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1.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(11): 10082-10088, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30146284

RESUMO

Single-step genomic prediction models utilizing both genotyped and nongenotyped animals are likely to become the prevailing tool in genetic evaluations of livestock. Various single-step prediction models have been proposed, based either on estimation of individual marker effects or on direct prediction via a genomic relationship matrix. In this study, a classical pedigree-based animal model, a regular single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) model, algorithm for proven and young (APY) with 2 strategies for choosing core animals, and a single-step Bayesian regression (ssBR) model were compared for 305-d production traits (milk, fat, protein) in the Finnish red dairy cattle population. A residual polygenic effect with 10% of total genetic variance was included in the single-step models to reduce inflation of genomic predictions. Validation reliability was calculated as the squared Pearson correlation coefficient between genomically enhanced breeding value (GEBV) and yield deviation for masked records for 2,056 validation cows from the last year in the data set investigated. The results showed that gains of 0.02 to 0.04 on validation reliability were achieved by using single-step methods compared with the classical animal model. The regular ssGBLUP model and ssBR model with an extra polygenic effect yielded the same results. The APY methods yielded similar reliabilities as the regular ssGBLUP and ssBR. Exact prediction error variance of GEBV could be obtained by ssBR to avoid any approximation methods used for ssGBLUP when inversion left-hand side of mixed model equations is computationally infeasible for large data sets.

2.
J Appl Microbiol ; 124(2): 611-624, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29222953

RESUMO

AIMS: To study the stability of biofilms and water quality in pilot scale drinking water copper and PEX pipes in changing conditions (extra disinfection, magnetic water treatment, MWT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) to describe total bacterial community and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to describe active bacterial members in addition to traditional microbiological methods were applied. Biofilms from control copper and PEX pipes shared same most abundant bacteria (Methylobacterium spp., Sphingomonas spp., Zymomonas spp.) and average species diversities (Shannon 3·8-4·2) in rDNA and rRNA libraries, whereas few of the taxa differed by their abundance such as lower total Mycobacterium spp. occurrence in copper (<0·02%) to PEX (<0·2%) pipes. Extra disinfection (total chlorine increase from c. 0·5 to 1 mg l-1 ) affected total and active population in biofilms seen as decrease in many bacterial species and diversity (Shannon 2·7, P < 0·01, rRNA) and increase in Sphingomonas spp. as compared to control samples. Furthermore, extra-disinfected copper and PEX samples formed separate clusters in unweighted non-metric multidimensional scaling plot (rRNA) similarly to MWT-treated biofilms of copper (but not PEX) pipes that instead showed higher species diversity (Shannon 4·8, P < 0·05 interaction). CONCLUSIONS: Minor chlorine dose addition increased selection pressure and many species were sensitive to chlorination. Pipe material seemed to affect mycobacteria occurrence, and bacterial communities with MWT in copper but not in PEX pipes. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study using rRNA showed that chlorination affects especially active fraction of bacterial communities. Copper and PEX differed by the occurrence of some bacterial members despite similar community profiles.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Biofilmes , Cobre/análise , Água Potável/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Cloro/análise , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção , Magnetismo , Microbiologia da Água , Purificação da Água/instrumentação , Purificação da Água/métodos , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 572: 1611-1621, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27302375

RESUMO

Good hygienic quality of surface waters is essential for drinking water production, irrigation of crops and recreation. Predictions of how and when microbes are transported by rivers are needed to protect downstream water users. In this study we tested the new process-based INCA-Pathogens model in the agricultural Loimijoki River basin (3138km2) in Finland, and we quantified ecosystem services of water purification and water provisioning for drinking and recreation purposes under different scenarios. INCA is a catchment scale process based model to calculate pollutant transfer from terrestrial environment and point sources to the catchment outlet. A clear gradient was observed in the numbers of faecal coliforms along the River Loimijoki. The highest bacterial counts were detected in the middle part of the main stream immediately after small industries and municipal sewage treatment plants. In terms of model performance, the INCA-Pathogen model was able to produce faecal coliform counts and seasonality both in the low pollution level sampling points and in the high pollution level sampling points. The model was sensitive to the parameters defining light decay in river water and in soil compartment, as well as to the amount of faecal coliforms in the manure spread on the fields. The modeling results showed that the number of faecal coliforms repeatedly exceeded 1000 bacteria 100ml-1. Moreover, results lead to the following conclusions: 1) Climate change does not cause a major threat to hygienic water quality as higher precipitation increases runoff and causes diluting effect in the river, 2) Intensification of agriculture is not a threat as long as animal density remains relatively low and environmental legislation is followed, 3) More intensive agriculture without environmental legislation causes a threat especially in tributaries with high field percentage and animal density, and 4) Hygienic water quality in the River Loimijoki can best be improved by improving sewage treatment. We conclude that this catchment scale model is a useful tool for addressing catchment management and water treatment planning issues.


Assuntos
Água Potável/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Agricultura , Finlândia , Modelos Teóricos , Purificação da Água , Abastecimento de Água
4.
J Appl Microbiol ; 120(6): 1723-38, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27009775

RESUMO

AIMS: Next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) was used to characterize water and biofilm microbiome collected from a drinking water distribution system of an office building after its first year of operation. METHODS AND RESULTS: The total bacterial community (rDNA) and active bacterial members (rRNA) sequencing databases were generated by Illumina MiSeq PE250 platform. As estimated by Chao1 index, species richness in cold water system was lower (180-260) in biofilms (Sphingomonas spp., Methylobacterium spp., Limnohabitans spp., Rhizobiales order) than in waters (250-580), (also Methylotenera spp.) (P = 0·005, n = 20). Similarly species richness (Chao1) was slightly higher (210-580) in rDNA libraries compared to rRNA libraries (150-400; P = 0·054, n = 24). Active Mycobacterium spp. was found in cross-linked polyethylene (PEX), but not in corresponding copper pipeline biofilm. Nonpathogenic Legionella spp. was found in rDNA libraries but not in rRNA libraries. CONCLUSIONS: Microbial communities differed between water and biofilms, between cold and hot water systems, locations in the building and between water rRNA and rDNA libraries, as shown by clear clusters in principal component analysis (PcoA). By using the rRNA method, we found that not all bacterial community members were active (e.g. Legionella spp.), whereas other members showed increased activity in some locations; for example, Pseudomonas spp. in hot water circulations' biofilm and order Rhizobiales and Limnohabitans spp. in stagnated locations' water and biofilm. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: rRNA-based methods may be better than rDNA-based methods for evaluating human health implications as rRNA methods can be used to describe the active bacterial fraction. This study indicates that copper as a pipeline material might have an adverse impact on the occurrence of Mycobacterium spp. The activity of Legionella spp. maybe questionable when detected solely by using DNA-based methods.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Água Potável/microbiologia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Microbiologia da Água
5.
J Anim Breed Genet ; 133(2): 115-25, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26412206

RESUMO

This study was designed to obtain information on prediction of diet digestibility from near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) scans of faecal spot samples from dairy cows at different stages of lactation and to develop a faecal sampling protocol. NIRS was used to predict diet organic matter digestibility (OMD) and indigestible neutral detergent fibre content (iNDF) from faecal samples, and dry matter digestibility (DMD) using iNDF in feed and faecal samples as an internal marker. Acid-insoluble ash (AIA) as an internal digestibility marker was used as a reference method to evaluate the reliability of NIRS predictions. Feed and composite faecal samples were collected from 44 cows at approximately 50, 150 and 250 days in milk (DIM). The estimated standard deviation for cow-specific organic matter digestibility analysed by AIA was 12.3 g/kg, which is small considering that the average was 724 g/kg. The phenotypic correlation between direct faecal OMD prediction by NIRS and OMD by AIA over the lactation was 0.51. The low repeatability and small variability estimates for direct OMD predictions by NIRS were not accurate enough to quantify small differences in OMD between cows. In contrast to OMD, the repeatability estimates for DMD by iNDF and especially for direct faecal iNDF predictions were 0.32 and 0.46, respectively, indicating that developing of NIRS predictions for cow-specific digestibility is possible. A data subset of 20 cows with daily individual faecal samples was used to develop an on-farm sampling protocol. Based on the assessment of correlations between individual sample combinations and composite samples as well as repeatability estimates for individual sample combinations, we found that collecting up to three individual samples yields a representative composite sample. Collection of samples from all the cows of a herd every third month might be a good choice, because it would yield a better accuracy.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fezes/química , Análise Espectral/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Feminino , Raios Infravermelhos
6.
Epidemiol Infect ; 139(7): 1105-13, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20843387

RESUMO

An inappropriate cross-connection between sewage- and drinking-water pipelines contaminated tap water in a Finnish town, resulting in an extensive waterborne gastroenteritis outbreak in this developed country. According to a database and a line-list, altogether 1222 subjects sought medical care as a result of this exposure. Seven pathogens were found in patient samples of those who sought treatment. To establish the true disease burden from this exposure, we undertook a population-based questionnaire investigation with a control population, infrequently used to study waterborne outbreaks. The study covered three areas, contaminated and uncontaminated parts of the town and a control town. An estimated 8453 residents fell ill during the outbreak, the excess number of illnesses being 6501. Attack rates were 53% [95% confidence interval (CI) 49.5-56.4] in the contaminated area, 15.6% (95% CI 13.1-18.5) in the uncontaminated area and 6.5% (95% CI 4.8-8.8) in the control population. Using a control population allowed us to differentiate baseline morbidity from the observed morbidity caused by the water contamination, thus enabling a more accurate estimate of the disease burden of this outbreak.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Água Potável/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Esgotos/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/etiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Allergy ; 62(3): 288-92, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17298346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The influence of microbial quality of drinking water from different sources on the occurrence of atopy has been poorly examined. This study was undertaken to clarify the association between the overall microbial content in drinking water and the occurrence of atopy among schoolchildren from two neighbouring areas with profound differences in living conditions and lifestyles. METHODS: Drinking water samples were obtained from kitchens of nine schools in North Karelia, Finland and of nine schools from Pitkäranta, the Republic of Karelia, Russia. The pupils of these schools were participants of the Karelian Allergy Study. Occurrence of atopy, determined by skin prick test positivity (one or more) to 14 common airborne and food allergens, was measured in all 563 children, aged 7-16 years, from these 18 schools. Water samples were analysed using standard methods for drinking water analyses including viable counts for Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, coliform bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria. In addition, total cell counts including both viable and nonviable bacteria, algae and protozoans were assessed using epifluorescence microscope with 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. RESULTS: In Finland, 29% of the children were sensitized to birch when compared with 2% of the Russian children (P < 0.0001). Overall, sensitization rates for any of the pollens were 39% and 8% (P < 0.0001), and for any of the allergens 48% and 16%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Because of substantial differences in raw water sources and treatment practices, the total numbers of microbial cells in drinking water were many-fold higher in Russia than in Finland. A dose-response relationship was found for occurrence of atopy and the DAPI value indicative of microbial cell content in the water (P < 0.0001). Further, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that high (>10(6) cells/ml) and intermediate (10(5)-10(6) cells/ml) DAPI values were associated with reduced risk of atopy (odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.20-0.57 and 0.39, 0.23-0.69, respectively), independently from other factors. CONCLUSION: High overall content of micro-organisms in drinking water may be associated with reduced risk of atopy, independently from other determinants.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/epidemiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água/análise , Adolescente , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Alérgenos/imunologia , Criança , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Dermatite Atópica/etiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pólen/efeitos adversos , Pólen/imunologia , Prevalência , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/etiologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Testes Cutâneos , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Water Sci Technol ; 54(3): 57-61, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17037133

RESUMO

Campylobacteria are important foodborne pathogens. C. jejuni bacteria have caused several drinking water-related epidemics in Finland. Normally, C. jejuni is not able to multiply in drinking water or in biofilms although it may survive in biofilms. The survival of C. jejuni in biofilms was studied using the Propella biofilm reactor. The number of bacteria was analysed with traditional culture methods and with fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). By culture methods C. jejuni was detectable for only 1 d after spiking whereas bacteria were found from biofilms for at least 1 week after spiking and from outlet water of the reactor for 3 weeks when using FISH. These results suggested that C. jejuni may survive in biofilms and culture methods probably seriously underestimate the real number in water and in biofilms.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente
9.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 18(5): 389-93, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12889683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that people with a strong sense of coherence (SOC) have decreased all-cause mortality. METHODS: The effect of occupation and the SOC on all-cause mortality was studied among 4405 Finnish middle-aged employed men in a prospective 8-year follow-up study. RESULTS: Using Cox proportional hazards models the crude relative risk for all-cause mortality for the low SOC tertile when compared to the high SOC tertile was 1.23 (95% CI: 0.90-1.68). Adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol and occupation increased the risk slightly to 1.35. Occupation was an effect modifier, since among white-collar workers the corresponding relative risk of the low SOC tertile was 2.27 (95% CI: 1.12-4.59, p = 0.02) and among blue-collar workers the relative risk for all-cause mortality was stable (1.33-1.52) in each SOC tertile. The classic risk factors, smoking and alcohol, showed higher relative risks than the SOC. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of the health-promoting qualities of the SOC upon all-cause mortality was significant among white-collar workers, but not among blue-collar workers.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Saúde Holística , Mortalidade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Ocupações/classificação , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Genfibrozila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção Primária , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol ; 128(3): 483-91, 2001 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11250543

RESUMO

In most animal cells, transport of monosaccharides across the plasma membrane is mediated by glucose transporters (GLUT). Mammals express at least five distinct transporters (GLUTs 1--5), which are well characterised both functionally and genetically. In contrast, the glucose transport system of fish remains poorly studied. Here we report studies of hexose uptake in carp EPC cells and cloning of a glucose transporter cDNA from these cells. Transport of radio-labelled methylglucose (3-OMG) followed Michaelis--Menten kinetics with a K(m) value (8.5 mM) similar to that of mammalian cells. The inhibition of transport by cytochalasin B and phloretin, but not by phloridzin or cyanide, strongly suggested the existence of a facilitative carrier. D-Glucose, 2-deoxyglucose, 3-OMG, D-mannose and D-xylose were competitive inhibitors of 3-OMG uptake, while L-glucose, mannitol, D-fructose, D-ribose and sucrose did not compete with 3-OMG. We cloned a carp glucose transporter (CyiGLUT1), using RT-PCR and RACE strategies. CyiGLUT1 was different from known carp and zebrafish EST sequences. The complete cDNA (3060 bp) contained one open reading frame encoding a predicted protein of 478 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 78% identity with mammalian and avian GLUT1 proteins. Key amino acids involved in substrate selection and catalysis of mammalian GLUTs were conserved in the carp transporter.


Assuntos
3-O-Metilglucose/metabolismo , Carpas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular/metabolismo , Galinhas , Clonagem Molecular , Primers do DNA/química , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1 , Cinética , Camundongos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
11.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 3(2): 188-97, 2001 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14961382

RESUMO

Biochemical and histological analyses were used to study the number and size of cells (cellularity) in tissues of fast-growing, genetically modified Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus L.), overexpressing sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) growth hormone gene (OnGH1). DNA contents of muscle, heart, and liver were compared in transformed, sibling (age control) and 1 year older (size control) char. Total white muscle cross-sectional area, white muscle fiber number, and total nuclei number within the muscle tissue were determined from one complete half-section of each fish. The analyzed tissues responded differently to growth hormone overproduction. In muscle tissue of OnGH1-transformed char, the enhanced growth was clearly associated with proliferation of muscle cells (hyperplasia), whereas in heart tissue both cell proliferation and increase in cell size (hypertrophy) were enhanced. The relative DNA concentration in the liver of transformed char was significantly greater than that of control fish, suggesting reduction in size of hepatic cells.

12.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1494(3): 290-4, 2000 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11121589

RESUMO

The facilitated diffusion of monosaccharides across the plasma membrane is mediated by glucose transporters (GLUTs). In contrast to mammals, the glucose transport system of lower vertebrates remains unexplored. We detected glucose transport activity in rainbow trout embryos. Two GLUTs sharing 83% amino acid identity were cloned from juvenile fish, these have been denoted OnmyGLUT1A and OnmyGLUT1B. In adult trout OnmyGLUT1A is predominantly expressed in the heart with low expression in other tissues. An inverse terminal repeat of a Tc1-like transposable element was found in the 3'-untranslated region of OnmyGLUT1B. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that rainbow trout genes share a common ancestor with higher vertebrate GLUT1. We also found GLUT genes in several salmonid species.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Oncorhynchus mykiss/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Complementar/biossíntese , Evolução Molecular , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1 , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/biossíntese , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/química , Oncorhynchus mykiss/embriologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Alinhamento de Sequência
13.
Genet Anal ; 15(3-5): 91-8, 1999 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10596746

RESUMO

Four constructs containing salmonid growth hormone (GH) genes were transferred to Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and piscine metallothionein B (OnMT) and histone 3 (OnH3) promoters connected to sockeye salmon growth hormone 1 gene (OnGH1) were used for ectopic expression, and Atlantic salmon growth hormone 2 gene with 5'flanking region (SsGH2) was tested for pituitary-specific expression. Charr carrying the OnGH1 constructs showed a dramatic increase in growth rate. The 10-month old transformed fish were 14-fold heavier than control siblings. The ability of the CMVGH1 construct to promote growth was greater than that obtained in fish with piscine promoters. Analysis of individual growth curves of charr carrying the OnH3GH1 transgene indicated a stable ratio of specific growth rates in transformed and control fish regardless of fish size. No alteration in growth performance was found in fish carrying the SsGH2 transgene. There was evidence that the transformed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were unable to produce SsGH2 mRNA in their pituitary glands. The presence of the transgene in various tissues was examined in trout to evaluate the reliability of one-tissue sampling.


Assuntos
Hormônio do Crescimento/fisiologia , Salmonidae/genética , Transgenes , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Citomegalovirus/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Sintéticos , Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Histonas/genética , Masculino , Metalotioneína/genética , Oncorhynchus/genética , Oncorhynchus mykiss/genética , Oncorhynchus mykiss/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade de Órgãos , Adeno-Hipófise/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Salmo salar/genética , Salmonidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Genet Anal ; 15(3-5): 115-9, 1999 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10596749

RESUMO

The reviewed studies addressed the possibility of using gene transfer for correction of L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis and carbohydrate utilization in rainbow trout. Analyses of enzymatic activities in the L-AAB pathway indicated that reasons for the lack of L-AA production can be common in fish and scurvy-prone animals. Rat gulonolactone oxidase cDNA was transferred into trout. Regardless of the fact that rGLO transcription occurred in embryos, neither GLO protein, nor enzyme activity were detected. There was no production of L-AA in transgenic fish raised on vitamin C-free diets or injected with L-gulonolactone. These results indicated that the conditions required for translation or stability of rGLO were not present in trout tissues. To augment carbohydrates utilization, human glucose transporter 1 and rat hexokinase II cDNAs were tested. In the transfected embryos. HK activity, rates of hexose uptake and glucose oxidation were increased. The effect of hGLUT1 on glucose metabolism was greater than that of rHKII. Trout carrying hGLUT1 and rHKII with viral or piscine promoters were created. Though interpretation of the metabolic effects of the transgenes was complicated with mosaicism, a tendency to improved carbohydrate utilization was revealed in some of the transgenic individuals.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/biossíntese , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Hexoquinase/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Proteínas Musculares , Oncorhynchus mykiss/genética , Desidrogenase do Álcool de Açúcar/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , DNA Complementar/genética , Engenharia Genética , Glucose/farmacocinética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1 , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4 , Hexoquinase/fisiologia , Humanos , L-Gulonolactona Oxidase , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/fisiologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/embriologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Projetos Piloto , Ratos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Açúcares Ácidos/farmacocinética , Desidrogenase do Álcool de Açúcar/fisiologia , Transgenes
15.
Scand J Psychol ; 40(3): 197-207, 1999 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10487152

RESUMO

The psychological well-being of 651 Finnish adolescents (approximately age 17) was followed to young adulthood (age 22) and examined in terms of their drinking styles at age 22. The young adults were grouped into four categories delineating drinking style (non-users, non-problem drinkers, presumptive problem drinkers, and problem drinkers), and each group was examined for evolved paths of psychological well-being. The psychological profile of the participants was comprised of seven variables: self-esteem, trait anxiety, somatic symptoms, eating concerns, and mature, neurotic, and immature defense styles. The comparison of the drinking style categories revealed that future problem drinkers had lower states of psychological well-being already in adolescence and that the differences became more pronounced during the transition to young adulthood. Poor psychological well-being is a risk for the development of later problem drinking, although the profile of this poor psychological state is somewhat different in women and men.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Satisfação Pessoal , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1381(2): 241-8, 1998 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9685663

RESUMO

The ability of rainbow trout liver and kidney preparations to produce L-ascorbic acid with an added source of L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase (GLO) and the absence of their own GLO activity suggested that the reason for the absence of L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis in fish and in guinea pig, a scurvy-prone mammal, can be similar. Nevertheless, results of rat GLO cDNA expression in guinea pig cells and in rainbow trout proved different. In guinea pig cells, rat GLO was expressed in a functional form. Regardless of recombinant GLO transcripts detected in rainbow trout embryos, alevins and in juvenile fish, neither GLO protein nor GLO activity were found. Furthermore, production of L-ascorbic acid in transgenic rainbow trout was not revealed in feeding tests with vitamin C-free diets or after direct administration of L-gulono-gamma-lactone. These results indicate that conditions required for translation or stability of rat GLO are absent in rainbow trout tissues.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/biossíntese , Oncorhynchus mykiss/genética , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Desidrogenase do Álcool de Açúcar/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Deficiência de Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , Dieta , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Cobaias , L-Gulonolactona Oxidase , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ratos , Escorbuto/etiologia , Escorbuto/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 25(3): 312-6, 1997 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9285383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted to determine the effects of age and diet (breast milk, milk formula, weaning diet) on the activities of some bacterial enzymes in fecal samples collected from 3- to 24-month-old infants. These bacterial enzymes may generate toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic metabolites from plant glycosides (beta-glucuronidase, beta-glucosidase) or from urea (urease). METHODS: The subjects were 68 healthy children ages 3 (n = 20), 6 (n = 20), 12 (n = 17), and 24 (n = 11) months. None of the children had been given any antibiotics during 4 weeks before collection of the fecal samples. Health status, bowel habits, and food consumption of the children were determined by interview of one of the parents using a structured questionnaire. A spot fecal sample from each child was collected. RESULTS: The activities of beta-glucuronidase and beta-glucosidase increased from 0.52 and 1.17 nmol/min x mg protein (at 3 months) to 1.41 and 2.38 nmol/min x mg protein (at 2 years), respectively. However, at 2 years of age, the children had not yet reached the levels reported in earlier studies on adult populations. Urease activity increased from 4.18 nmol/min x mg protein (at 3 months) to 19.0 nmol/min x mg protein (at 2 years), reaching by 12 months of age the level observed in adults. Breast feeding as such had no consistent effect on fecal bacterial enzyme activities. beta-Glucuronidase and beta-glucosidase were higher in those 6- and 12-month-old children who consumed more meat, fish, sausages, or eggs. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that the fecal enzyme activities in the gastrointestinal tract increase and that their profile changes with age and adoption of adult-type diet. It remains open, however, whether these changes are caused by the normal physiological aging process or by stepwise introduction of new foods to the diet.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Bactérias/enzimologia , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ovos , Feminino , Peixes , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis , Masculino , Carne , Leite , Leite Humano
18.
J Anim Breed Genet ; 114(1-6): 377-84, 1997 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21395832

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Two boars of Finnish Yorkshire breed were selected for chromosomal analysis because of their small litters. One had a complex three breakpoint reciprocal translocation where the small distal chromosome segments were fused in new combinations between autosomes 2,9 and 14. This boar with a 2n = 38,XY,t(2;9;14)(q23;q22;q25) karyotype had produced approximately 3.3 piglets per litter and its fertility was reduced by 70% compared to average of litter size in Finnish Yorkshire breed pigs. In another Finnish Yorkshire breed boar, the long arm of autosome 7 had broken and attached to the terminal end of autosome 15. The boar had a 2n = 38,XY, rcp(7q-;15q+)(q24;q26) karyotype. The average of piglets per litter sired by this boar was 5.2 and the litter size was reduced by approximately 50%. The chromosomal rearrangements t(2;9;14) was inherited by four of the boar's offspring studied from two whole litters having seven piglets altogether. Meiotic chromosomes were analysed conventionally from one male translocation carrier offspring of the t(2;9;14) boar. Total sperm count and progressive motility of spermatozoa were within normal limits in one male translocation carrier offspring of the t(2;9;14) boar and in the rcp(7q-;15q+) boar. The two reciprocal translocations seem to have arisen spontaneously in these two boars. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Zwei Fälle reziproker Translokationen bei Ebern mit kleinen Nachkommen Würfen Von zwei Finnischen Yorkshire Ebern hatte einer drei komplexe reziproke Translokationen, wo kurze distale Chromosomensegmente zu neuen Kombinatioenen zwischen Autosomen 2, 9 und 14 fusioniert waren. Der Eber mit 2n = 38,XY,t(2;9;14)(q23;q22;q25) Karyotyp hatte Nachkommenwürfe mit etwa 3.3 Ferkel weniger und 70% Fruchtbarkeit der bei dieser Rasse normalen. In einem anderen Eber war der lange Arm von Chromosom 7 gebrochen und am Ende von Chromosom 15: 2n = 38,XY, rcp(7q-; 15q+)(q24;q26) Karyotyp. Nachkommenwurfgröße war 5.2. Das chromosomale Rearrangement t(2;9;14) wurde an 4 Nachkommen in zwei Würfen mit zusammen 7 Ferkel vererbt. Meiotische Chromosomen wurden bei einem männlichen Translokationsträger dieser Nachkommen analysiert. Gesamtspermienenzahl und ihre Vorwärtsbewegung waren in normalen Grenzen bei diesem Nahkommen ebenso wie beim rcp(7q-;15q+) Eber. Die zwei reciproken Translokationen scheinen spontan entstanden zu sein.

20.
J Stud Alcohol ; 55(5): 578-87, 1994 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7990468

RESUMO

This study was part of the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study on Social Development. The subjects (196 males, 173 females) were studied at age 8, 14 and 26. Three components in drinking habits were obtained at age 26: social, problem and controlled drinking. Moderate to severe problem drinking was obtained for 26% of the men and 1% of the women, and mild problem drinking for 23% of the men and 15% of the women. Problem drinking (defined by the CAGE Questionnaire, arrest for alcohol abuse and other indicators of heavy drinking) was directly accounted for by poor school success at age 14 and, for men, by conduct problems and low anxiety. Variables at age 8 that contributed indirectly to adult problem drinking were aggression, low anxiety, low prosociality and poor school success for men, and high anxiety and poor school success for women. Women and men differed in the effect of social anxiety; in men, anxiety was a protective factor against problem drinking; in women, it was a risk factor. Although conduct problems often precede severe problem drinking, other risk factors may exist among sons of alcoholic parents. Parental drinking had a significant threshold effect on male off-springs' drinking: if parental drinking was low, there was less problem drinking among the male offspring than if a mild dependence on alcohol was observed in the parents.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Logro , Adulto , Agressão , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Finlândia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
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