causal variants within associated loci. RESULTS: Meta-analytic sample sizes ranged from 152,348 to 433,216, depending on the phenotype. Rare coding variation explained 1.1% to 2.2% of phenotypic variance, reflecting 11% to 18% of the total single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of these phenotypes. We identified 171 genome-wide associated loci across all phenotypes. Fine mapping identified putative causal variants with double base-pair resolution at 24 of these loci, and between three and 10 variants for 65 loci. Twenty loci contained rare coding variants in the 95% credible intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Rare coding variation significantly contributes to the heritability of smoking and alcohol use. Fine-mapping genome-wide association study loci identifies specific variants contributing to the biological etiology of substance use behavior.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Exoma , Variação Genética/fisiologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Genótipo , Humanos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fumar/genética
7.
Nat Genet ; 50(10): 1426-1434, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224645

RESUMO

The population of the Mediterranean island of Sardinia has made important contributions to genome-wide association studies of complex disease traits and, based on ancient DNA studies of mainland Europe, Sardinia is hypothesized to be a unique refuge for early Neolithic ancestry. To provide new insights on the genetic history of this flagship population, we analyzed 3,514 whole-genome sequenced individuals from Sardinia. Sardinian samples show elevated levels of shared ancestry with Basque individuals, especially samples from the more historically isolated regions of Sardinia. Our analysis also uniquely illuminates how levels of genetic similarity with mainland ancient DNA samples varies subtly across the island. Together, our results indicate that within-island substructure and sex-biased processes have substantially impacted the genetic history of Sardinia. These results give new insight into the demography of ancestral Sardinians and help further the understanding of sharing of disease risk alleles between Sardinia and mainland populations.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Filogenia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Demografia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , História Antiga , Migração Humana/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia
8.
Psychosom Med ; 80(7): 628-639, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29965943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The complex relationship between psychosocial stress over the lifetime, psychological factors, and cardiometabolic risk is still poorly understood. Accordingly, our aims were (1) to independently assess the associations between childhood adversity, life-event stress in remote (earlier than the last 5 years), and recent adulthood and cardiometabolic risk, and (2) to determine the role of psychological factors including personality, coping, and depression in these associations. METHODS: The sample included 2674 adults, aged 35 to 66 years, randomly selected from urban area. Participants underwent a physical examination including the assessment of obesity markers, blood pressure, and blood lipid and glucose levels. Stress during adulthood was determined using the severity scores of 52 stressful life events. Information on adverse childhood experiences and major depressive disorders was collected using semistructured interviews, whereas personality traits and coping mechanisms were evaluated through questionnaires. RESULTS: Both childhood adversity and stress in remote adulthood were associated with elevated body mass index (ß [95% confidence interval {CI}] = 0.249 [0.029 to 0.468]; 0.020 [0.006 to 0.034]), waist circumference (ß [95% CI] = 0.061 [0.024 to 0.099]; 0.08 [0.04 to 0.11]), and the global cardiometabolic risk score (ß [95% CI] = 0.278 [0.017 to 0.540]; 0.017 [0.001 to 0.033]) after adjustment for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and psychological factors. In addition, childhood adversity was associated with low high density lipoprotein levels (ß [95% CI] = -0.021 [-0.042 to 0.000]), as well as increased fat mass and systolic blood pressure levels (ß [95% CI] = 0.506 [0.165 to 0.846]; 0.952 [0.165 to 1.740]) and stress in remote adulthood with apolipoprotein B levels (ß [95% CI] = 0.607 [0.312 to 0.901]). Psychological factors did not account for these associations and were not effect modifiers. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that psychosocial stress during childhood and remote adulthood favor adiposity and abnormal lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Doenças Metabólicas , Personalidade , Estresse Psicológico , Circunferência da Cintura , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/sangue , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade/fisiologia , Risco , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Suíça/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia
9.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 177(1): 40-49, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159863

RESUMO

Gene by environment (GxE) interaction studies have investigated the influence of a number of candidate genes and variants for major depressive disorder (MDD) on the association between childhood trauma and MDD. Most of these studies are hypothesis driven and investigate only a limited number of SNPs in relevant pathways using differing methodological approaches. Here (1) we identified 27 genes and 268 SNPs previously associated with MDD or with GxE interaction in MDD and (2) analyzed their impact on GxE in MDD using a common approach in 3944 subjects of European ancestry from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium who had completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. (3) We subsequently used the genome-wide SNP data for a genome-wide case-control GxE model and GxE case-only analyses testing for an enrichment of associated SNPs. No genome-wide significant hits and no consistency among the signals of the different analytic approaches could be observed. This is the largest study for systematic GxE interaction analysis in MDD in subjects of European ancestry to date. Most of the known candidate genes/variants could not be supported. Thus, their impact on GxE interaction in MDD may be questionable. Our results underscore the need for larger samples, more extensive assessment of environmental exposures, and greater efforts to investigate new methodological approaches in GxE models for MDD.


Assuntos
Depressão/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 7(12): 1273, 2017 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29225345

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are primary major mood disorders. Recent studies suggest that they share certain psychopathological features and common risk genes, but unraveling the full genetic architecture underlying the risk of major mood disorders remains an important scientific task. The public genome-wide association study (GWAS) data sets offer the opportunity to examine this topic by utilizing large amounts of combined genetic data, which should ultimately allow a better understanding of the onset and development of these illnesses. Genome-wide meta-analysis was performed by combining two GWAS data sets on BPD and MDD (19,637 cases and 18,083 controls), followed by replication analyses for the loci of interest in independent 12,364 cases and 76,633 controls from additional samples that were not included in the two GWAS data sets. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10791889 at 11q13.2 was significant in both discovery and replication samples. When combining all samples, this SNP and multiple other SNPs at 2q11.2 (rs717454), 8q21.3 (rs10103191), and 11q13.2 (rs2167457) exhibited genome-wide significant association with major mood disorders. The SNPs in 2q11.2 and 8q21.3 were novel risk SNPs that were not previously reported, and SNPs at 11q13.2 were in high LD with potential BPD risk SNPs implicated in a previous GWAS. The genome-wide significant loci at 2q11.2 and 11q13.2 exhibited strong effects on the mRNA expression of certain nearby genes in cerebellum. In conclusion, we have identified several novel loci associated with major mood disorders, adding further support for shared genetic risk between BPD and MDD. Our study highlights the necessity and importance of mining public data sets to explore risk genes for complex diseases such as mood disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtornos do Humor/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino
11.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 74(12): 1214-1225, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049554

RESUMO

Importance: The association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity may stem from shared immunometabolic mechanisms particularly evident in MDD with atypical features, characterized by increased appetite and/or weight (A/W) during an active episode. Objective: To determine whether subgroups of patients with MDD stratified according to the A/W criterion had a different degree of genetic overlap with obesity-related traits (body mass index [BMI] and levels of C-reactive protein [CRP] and leptin). Design, Setting, and Patients: This multicenter study assembled genome-wide genotypic and phenotypic measures from 14 data sets of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Data sets were drawn from case-control, cohort, and population-based studies, including 26 628 participants with established psychiatric diagnoses and genome-wide genotype data. Data on BMI were available for 15 237 participants. Data were retrieved and analyzed from September 28, 2015, through May 20, 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Lifetime DSM-IV MDD was diagnosed using structured diagnostic instruments. Patients with MDD were stratified into subgroups according to change in the DSM-IV A/W symptoms as decreased or increased. Results: Data included 11 837 participants with MDD and 14 791 control individuals, for a total of 26 628 participants (59.1% female and 40.9% male). Among participants with MDD, 5347 (45.2%) were classified in the decreased A/W and 1871 (15.8%) in the increased A/W subgroups. Common genetic variants explained approximately 10% of the heritability in the 2 subgroups. The increased A/W subgroup showed a strong and positive genetic correlation (SE) with BMI (0.53 [0.15]; P = 6.3 × 10-4), whereas the decreased A/W subgroup showed an inverse correlation (-0.28 [0.14]; P = .06). Furthermore, the decreased A/W subgroup had a higher polygenic risk for increased BMI (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% CI, 1.12-1.25; P = 1.6 × 10-10) and levels of CRP (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.13; P = 7.3 × 10-3) and leptin (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.06-1.12; P = 1.7 × 10-3). Conclusions and Relevance: The phenotypic associations between atypical depressive symptoms and obesity-related traits may arise from shared pathophysiologic mechanisms in patients with MDD. Development of treatments effectively targeting immunometabolic dysregulations may benefit patients with depression and obesity, both syndromes with important disability.


Assuntos
Fissura , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Obesidade , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/imunologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
12.
J Affect Disord ; 222: 195-203, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28710953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the well known heterogeneity of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), dividing this complex disorder into subtypes is likely to be a more promising approach to identify its determinants than to study it as a whole. METHODS: In a prospective population-based cohort study (CoLaus|PsyCoLaus) with 5.5 years of follow-up, 1524 participants without MDD at baseline, aged 35-66 years (mean age 51.4 years, 43.4% females), participated in the physical and psychiatric baseline and the psychiatric follow-up evaluations. RESULTS: The incidence of both atypical and melancholic MDD during the follow-up period were predicted by female sex, a lifetime history of minor depressive disorders and higher neuroticism scores. Higher baseline body mass index was associated with the onset of atypical MDD, whereas the absence of hypertension and younger age were associated with the development of melancholic MDD. Unspecified MDD was predicted by younger age, low concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and elevated life-event impact scores. LIMITATIONS: The age range of our cohort restricts the identification of risk factors to MDD with onset in midlife and the recruitment in an urban area limits the generalizability of the findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that MDD subtypes are predicted by partially distinct combinations of baseline characteristics suggesting that these subtypes not only differ in their clinical manifestations but also in factors that contribute to their development. Subjects with minor depressive episodes, especially in combination with particular personality features, deserve close clinical attention to prevent the subsequent onset of atypical and melancholic major depression.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
13.
Hum Genet ; 136(8): 999-1008, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28656458

RESUMO

Although a number of migraine-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with small effect size have been identified, little is known about the additive impact of these variants on migraine risk, frequency and severity. We investigated to what extent a genetic risk score (GRS) based on recently published, novel migraine-associated SNPs is associated with migraine prevalence, subtypes and severity in a large population-based sample. The sample comprised 446 subjects with migraine and 2511 controls from the CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study. Fifty-four SNPs earlier associated with migraine were selected. SNPs with a low impact on migraine prevalence in our sample were excluded using random forest. We combined the remaining 21 SNPs into a GRS and analyzed the association with migraine using logistic regression models. The GRS was significantly associated with migraine (OR = 1.56, p = 0.02) and migraine without aura (MWOA) (OR = 2.01, p = 0.003), but not with migraine with aura (MWA). The GRS was not associated with migraine frequency, intensity or interference with daily activities. We show that a GRS combining multiple genetic risk variants is associated with MWOA but not MWA, suggesting a different genetic susceptibility background underlying the two forms of migraine.


Assuntos
Enxaqueca com Aura/genética , Enxaqueca sem Aura/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
14.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(12): 2346-2363, 2017 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28379579

RESUMO

Resting heart rate is a heritable trait, and an increase in heart rate is associated with increased mortality risk. Genome-wide association study analyses have found loci associated with resting heart rate, at the time of our study these loci explained 0.9% of the variation. This study aims to discover new genetic loci associated with heart rate from Exome Chip meta-analyses.Heart rate was measured from either elecrtrocardiograms or pulse recordings. We meta-analysed heart rate association results from 104 452 European-ancestry individuals from 30 cohorts, genotyped using the Exome Chip. Twenty-four variants were selected for follow-up in an independent dataset (UK Biobank, N = 134 251). Conditional and gene-based testing was undertaken, and variants were investigated with bioinformatics methods.We discovered five novel heart rate loci, and one new independent low-frequency non-synonymous variant in an established heart rate locus (KIAA1755). Lead variants in four of the novel loci are non-synonymous variants in the genes C10orf71, DALDR3, TESK2 and SEC31B. The variant at SEC31B is significantly associated with SEC31B expression in heart and tibial nerve tissue. Further candidate genes were detected from long-range regulatory chromatin interactions in heart tissue (SCD, SLF2 and MAPK8). We observed significant enrichment in DNase I hypersensitive sites in fetal heart and lung. Moreover, enrichment was seen for the first time in human neuronal progenitor cells (derived from embryonic stem cells) and fetal muscle samples by including our novel variants.Our findings advance the knowledge of the genetic architecture of heart rate, and indicate new candidate genes for follow-up functional studies.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
15.
Biol Psychiatry ; 82(5): 312-321, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28153336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the second largest cause of global disease burden. It has an estimated heritability of 37%, but published genome-wide association studies have so far identified few risk loci. Haplotype-block-based regional heritability mapping (HRHM) estimates the localized genetic variance explained by common variants within haplotype blocks, integrating the effects of multiple variants, and may be more powerful for identifying MDD-associated genomic regions. METHODS: We applied HRHM to Generation Scotland: The Scottish Family Health Study, a large family- and population-based Scottish cohort (N = 19,896). Single-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and haplotype-based association tests were used to localize the association signal within the regions identified by HRHM. Functional prediction was used to investigate the effect of MDD-associated SNPs within the regions. RESULTS: A haplotype block across a 24-kb region within the TOX2 gene reached genome-wide significance in HRHM. Single-SNP- and haplotype-based association tests demonstrated that five of nine genotyped SNPs and two haplotypes within this block were significantly associated with MDD. The expression of TOX2 and a brain-specific long noncoding RNA RP1-269M15.3 in frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens basal ganglia, respectively, were significantly regulated by MDD-associated SNPs within this region. Both the regional heritability and single-SNP associations within this block were replicated in the UK-Ireland group of the most recent release of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC), the PGC2-MDD (Major Depression Dataset). The SNP association was also replicated in a depressive symptom sample that shares some individuals with the PGC2-MDD. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the value of HRHM for MDD and provides an important target within TOX2 for further functional studies.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas HMGB/genética , Haplótipos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 250: 50-58, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28142066

RESUMO

Although the DSM-5 has suggested the two new categories of Persistent Depressive Disorders (PDD) and Other Specified Depressive Disorders (OSDD), no study so far has applied the DSM-5 criteria throughout the range of depressive disorders. The aims of the present study were to 1) establish the lifetime prevalence of specific depressive disorders according to the new DSM-5 definitions in a community sample, and 2) determine their clinical relevance in terms of socio-demographic characteristics, comorbidity, course and treatment patterns. The semi-structured Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies was administered by masters-level psychologists to a random sample of an urban area (n=3720). The lifetime prevalence was 15.2% for PDD with persistent major depressive episode (MDE), 3.3% for PDD with pure dysthymia, 28.2% for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 9.1% for OSDD. Subjects with PDD with persistent MDE were the most severely affected, followed by those with recurrent MDD, single episode MDD, PDD with pure dysthymia and OSDD and finally those without depressive disorders. Our data provide further evidence for the clinical significance of mild depressive disorders (OSDD), but cast doubt on the pertinence of lumping together PDD with persistent MDE and the former DSM-IV dysthymic disorder within the new PDD category.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Distímico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Comorbidade , Depressão/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtorno Distímico/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Recidiva
17.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 17(2): 209-19, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27129595

RESUMO

Food preferences are the first factor driving food choice and thus nutrition. They involve numerous different senses such as taste and olfaction as well as various other factors such as personal experiences and hedonistic aspects. Although it is clear that several of these have a genetic basis, up to now studies have focused mostly on the effects of polymorphisms of taste receptor genes. Therefore, we have carried out one of the first large scale (4611 individuals) GWAS on food likings assessed for 20 specific food likings belonging to 4 different categories (vegetables, fatty, dairy and bitter). A two-step meta-analysis using three different isolated populations from Italy for the discovery step and two populations from The Netherlands and Central Asia for replication, revealed 15 independent genome-wide significant loci (p < 5 × 10(-8)) for 12 different foods. None of the identified genes coded for either taste or olfactory receptors suggesting that genetics impacts in determining food likings in a much broader way than simple differences in taste perception. These results represent a further step in uncovering the genes that underlie liking of common foods that in the end will greatly help understanding the genetics of human nutrition in general.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
18.
Nat Genet ; 47(11): 1264-71, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26366553

RESUMO

We report genome-wide association study results for the levels of A1, A2 and fetal hemoglobins, analyzed for the first time concurrently. Integrating high-density array genotyping and whole-genome sequencing in a large general population cohort from Sardinia, we detected 23 associations at 10 loci. Five signals are due to variants at previously undetected loci: MPHOSPH9, PLTP-PCIF1, ZFPM1 (FOG1), NFIX and CCND3. Among the signals at known loci, ten are new lead variants and four are new independent signals. Half of all variants also showed pleiotropic associations with different hemoglobins, which further corroborated some of the detected associations and identified features of coordinated hemoglobin species production.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Hemoglobinas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Ilhas , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Família Multigênica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , alfa-Globinas/genética , Globinas beta/genética
19.
Nat Genet ; 47(11): 1272-1281, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26366554

RESUMO

We report ∼17.6 million genetic variants from whole-genome sequencing of 2,120 Sardinians; 22% are absent from previous sequencing-based compilations and are enriched for predicted functional consequences. Furthermore, ∼76,000 variants common in our sample (frequency >5%) are rare elsewhere (<0.5% in the 1000 Genomes Project). We assessed the impact of these variants on circulating lipid levels and five inflammatory biomarkers. We observe 14 signals, including 2 major new loci, for lipid levels and 19 signals, including 2 new loci, for inflammatory markers. The new associations would have been missed in analyses based on 1000 Genomes Project data, underlining the advantages of large-scale sequencing in this founder population.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Lipídeos/sangue , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Geografia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
20.
Genet Epidemiol ; 39(4): 227-38, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25740221

RESUMO

Advances in exome sequencing and the development of exome genotyping arrays are enabling explorations of association between rare coding variants and complex traits. To ensure power for these rare variant analyses, a variety of association tests that group variants by gene or functional unit have been proposed. Here, we extend these tests to family-based studies. We develop family-based burden tests, variable frequency threshold tests and sequence kernel association tests. Through simulations, we compare the performance of different tests. We describe situations where family-based studies provide greater power than studies of unrelated individuals to detect rare variants associated with moderate to large changes in trait values. Broadly speaking, we find that when sample sizes are limited and only a modest fraction of all trait-associated variants can be identified, family samples are more powerful. Finally, we illustrate our approach by analyzing the relationship between coding variants and levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in 11,556 individuals from the HUNT and SardiNIA studies, demonstrating association for coding variants in the APOC3, CETP, LIPC, LIPG, and LPL genes and illustrating the value of family samples, meta-analysis, and gene-level tests. Our methods are implemented in freely available C++ code.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Variação Genética/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Software , Apolipoproteína C-III/genética , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/genética , HDL-Colesterol/genética , Simulação por Computador , Exoma/genética , Família , Genótipo , Humanos , Lipase/genética , Lipase Lipoproteica/genética , Fenótipo
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