Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 237
Filtrar
1.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corticotroph tumor progression (CTP) leading to Nelson's syndrome (NS) is a severe and difficult-to-treat complication subsequent to bilateral adrenalectomy (BADX) for Cushing's disease. Its characteristics are not well described, and consensus recommendations for diagnosis and treatment are missing. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed focusing on clinical studies and case series (≥5 patients). Definition, incidence, treatment and long-term outcomes of CTP/NS after BADX were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results were presented and discussed at an interdisciplinary consensus workshop attended by international pituitary experts in Munich on October 28th, 2018. RESULTS: Data covered definition and incidence (34 studies, 1275 patients), surgical outcome (12 studies, 187 patients), outcome of radiation therapy (21 studies, 273 patients), and medical therapy (15 studies, 72 patients). CONCLUSIONS: We endorse the definition of CTP-BADX/NS as radiological progression or new detection of a pituitary tumor on thin-section MRI. We recommend surveillance by MRI after 3 months and every 12 months for the first 3 years after BADX. Subsequently, we suggest clinical evaluation every 12 months and MRI at increasing intervals every 2-4 years (depending on ACTH and clinical parameters). We recommend pituitary surgery as first-line therapy in patients with CTP-BADX/NS. Surgery should be performed before extrasellar expansion of the tumor to obtain complete and long-term remission. Conventional radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery should be utilized as second-line treatment for remnant tumor tissue showing extrasellar extension.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33363514

RESUMO

Cushing's disease (CD) is a serious endocrine disorder characterized by chronic hypercortisolism, or Cushing's syndrome (CS), caused by a corticotroph pituitary tumor, which induces an excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and consequently cortisol secretion. CD presents a severe clinical burden, with impairment of the quality of life and increase in mortality. Pituitary surgery represents the first-line therapy, but it is non-curative in one third of patients, requiring additional treatments. Among second-line treatments, medical therapy is gradually gaining importance, although the current medical treatments are unable to reach optimal efficacy and safety profile. Therefore, new drugs and new formulations of presently available drugs are currently under clinical investigation in international clinical trials, in order to assess their efficacy and safety in CD, or in the general population of CS. Among pituitary-directed agents, pasireotide, in the twice-daily subcutaneous formulation, has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment both in clinical trials and in real-world studies, and extension studies of the phase II and III clinical trials reported evidence of long-term efficacy with general good safety profile, although associated with frequent hyperglycemia, which requires monitoring of glucose metabolism. Moreover, the most recent once-monthly intramuscular formulation, pasireotide long-acting release (LAR), showed similar efficacy and safety, but associated with potential better compliance profile in CD. Roscovitine is an experimental drug currently under investigation. Among adrenal-directed agents, metyrapone is the only historical agent currently under investigation in a prospective, multicenter, international clinical trial, that would likely clarify its efficacy and safety in a large population of patients with CS. Osilodrostat, a novel agent with a mechanism of action similar to metyrapone, seems to offer a rapid, sustained, and effective disease control of CD, according to recently completed clinical trials, whereas levoketoconazole, a different chemical formulation of the historical agent ketoconazole, is still under investigation in clinical trials, with preliminary evidences showing an effective and safe control of CS. ATR-101 is an experimental drug currently under investigation. Among glucocorticoid receptor-directed drugs, mifepristone has been demonstrated to improve clinical syndrome and comorbidities, especially hypertension and impairment of glucose metabolism, but the occurrence of hypokalemia and in women uterine disorders, due to the concomitant action on progestin receptor, requires caution, whereas the preliminary evidence on relacorilant, characterized by high selectivity for glucocorticoid receptor, suggested good efficacy in the control of hypertension and impairment of glucose metabolism, as well as a good safety profile, in CS. Finally, a limited experience has demonstrated that combination therapy might be an interesting approach in the management of CD. The current review provides a summary of the available evidences from current and recent clinical trials on CD, with a specific focus on preliminary data.

4.
Neuroendocrinology ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130679

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/AIM: Circadian rhythm disruption is emerging as a risk factor for metabolic disorders and particularly, alterations in clock genes circadian expression have been shown to influence insulin sensitivity. Recently, the reciprocal interplay between the circadian clock machinery and HPA axis has been largely demonstrated: the circadian clock may control the physiological circadian endogenous glucocorticoids secretion and action; glucocorticoids, in turn, are potent regulator of the circadian clock and their inappropriate replacement has been associated with metabolic impairment. The aim of the current study was to investigate in vitro the interaction between the timing-of-the-day exposure to different hydrocortisone (HC) concentrations on muscle insulin sensitivity. METHODS: Serum-shock synchronized mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 cells were exposed to different HC concentrations recapitulating the circulating daily physiological cortisol profile (standard cortisol profile), the circulating daily cortisol profile that reached in adrenal insufficient (AI) patients treated with once-daily MR-HC (flat cortisol profile) and treated with thrice-daily of conventional IR-HC (steep cortisol profile). The 24 hrs spontaneous oscillation of the clock genes in synchronized C2C12 cells was used to align the timing for in vitro HC exposure (Bmal1 acrophase, midphase and bathyphase) with the reference times of cortisol peaks in AI treated with IR-HC (8 am, 1 pm, 6 pm). A panel of 84 insulin sensitivity related genes and intracellular insulin signaling proteins were analyzed by RT-qPCR and western blot, respectively. RESULTS: Only the steep profile, characterized by a higher HC exposure during Bmal1 bathyphase, produced significant downregulation in 21 insulin sensitivity-related genes. Among these, Insr, Irs1, Irs2, Pi3kca and Adipor2 were downregulated when compared the flat to the standard or steep profile. Reduced intracellular IRS1 Tyr608, AKT Ser473, AMPK Thr172 and ACC Ser79 phosphorylations were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: The current study demonstrated that is late-in-the-day cortisol exposure that modulates insulin sensitivity-related genes expression and intracellular insulin signaling in skeletal muscle cells.

5.
Pituitary ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216275

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The efficacy of levoketoconazole in treating hypercortisolism was demonstrated in an open-label phase 3 study (SONICS) of adults with endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) and baseline mean urinary free cortisol (mUFC) ≥ 1.5× ULN. Clinical signs and symptoms and patient-reported outcomes from the SONICS trial were evaluated in the current manuscript. METHODS: Patients titrated to an individualized therapeutic dose entered a 6-month maintenance phase. Secondary endpoints included investigator-graded clinical signs and symptoms of CS during the maintenance phase, and patient-reported quality of life (CushingQoL questionnaire) and depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory II [BDI-II]). RESULTS: Of 94 enrolled patients, 77 entered the maintenance phase following individualized dose titration. Significant mean improvements from baseline were noted at end of maintenance (Month 6) for acne, hirsutism (females only), and peripheral edema. These improvements were observed as early as Day 1 of maintenance for hirsutism (mean baseline score, 7.8; ∆ - 1.9; P < 0.0001), end of Month 1 for acne (mean baseline score, 2.8; ∆ - 1.2; P = 0.0481), and Month 4 for peripheral edema (mean baseline score, 1.0; ∆ - 0.5; P = 0.0052). Significant mean improvements from baseline were observed by Month 3 of maintenance for CushingQoL (mean baseline score, 44.3; ∆ + 6.9; P = 0.0018) and at Month 6 for BDI-II (mean baseline score, 17.1; ∆ - 4.3; P = 0.0043) scores. No significant mean improvement was identified in a composite score of 7 other clinical signs and symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with levoketoconazole was associated with sustained, meaningful improvements in QoL, depression, and certain clinical signs and symptoms characteristic of CS. ClinialTrials.gov identifier: NCT01838551.

6.
Neuroendocrinology ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242856

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak is a global public health issue, having profound effects on most aspects of societal well-being, including physical and mental health. A plethora of studies, globally, have suggested the existence of a sex disparity in the outcome of COVID-19 patients, that is mainly due to mechanisms of viral infection, immune response to the virus, development of a hyperinflammation, and development of systemic complications, particularly thromboembolism. These differences appear to be more pronounced in elderly COVID-19 patients. Epidemiological data report a sex difference in the severity and outcome of COVID-19 disease with a more favourable course of the disease in women compared to men, regardless of age range although the rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection seems to be similar in both sexes. Sex hormones, including androgens and estrogens, may not only impact viral entry and load, but also shape the clinical manifestations, complications and, ultimately, the outcome of COVID-19 disease. The current review comprehensively summarizes current literature on sex disparities in susceptibility and outcomes of COVID-19 disease as well as the literature underpinning the pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms, which may provide a rationale to a sex disparity. These include sex hormone influences on molecules that facilitate virus entry and priming, as well as the immune and inflammatory response, as well as coagulation and thrombosis diathesis. Based on present evidence, women appear to be relatively protected from COVID-19 because of a more effective immune response and a less pronounced systemic inflammation, with consequent moderate clinical manifestations of the disease, together with a lesser predisposition to thromboembolism. Conversely, men appear to be particularly susceptible to COVID-19 disease because of a less effective immune response with consequent increased susceptibility to infections, together with a greater predisposition to thromboembolism. In elderlies, sex disparities in overall mortality following SARS-CoV-2 infection is even more palpable, as elderly men appear more prone to severe COVID-19 because of a greater predisposition to infections, a weaker immune defence and an enhanced thrombotic state compared to women. The review highlights potential novel therapeutic approaches employing the administration of hormonal or anti-hormonal therapy in combination with antiviral drugs in COVID-19 patients.

7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 594370, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162942

RESUMO

Over the last years, increasing evidence has focused on crucial pathogenetic role of PRL on malignant, premalignant and benign uterine diseases. Studies in animals and humans have documented that PRL receptors (PRL-Rs) are widely expressed on uterine cells and that PRL is directly synthesized by the endometrium under the stimulatory action of progesterone. Uterine PRL secretion is finely modulated by autocrine/paracrine mechanisms which do not depend on the same control factors implied in the regulation of PRL secretion from pituitary. On the other hand, PRL is synthesized also in the myometrium and directly promotes uterine smooth muscle cell growth and proliferation. Therefore, PRL and PRL-Rs appear to play an important role for the activation of signaling pathways involved in uterine cancers and preneoplastic lesions. Circulating PRL levels are reportedly increased in patients with cervical or endometrial cancers, as well as uterine premalignant lesions, and might be used as discriminative biomarker in patients with uterine cancers. Similarly, increased PRL levels have been implicated in the endometriosis-induced infertility, albeit a clear a causative role for PRL in the pathogenesis of endometriosis is yet to be demonstrated. This evidence has suggested the potential application of dopamine agonists in the therapeutic algorithm of women with malignant, premalignant and benign uterine lesions. This review focuses on the role of PRL as tumorigenic factor for uterus and the outcome of medical treatment with dopamine agonists in patients with malignant and benign uterine disease.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025384

RESUMO

The pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is causing high and rapid morbidity and mortality. Immune system response plays a crucial role in controlling and resolving the viral infection. Exogenous or endogenous glucocorticoid excess is characterized by increased susceptibility to infections, due to impairment of the innate and adaptive immune system. In addition, diabetes, hypertension, obesity and thromboembolism are conditions overrepresented in patients with hypercortisolism. Thus patients with chronic glucocorticoid (GC) excess may be at high risk of developing COVID-19 infection with a severe clinical course. Care and control of all comorbidities should be one of the primary goals in patients with hypercortisolism requiring immediate and aggressive treatment. The European Society of Endocrinology (ESE), has recently commissioned an urgent clinical guidance document on management of Cushing's syndrome in a COVID-19 period. In this review, we aim to discuss and expand some clinical points related to GC excess that may have an impact on COVID-19 infection, in terms of both contagion risk and clinical outcome. This document is addressed to all specialists who approach patients with endogenous or exogenous GC excess and COVID-19 infection.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) is the major regulator of ACTH secretion from the anterior pituitary and acts via CRH-1 receptors (CRH-1R). Corticotropinoma though autonomous still retain their responsiveness to CRH and hence, we hypothesize that in vivo detection of CRH-1 receptors on pituitary adenoma using Gallium-68 ( 68Ga) tagged CRH can indicate the functionality of adenoma and combining it with Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) can provide requisite anatomical information. METHODS: Subjects with ACTH dependent Cushing's syndrome (CS) [n = 27, 24: Cushing's disease (CD), 3: ectopic Cushing's syndrome (ECS)] underwent 68Ga CRH PET-CT. Two nuclear medicine physicians read these images for adenoma delineation and superimposed them on MRI sella. The information so provided was used for intra-operative navigation and compared with operative and histopathological findings. FINDINGS: 68Ga CRH PET-CT correctly delineated corticotropinoma in all the 24 cases of CD, including the ten cases with size < 6mm (four cases negative on MRI). Corticotropinoma location on 68Ga CRH PET fusion images with MRI were concordant with operative findings and further confirmed on histopathology. There was no tracer uptake in pituitary in two patients with ECS while in another, the diffuse uptake in pituitary suggested ectopic CRH production. CONCLUSION: 68Ga CRH PET-CT represents a novel non-invasive molecular imaging targeting CRH receptors that not only delineates corticotropinoma and provides surgeon with valuable information for intra-operative tumour navigation but also helps in differentiating pituitary from extra-pituitary source of ACTH dependent Cushing's syndrome.

10.
Minerva Endocrinol ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969626

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The concept of subclinical or compensated male hypogonadism (SHG), characterized by increased gonadotropins and normal testosterone levels is emerging. However, its real clinical significance is still conflicting. The aim of the present study is to summarize and discuss the available evidence related to the possible definition of SHG and the possible advantages of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive systematic Medline, Embase and Cochrane search was performed. Publications from January 1, 1969 up to February 29th, 2020 were included. The search was restricted to English-language articles and studies of human participants. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Two main clinical forms of SHG can be described. The first identifies young patients who have a positive medical history for testis damage occurring before puberty onset. The second form can occur as a consequence of an age-dependent decline of T. Whereas the former can be the consequence of several congenital or acquired diseases, also possible causes of primary hypogonadism, the real significance of the latter is still debatable. Available evidence indicates that age-related SHG is quite a common phenomenon, occurring in 9.4% of aging men from the general population. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data have documented that it is associated with poor health and can be a sign of forthcoming increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Although available evidence suggests that in aging populations SHG can be considered a particular condition associated with an increased CV risk, it is still unknown if treatment with T can improve any outcomes in these subjects. Hence, further interventional studies are advisable in order to better understand the characteristics of SHG and the possible advantages of an early TRT.

11.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(9): 748-761, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cushing's disease is a rare endocrine disorder characterised by cortisol overproduction with severe complications. Therapies for cortisol reduction are often necessary. Here we report the outcomes from the pivotal phase III study of osilodrostat (a potent oral inhibitor of cytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrial [11ß-hydroxylase]; Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland) in patients with Cushing's disease. METHODS: LINC 3 was a prospective, multicentre, open-label, phase III study with a double-blind randomised withdrawal period, that comprised four periods. Patients aged 18-75 years, with confirmed persistent or recurrent Cushing's disease (defined as mean 24-h urinary free cortisol [UFC] concentration >1·5 times the upper limit of normal [ULN] and morning plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone above the lower limit of normal) who had previously had pituitary surgery or irradiation, or were newly diagnosed and who refused surgery or were not surgical candidates, were recruited from 66 hospital sites and private clinical practices in 19 countries. In period 1, open-label osilodrostat was initiated in all participants and adjusted every 2 weeks (1-30 mg twice daily; film-coated tablets for oral administration) on the basis of mean 24-h UFC concentration and safety until week 12. In period 2, weeks 13-24, osilodrostat was continued at the therapeutic dose determined during period 1. In period 3, beginning at week 26, participants who had a mean 24-h UFC concentration of less than or equal to the ULN at week 24, without up-titration after week 12, were randomly assigned (1:1), via an interactive-response technology, stratified by osilodrostat dose at week 24 and history of pituitary irradiation, to continue osilodrostat or switch to placebo for 8 weeks. Participants and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. Ineligible participants continued open-label osilodrostat. In period 4, weeks 35-48, all participants were given open-label osilodrostat until core-study end. The primary objective was to compare the efficacy of osilodrostat versus placebo at the end of period 3. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants who had been randomly assigned to treatment or placebo with a complete response (ie, mean 24-h UFC concentration of ≤ULN) at the end of the randomised withdrawal period (week 34), without up-titration during this period. The key secondary endpoint was the proportion of participants with a complete response at the end of the single-arm, open-label period (ie, period 2, week 24) without up-titration during weeks 13-24. Analysis was by intention-to-treat for all patients who received at least one dose of osilodrostat (full analysis set; key secondary endpoint) or randomised treatment (randomised analysis set; primary endpoint) and safety was assessed in all enrolled patients who received at least one dose of osilodrostat and had at least one post-baseline safety assessment. LINC 3 is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02180217, and is now complete. FINDINGS: Between Nov 12, 2014, and March 22, 2017, 202 patients were screened and 137 were enrolled. The median age was 40·0 years (31·0-49·0) and 106 (77%) participants were female. 72 (53%) participants were eligible for randomisation during the withdrawal phase, of whom 36 were assigned to continue osilodrostat and 35 were assigned to placebo; one patient was not randomly assigned due to investigator decision and continued open-label osilodrostat. More patients maintained a complete response with osilodrostat versus with placebo at week 34 (31 [86%] vs ten [29%]; odds ratio 13·7 [95% CI 3·7-53·4]; p<0·0001). At week 24, 72 (53%; 95% CI 43·9-61·1) of 137 patients maintained a complete response without up-titration after week 12. Most common adverse events (ie, occurred in >25% of participants) were nausea (57 [42%]), headache (46 [34%]), fatigue (39 [28%]), and adrenal insufficiency (38 [28%]). Hypocortisolism occurred in 70 (51%) patients and adverse events related to adrenal hormone precursors occurred in 58 (42%) patients. One patient died, unrelated to study drug, after the core study phase. INTERPRETATION: Twice-daily osilodrostat rapidly reduced mean 24-h UFC and sustained this reduction alongside improvements in clinical signs of hypercortisolism; it was also generally well tolerated. Osilodrostat is an effective new treatment option that is approved in Europe for the treatment of endogenous Cushing's syndrome and in the USA for Cushing's disease. FUNDING: Novartis Pharma AG.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP11B2/antagonistas & inibidores , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/diagnóstico , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Citocromo P-450 CYP11B2/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/antagonistas & inibidores , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560347

RESUMO

Increasing interest in studying the role of vitamin D in cancer has been provided by the scientific literature during the last years, although mixed results have been reported. Vitamin D deficiency has been largely associated with various types of solid and non-solid human cancers, and the almost ubiquitous expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) has always led to suppose a crucial role of vitamin D in cancer. However, the association between vitamin D levels and the risk of solid cancers, such as colorectal, prostate and breast cancer, shows several conflicting results that raise questions about the use of vitamin D supplements in cancer patients. Moreover, studies on vitamin D supplementation do not always show improvements in tumor progression and mortality risk, particularly for prostate and breast cancer. Conversely, several molecular studies are in agreement about the role of vitamin D in inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, growth and invasiveness, cell cycle arrest and inflammatory signaling, through which vitamin D may also regulate cancer microenvironment through the activation of different molecular pathways. More recently, a role in the regulation of cancer stem cells proliferation and short non-coding microRNA (miRNAs) expression has emerged, conferring to vitamin D a more crucial role in cancer development and progression. Interestingly, it has been shown that vitamin D is able not only to potentiate the effects of traditional cancer therapy but can even contribute to overcome the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance-often triggering tumor-spreading. At this regard, vitamin D can act at various levels through the regulation of growth of cancer stem cells and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as well as through the modulation of miRNA gene expression. The current review reconsiders epidemiological and molecular literature concerning the role of vitamin D in cancer risk and tumor development and progression, as well as the action of vitamin D supplementation in potentiating the effects of drug therapy and overcoming the mechanisms of resistance often triggered during cancer therapies, by critically addressing strengths and weaknesses of available data from 2010 to 2020.

14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vertebral fractures (VFs) are a frequent complication of acromegaly, but no studies have been so far published on effectiveness of antiosteoporotic drugs in this clinical setting. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether in real-life clinical practice bone active drugs may reduce the risk of VFs in patients with active or controlled acromegaly. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, longitudinal study including 9 tertiary care endocrine units. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and forty-eight patients with acromegaly (104 males; mean age 56.00 ±â€…13.60 years) were evaluated for prevalent and incident VFs by quantitative morphometric approach. Bone active agents were used in 52 patients (20.97%) and the median period of follow-up was 48 months (range 12-132). RESULTS: During the follow-up, 65 patients (26.21%) developed incident VFs in relationship with pre-existing VFs (odds ratio [OR] 3.75; P < .001), duration of active acromegaly (OR 1.01; P = .04), active acromegaly at the study entry (OR 2.48; P = .007), and treated hypoadrenalism (OR 2.50; P = .005). In the entire population, treatment with bone active drugs did not have a significant effect on incident VFs (P = .82). However, in a sensitive analysis restricted to patients with active acromegaly at study entry (111 cases), treatment with bone active drugs was associated with a lower risk of incident VFs (OR 0.11; P = .004), independently of prevalent VFs (OR 7.65; P < .001) and treated hypoadrenalism (OR 3.86; P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: Bone active drugs may prevent VFs in patients with active acromegaly.

16.
Pituitary ; 23(5): 488-497, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449103

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nelson's syndrome (NS) is regarded as an aggressive complication of total bilateral adrenalectomy (TBA) for Cushing's disease (CD). This challenge may be addressed by using clinical criteria to guide frequency of neuroimaging to enable timely management of NS and also avoid unnecessary frequent imaging. METHODS: All patients (n = 43) with CD subjected to TBA over 35 years at a tertiary care centre were included. NS was defined as a newly appearing or expanding (> 2 mm) pituitary adenoma with or without ACTH levels exceeding 500 pg/ml. Pre-and post-TBA parameters like clinical symptomatology, cortisol, ACTH and radiology were analysed for the prediction of NS. RESULTS: NS developed in 39.5% (n = 17) patients with a median follow-up of 7 years. Half of them had new appearance, while rest had an expansion of pre-existing pituitary tumour. Majority (90%) had ACTH above 500 pg/ml. On Cox proportional hazards analysis, frequent discriminatory features of protein catabolism (≥ 4) (HR 1.15, CI 0.18, 7.06), proximal myopathy (HR 8.82, CI 1.12, 69.58) and annual ACTH increment of 113 pg/ml (HR 12.56, CI 1.88, 88.76) predicted NS. First post-operative year ACTH indices predicting NS included ACTH rise of 116 pg/ml and absolute ACTH of 142 pg/ml (sensitivity, specificity exceeding 90%). Annual ACTH increment exceeding 113 pg/ml, ≥ 4 discriminatory features and uncontrolled hypertension had the best overall prediction. CONCLUSION: Patients who developed NS had higher rebound rise of ACTH following TBA and a more severe disease phenotype at baseline. Consistent ACTH increment can be used as a marker for predicting the development of NS.

17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424397

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Appropriate management of adrenal insufficiency (AI) in pregnancy can be challenging due to the rarity of the disease and lack of evidence-based recommendations to guide glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid dosage adjustment. OBJECTIVE: Multicenter survey on current clinical approaches in managing AI during pregnancy. DESIGN: Retrospective anonymized data collection from 19 international centers from 2013 to 2019. SETTING AND PATIENTS: 128 pregnancies in 113 women with different causes of AI: Addison disease (44%), secondary AI (25%), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (25%), and acquired AI due to bilateral adrenalectomy (6%). RESULTS: Hydrocortisone (HC) was the most commonly used glucocorticoid in 83% (97/117) of pregnancies. Glucocorticoid dosage was increased at any time during pregnancy in 73/128 (57%) of cases. In these cases, the difference in the daily dose of HC equivalent between baseline and the third trimester was 8.6 ± 5.4 (range 1-30) mg. Fludrocortisone dosage was increased in fewer cases (7/54 during the first trimester, 9/64 during the second trimester, and 9/62 cases during the third trimester). Overall, an adrenal crisis was reported in 9/128 (7%) pregnancies. Cesarean section was the most frequent mode of delivery at 58% (69/118). Fetal complications were reported in 3/120 (3%) and minor maternal complications in 15/120 (13%) pregnancies without fatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This survey confirms good maternal and fetal outcome in women with AI managed in specialized endocrine centers. An emphasis on careful endocrine follow-up and repeated patient education is likely to have reduced the risk of adrenal crisis and resulted in positive outcomes.

19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(3)2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245135

RESUMO

Mitotane is the main option of treatment for advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However, limited evidence is available regarding the impact of plasma mitotane levels on patient outcome. To address this question, we retrospectively analyzed patients with advanced ACC treated with mitotane for ≥3 months, with ≥3 measurements of plasma mitotane reported in the Lysosafe Online® database (HRA Pharma, France), followed at 12 tertiary centers in Italy from 2005 to 2017. We identified 80 patients, initially treated with mitotane alone (56.2%) or plus chemotherapy (43.8%). The preference toward combination therapy was given to de novo stage IV ACC and younger patients. After the first line of treatment, 25% of valid cases experienced clinical benefit (14.5% objective response, 10.5% stabilization of disease) and 75% progression, without differences between the groups of treatment. Patients with progression had a lower time in the target range (TTR) of plasma mitotane and an unfavorable outcome. Death occurred in 76.2% of cases and multivariate analysis showed that clinical benefit after first treatment and longer TTR were favorable predictors of overall survival (OS). In conclusion, the present findings support the importance of mitotane monitoring and strengthen the concept of a therapeutic window for mitotane.

20.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 99, 2020 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI) is an inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism caused by mutations of either the G6PC gene (GSDIa) or the SLC37A4 gene (GSDIb). Glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) availability has been shown to modulate 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ßHSD1), an ER-bound enzyme catalyzing the local conversion of inactive cortisone into active cortisol. Adrenal cortex assessment has never been performed in GSDI. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the adrenal cortex hormones levels in GSDI patients. METHODS: Seventeen GSDI (10 GSDIa and 7 GSDIb) patients and thirty-four age and sex-matched controls were enrolled. Baseline adrenal cortex hormones and biochemical markers of metabolic control serum levels were analyzed. Low dose ACTH stimulation test was also performed. RESULTS: Baseline cortisol serum levels were higher in GSDIa patients (p = 0.042) and lower in GSDIb patients (p = 0.041) than controls. GSDIa patients also showed higher peak cortisol response (p = 0.000) and Cortisol AUC (p = 0.029). In GSDIa patients, serum cholesterol (p = 0.000), triglycerides (p = 0.000), lactate (p = 0.000) and uric acid (p = 0.008) levels were higher and bicarbonate (p = 0.000) levels were lower than controls. In GSDIb patients, serum cholesterol levels (p = 0.016) were lower and lactate (p = 0.000) and uric acid (p = 0.000) levels were higher than controls. Baseline cortisol serum levels directly correlated with cholesterol (ρ = 0.65, p = 0.005) and triglycerides (ρ = 0.60, p = 0.012) serum levels in GSDI patients. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed impaired cortisol levels in GSDI patients, with opposite trend between GSDIa and GSDIb. The otherwise preserved adrenal cortex function suggests that this finding might be secondary to local deregulation rather than hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in GSDI patients. We hypothesize that 11ßHSD1 might represent the link between endocrine regulation and metabolic derangement in GSDI, constituting new potential therapeutic target in GSDI patients.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA