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1.
Nat Med ; 26(2): 236-243, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959990

RESUMO

Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DiHS/DRESS) is a potentially fatal multiorgan inflammatory disease associated with herpesvirus reactivation and subsequent onset of autoimmune diseases1-4. Pathophysiology remains elusive and therapeutic options are limited. Cases refractory to corticosteroid therapy pose a clinical challenge1,5 and approximately 30% of patients with DiHS/DRESS develop complications, including infections and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases1,2,5. Progress in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) provides an opportunity to dissect human disease pathophysiology at unprecedented resolutions6, particularly in diseases lacking animal models, such as DiHS/DRESS. We performed scRNA-seq on skin and blood from a patient with refractory DiHS/DRESS, identifying the JAK-STAT signaling pathway as a potential target. We further showed that central memory CD4+ T cells were enriched with DNA from human herpesvirus 6b. Intervention via tofacitinib enabled disease control and tapering of other immunosuppressive agents. Tofacitinib, as well as antiviral agents, suppressed culprit-induced T cell proliferation in vitro, further supporting the roles of the JAK-STAT pathway and herpesviruses in mediating the adverse drug reaction. Thus, scRNA-seq analyses guided successful therapeutic intervention in the patient with refractory DiHS/DRESS. scRNA-seq may improve our understanding of complicated human disease pathophysiology and provide an alternative approach in personalized medicine.

3.
J Clin Invest ; 130(1): 507-522, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714901

RESUMO

X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, EBV infection, and neoplasia (XMEN) disease are caused by deficiency of the magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1) gene. We studied 23 patients with XMEN, 8 of whom were EBV naive. We observed lymphadenopathy (LAD), cytopenias, liver disease, cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), and increased CD4-CD8-B220-TCRαß+ T cells (αßDNTs), in addition to the previously described features of an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio, CD4+ T lymphocytopenia, increased B cells, dysgammaglobulinemia, and decreased expression of the natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) receptor. EBV-associated B cell malignancies occurred frequently in EBV-infected patients. We studied patients with XMEN and patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) by deep immunophenotyping (32 immune markers) using time-of-flight mass cytometry (CyTOF). Our analysis revealed that the abundance of 2 populations of naive B cells (CD20+CD27-CD22+IgM+HLA-DR+CXCR5+CXCR4++CD10+CD38+ and CD20+CD27-CD22+IgM+HLA-DR+CXCR5+CXCR4+CD10-CD38-) could differentially classify XMEN, ALPS, and healthy individuals. We also performed glycoproteomics analysis on T lymphocytes and show that XMEN disease is a congenital disorder of glycosylation that affects a restricted subset of glycoproteins. Transfection of MAGT1 mRNA enabled us to rescue proteins with defective glycosylation. Together, these data provide new clinical and pathophysiological foundations with important ramifications for the diagnosis and treatment of XMEN disease.

4.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-12, 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833428

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) normally infects B cells, but in some persons the virus infects T or NK cells. Infection of B cells can result in infectious mononucleosis, and the virus is associated with several B cell malignancies including Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Infection of T or NK cells with EBV is associated with extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, aggressive NK-cell leukemia, systemic EBV-associated T-cell lymphoma, and chronic active EBV disease, which in some cases can include hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoproliferative disease and severe mosquito bite allergy. While NK and T cell lymphoproliferative disease is more common in Asia and Latin America, increasing numbers of cases are being reported from the United States and Europe. This review focuses on classification, clinical findings, pathogenesis, and recent genetic advances in NK and T cell lymphoproliferative diseases associated with EBV.

5.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(520)2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776286

RESUMO

Nearly all chronic human infections are associated with alterations in the memory B cell (MBC) compartment, including a large expansion of CD19hiT-bethi MBC in the peripheral blood of HIV-infected individuals with chronic viremia. Despite their prevalence, it is unclear how these B cells arise and whether they contribute to the inefficiency of antibody-mediated immunity in chronic infectious diseases. We addressed these questions by characterizing T-bet-expressing B cells in lymph nodes (LN) and identifying a strong T-bet signature among HIV-specific MBC associated with poor immunologic outcome. Confocal microscopy and quantitative imaging revealed that T-bethi B cells in LN of HIV-infected chronically viremic individuals distinctly accumulated outside germinal centers (GC), which are critical for optimal antibody responses. In single-cell analyses, LN T-bethi B cells of HIV-infected individuals were almost exclusively found among CD19hi MBC and expressed reduced GC-homing receptors. Furthermore, HIV-specific B cells of infected individuals were enriched among LN CD19hiT-bethi MBC and displayed a distinct transcriptome, with features similar to CD19hiT-bethi MBC in blood and LN GC B cells (GCBC). LN CD19hiT-bethi MBC were also related to GCBC by B cell receptor (BCR)-based phylogenetic linkage but had lower BCR mutation frequencies and reduced HIV-neutralizing capacity, consistent with diminished participation in GC-mediated affinity selection. Thus, in the setting of chronic immune activation associated with HIV viremia, failure of HIV-specific B cells to enter or remain in GC may help explain the rarity of high-affinity protective antibodies.

6.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764221

RESUMO

The diagnosis of nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL) can be challenging, with the differential diagnosis including other low-grade B-cell lymphomas, reactive hyperplasia, and even some cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). PTCL may have a perifollicular growth pattern mimicking NMZL. We and others have noted an atypical distribution of T-follicular helper (TFH) cells in some cases of NMZL. This study was prompted by the diagnosis of NMZL in several cases in which a marked increase of TFH cells, as determined by staining for programmed death-1 (PD1), had prompted suspicion for a diagnosis of PTCL. We analyzed PD1 staining in 48 cases of NMZL to characterize the extent and pattern of the PD1-positive infiltrate. Three main patterns of PD1 staining were identified: follicular pattern (peripheral, n=16; central, n=9; mixed, n=3), diffuse pattern (n=4), and a reduced or normal staining pattern in residual follicles (n=16). A comprehensive analysis of other TFH markers was undertaken in 14 cases with a high content of PD1-positive cells that were confirmed as B-cell lymphoma by clonality analysis. We describe in detail 5 of these cases in which PTCL was an initial consideration. This study illuminates the diverse immunohistochemical patterns encountered in NMZL and highlights a diagnostic pitfall important for diagnostic accuracy.

7.
Virchows Arch ; 475(6): 771-779, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686194

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to review the histopathological, phenotypic, and molecular characteristics of pediatric-type follicular lymphoma (PTFL) and to assess the diagnostic value of novel immunohistochemical markers in distinguishing PTFL from follicular hyperplasia (FH). A total of 13 nodal PTFLs were investigated using immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and PCR and were compared with a further 20 reactive lymph nodes showing FH. Morphologically, PTFL cases exhibited a follicular growth pattern with irregular lymphoid follicles in which the germinal centers were composed of numerous blastoid cells showing a starry-sky appearance. Immunohistochemistry highlighted preserved CD10 (13/13) and BCL6 (13/13) staining, CD20 (13/13) positivity, a K light chain predominance (7/13), and partial BCL2 expression in 6/13 cases (using antibodies 124, E17, and SP66). The germinal center (GC)-associated markers stathmin and LLT-1 were positive in most of the cases (12/13 and 12/13, respectively). Interestingly, FOXP-1 was uniformly positive in PTFL (12/13 cases) in contrast to reactive GCs in FH, where only a few isolated positive cells were observed. FISH revealed no evidence of BCL2, BCL6, or MYC rearrangements in the examined cases. By PCR, clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements were detected in 100% of the tested PTFL cases. Our study confirmed the unique morphological and immunophenotypic features of PTFL and suggests that FOXP-1 can represent a novel useful diagnostic marker in the differential diagnosis between PTFL and FH.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Linfoma Folicular/metabolismo , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Linfoma de Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Masculino , Estatmina/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Clin Nucl Med ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693620

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare immune dysregulatory condition, usually presenting in childhood with massive lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and an increased incidence of lymphoma. Methods to differentiate between benign ALPS adenopathy and lymphoma are needed. To this end, we evaluated the usefulness of FDG PET. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 76 ALPS/ALPS-like patients including FS-7-associated surface antigen (FAS) germline mutation with (n = 4) and without lymphoma (n = 50), FAS-somatic (n = 6), ALPS-unknown (n = 6), and others (n = 10) who underwent FDG PET. Uptakes in 14 nodal sites, liver, and spleen were determined. RESULTS: In 76 ALPS patients, FDG PET showed uptake in multiple nodal sites in all but 1 patient. The highest SUVmax values in FAS mutation without lymphoma, FAS mutation with lymphoma, FAS somatic, ALPS-unknown, and other genetic mutations were a median (range) 9.2 (4.3-25), 16.2 (10.7-37.2), 7.6 (4.6-18.1), 11.5 (4.8-17.2), and 5.5 (0-15.3), respectively. Differences between uptake in the FAS group with and without lymphoma were statistically significant, but overlapped, making discrimination between individuals with/without lymphoma impossible. The spleen:liver uptake ratio was greater than 1 in 82% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: While statistically significant differences were observed in FAS mutation ALPS with and without lymphoma, the significant overlap in FDG uptake and visual appearance in many patients prevents discrimination between patients with and without lymphoma. Similar patterns of FDG biodistribution were noted between the various ALPS subgroups.

9.
Clin Nucl Med ; 44(12): 949-955, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689275

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare immune dysregulatory condition, usually presenting in childhood with massive lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and an increased incidence of lymphoma. Methods to differentiate between benign ALPS adenopathy and lymphoma are needed. To this end, we evaluated the usefulness of FDG PET. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 76 ALPS/ALPS-like patients including FS-7-associated surface antigen (FAS) germline mutation with (n = 4) and without lymphoma (n = 50), FAS-somatic (n = 6), ALPS-unknown (n = 6), and others (n = 10) who underwent FDG PET. Uptakes in 14 nodal sites, liver, and spleen were determined. RESULTS: In 76 ALPS patients, FDG PET showed uptake in multiple nodal sites in all but 1 patient. The highest SUVmax values in FAS mutation without lymphoma, FAS mutation with lymphoma, FAS somatic, ALPS-unknown, and other genetic mutations were a median (range) 9.2 (4.3-25), 16.2 (10.7-37.2), 7.6 (4.6-18.1), 11.5 (4.8-17.2), and 5.5 (0-15.3), respectively. Differences between uptake in the FAS group with and without lymphoma were statistically significant, but overlapped, making discrimination between individuals with/without lymphoma impossible. The spleen:liver uptake ratio was greater than 1 in 82% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: While statistically significant differences were observed in FAS mutation ALPS with and without lymphoma, the significant overlap in FDG uptake and visual appearance in many patients prevents discrimination between patients with and without lymphoma. Similar patterns of FDG biodistribution were noted between the various ALPS subgroups.


Assuntos
Síndrome Linfoproliferativa Autoimune/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Adolescente , Adulto , Síndrome Linfoproliferativa Autoimune/complicações , Síndrome Linfoproliferativa Autoimune/genética , Síndrome Linfoproliferativa Autoimune/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/farmacocinética , Humanos , Linfoma/complicações , Masculino , Mutação , Esplenomegalia/complicações , Distribuição Tecidual , Adulto Jovem , Receptor fas/genética
10.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 269, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thymic epithelial tumors are PD-L1-expressing tumors of thymic epithelial origin characterized by varying degrees of lymphocytic infiltration and a predisposition towards development of paraneoplastic autoimmunity. PD-1-targeting antibodies have been evaluated, largely in patients with thymic carcinoma. We sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the anti-PD-L1 antibody, avelumab (MSB0010718C), in patients with relapsed, advanced thymic epithelial tumors and conduct correlative immunological studies. METHODS: Seven patients with thymoma and one patient with thymic carcinoma were enrolled in a phase I, dose-escalation trial of avelumab (MSB0010718C), and treated with avelumab at doses of 10 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg every 2 weeks until disease progression or development of intolerable side effects. Tissue and blood immunological analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Two of seven (29%) patients with thymoma had a confirmed Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors-defined partial response, two (29%) had an unconfirmed partial response and three patients (two thymoma; one thymic carcinoma) had stable disease (43%). Three of four responses were observed after a single dose of avelumab. All responders developed immune-related adverse events that resolved with immunosuppressive therapy. Only one of four patients without a clinical response developed immune-related adverse events. Responders had a higher absolute lymphocyte count, lower frequencies of B cells, regulatory T cells, conventional dendritic cells, and natural killer cells prior to therapy. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate anti-tumor activity of PD-L1 inhibition in patients with relapsed thymoma accompanied by a high frequency of immune-related adverse events. Pre-treatment immune cell subset populations differ between responders and non-responders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov - NCT01772004 . Date of registration - January 21, 2013.

11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4364, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554793

RESUMO

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-gamma (PI3Kγ) is highly expressed in leukocytes and is an attractive drug target for immune modulation. Different experimental systems have led to conflicting conclusions regarding inflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions of PI3Kγ. Here, we report a human patient with bi-allelic, loss-of-function mutations in PIK3CG resulting in absence of the p110γ catalytic subunit of PI3Kγ. She has a history of childhood-onset antibody defects, cytopenias, and T lymphocytic pneumonitis and colitis, with reduced peripheral blood memory B, memory CD8+ T, and regulatory T cells and increased CXCR3+ tissue-homing CD4 T cells. PI3Kγ-deficient macrophages and monocytes produce elevated inflammatory IL-12 and IL-23 in a GSK3α/ß-dependent manner upon TLR stimulation. Pik3cg-deficient mice recapitulate major features of human disease after exposure to natural microbiota through co-housing with pet-store mice. Together, our results emphasize the physiological importance of PI3Kγ in restraining inflammation and promoting appropriate adaptive immune responses in both humans and mice.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Classe Ib de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Microbiota/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Classe Ib de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/deficiência , Classe Ib de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
14.
Haematologica ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439678

RESUMO

Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm that may occur de novo or in the context of a previous hematologic malignancy or mediastinal germ cell tumor. Here, we performed whole exome sequencing and RNA-Seq on twenty-one archival cases of primary histiocytic sarcoma. We identified a high number of genetic alterations within the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway in 21/21 cases, with alterations in NF1 (6/21), MAP2K1 (5/21), PTPN11 (4/21), BRAF (4/21), KRAS (4/21), NRAS (1/21) and LZTR1 (1/21), including single cases with homozygous deletion of NF1, high-level amplification of PTPN11 and a novel TTYH3-BRAF fusion. Concurrent NF1 and PTPN11 mutations were present in 3/21 cases, and 5/7 cases with alterations in NF1 and/or PTPN11 had disease involving the gastrointestinal tract. Following unsupervised clustering of gene expression data, cases with NF1 and/or PTPN11 abnormalities formed a distinct tumor subgroup. A subset of NF1/PTPN11 wild-type cases had frequent mutations in B-cell lymphoma associated genes and/or clonal IG gene rearrangements. Our findings expand the current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this rare tumor and suggest the existence of a distinct subtype of primary histiocytic sarcoma characterized by NF1/PTPN11 alterations with predilection for the gastrointestinal tract.

15.
Blood ; 133(26): 2753-2764, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064750

RESUMO

Patients with classic hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoproliferative disorder (HVLPD) typically have high levels of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in T cells and/or natural killer (NK) cells in blood and skin lesions induced by sun exposure that are infiltrated with EBV-infected lymphocytes. HVLPD is very rare in the United States and Europe but more common in Asia and South America. The disease can progress to a systemic form that may result in fatal lymphoma. We report our 11-year experience with 16 HVLPD patients from the United States and England and found that whites were less likely to develop systemic EBV disease (1/10) than nonwhites (5/6). All (10/10) of the white patients were generally in good health at last follow-up, while two-thirds (4/6) of the nonwhite patients required hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Nonwhite patients had later age of onset of HVLPD than white patients (median age, 8 vs 5 years) and higher levels of EBV DNA (median, 1 515 000 vs 250 000 copies/ml) and more often had low numbers of NK cells (83% vs 50% of patients) and T-cell clones in the blood (83% vs 30% of patients). RNA-sequencing analysis of an HVLPD skin lesion in a white patient compared with his normal skin showed increased expression of interferon-γ and chemokines that attract T cells and NK cells. Thus, white patients with HVLPD were less likely to have systemic disease with EBV and had a much better prognosis than nonwhite patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00369421 and #NCT00032513.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/patologia , Hidroa Vaciniforme/virologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/patologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/etnologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/etnologia , Masculino
16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(16): 4945-4954, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142503

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The first-in-human clinical trial with human bolus intravenous infusion IL15 (rhIL15) was limited by treatment-associated toxicity. Here, we report toxicity, immunomodulation, and clinical activity of rhIL15 administered as a 10-day continuous intravenous infusion (CIV) to patients with cancers in a phase I trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received treatment for 10 days with CIV rhIL15 in doses of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 µg/kg/day. Correlative laboratory tests included IL15 pharmacokinetic (PK) analyses, and assessment of changes in lymphocyte subset numbers. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients were treated with rhIL15; 2 µg/kg/day was identified as the MTD. There were eight serious adverse events including two bleeding events, papilledema, uveitis, pneumonitis, duodenal erosions, and two deaths (one due to likely drug-related gastrointestinal ischemia). Evidence of antitumor effects was observed in several patients, but stable disease was the best response noted. Patients in the 2 µg/kg/day group had a 5.8-fold increase in number of circulating CD8+ T cells, 38-fold increase in total NK cells, and 358-fold increase in CD56bright NK cells. Serum IL15 concentrations were markedly lower during the last 3 days of infusion. CONCLUSIONS: This phase I trial identified the MTD for CIV rhIL15 and defined a treatment regimen that produced significant expansions of CD8+ T and NK effector cells in circulation and tumor deposits. This regimen has identified several biological features, including dramatic increases in numbers of NK cells, supporting trials of IL15 with anticancer mAbs to increase antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and anticancer efficacy.

17.
Histopathology ; 75(2): 282-286, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938862

RESUMO

Intravascular large B cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare, aggressive, extranodal large B cell lymphoma characterised by growth of tumour cells within the lumen of vessels, particularly capillaries. Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a cell surface glycoprotein that interacts with programmed death 1 (PD-1) on the T cell surface, leading to modulation of the immune response. PD-L1 is a targetable immune check-point molecule that is expressed on neoplastic cells in various cancers, including a subset of lymphomas. We correlated the expression of PD-L1 with clinical and pathological findings in this rare disease. Eleven cases of IVLBCL were identified in the archives of Laboratory of Pathology at the National Cancer Institute, NIH. A panel of immunostains (CD20, CD3, CD5, PD-L1) was performed. The cases were classified as the classic form or the variant associated with haemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) based on published 2017 WHO criteria. Three cases (27.3%) were HPS variant and eight cases (72.7%) were the classic form. Five (45.5%) of 11 cases were CD5-positive; two of three (66%) were HPS variants and three of eight (37.5%) were classic form. Overall, four of nine evaluable cases (44.4%) were positive for PD-L1, three of which were classic. Only one CD5-positive case was PD-L1-positive, a classic variant. In summary, a subset of IVLBCL express PD-L1. Although limited, these data suggest that PD-L1 is expressed in both the so-called classic form as well as the HPS variant. PD-L1 is expressed irrespective of CD5 expression. Finally, detection of PD-L1 expression in a subset of IVLBCL lymphoma cases may identify patients who might benefit from targeted immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Front Immunol ; 10: 77, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891027

RESUMO

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) plays an integral role in lymphocyte function. Mutations in PIK3CD and PIK3R1, encoding the PI3K p110δ and p85α subunits, respectively, cause increased PI3K activity and result in immunodeficiency with immune dysregulation. We describe here the first cases of disseminated and congenital toxoplasmosis in a mother and child who share a pathogenic mutation in PIK3R1 and review the mechanisms underlying susceptibility to severe Toxoplasma gondii infection in activated PI3Kδ syndrome (APDS) and in other forms of primary immunodeficiency.


Assuntos
Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Classe Ia de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Mutação/genética , Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Toxoplasmose Congênita/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Lactente , Linfadenopatia , Mães , Fenótipo , Toxoplasmose Congênita/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Congênita/genética
19.
Blood ; 133(16): 1753-1761, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782610

RESUMO

Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive HIV-associated lymphoma with a relatively poor prognosis in the era of effective HIV therapy. Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent, and ∼80% of tumors are coinfected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). A better understanding of how KSHV-related immune dysregulation contributes to the natural history of PEL will improve outcomes. Twenty patients with PEL diagnosed between 2000 and 2013, including 19 treated with modified infusional etoposide, vincristine, and doxorubicin with cyclophosphamide and prednisone (EPOCH), were identified. We compared their clinical, virologic, and immunologic features vs 20 patients with HIV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and 19 patients with symptomatic interleukin (IL)-6 related KSHV-associated multicentric Castleman disease. Survival analyses of treated patients with PEL were then performed to identify prognostic factors and cancer-specific mortality. Compared with HIV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, PEL was associated with significant hypoalbuminemia (P < .0027), thrombocytopenia (P = .0045), and elevated IL-10 levels (P < .0001). There were no significant differences in these parameters between PEL and KSHV-associated multicentric Castleman disease. Median overall survival in treated patients with PEL was 22 months, with a plateau in survival noted after 2 years. Three-year cancer-specific survival was 47%. EBV-positive tumor status was associated with improved survival (hazard ratio, 0.27; P = .038), and elevated IL-6 level was associated with inferior survival (hazard ratio, 6.1; P = .024). Our analysis shows that IL-6 and IL-10 levels contribute to the natural history of PEL. Inflammatory cytokines and tumor EBV status are the strongest prognostic factors. Pathogenesis-directed first-line regimens are needed to improve overall survival in PEL.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/virologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/virologia , Linfoma de Efusão Primária/patologia , Sarcoma de Kaposi/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Herpesvirus Humano 8 , Humanos , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Linfoma de Efusão Primária/complicações , Linfoma de Efusão Primária/imunologia , Linfoma de Efusão Primária/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sarcoma de Kaposi/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
20.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 60(8): 2062-2066, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626252

RESUMO

To evaluate the feasibility and clinical efficacy of the combination of alemtuzumab with dose-adjusted etoposide/cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisone (DA-EPOCH) as upfront therapy for untreated aggressive T and NK cell lymphomas, a phase 1/2 trial was conducted. Thirty patients were treated with the study regimen, consisting of alemtuzumab on day 1 of a 21 day cycle with standard dosing of DA-EPOCH for 6-8 cycles. Alemtuzumab 30 mg IV was used for the phase 2 component. Of 30 treated patients, 17 had a complete response (CR) and eight had a partial response (83.3% overall response rate). The median overall survival and progression-free survival were 20.2 and 6.6 months, respectively. There were five treatment-related deaths on study mainly due to infectious complications, including one case each of disseminated toxoplasmosis and pneumonia and two cases of sepsis. Alemtuzumab with DA-EPOCH is of limited clinical utility due to unacceptable toxicity, despite the high rate of CR.

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