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1.
J Phys Act Health ; : 1-9, 2021 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of studies on the relationship between visual impairment (VI) and time spent in sedentary behavior (SB), especially from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we investigated the association of objectively and subjectively measured VI with SB in adults aged ≥18 years across 6 LMICs. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. Objective and subjective visual acuity were measured. Information on self-reported SB was also collected. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess associations with time spent in SB as the outcome. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 42,489 individuals (mean age = 43.8 [14.4] y; 50.1% females). Only severe objective VI (vs no VI) was significantly associated with ≥11 hours per day of SB (vs <4 h/d) (odds ratio = 4.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.57-12.92). Increasing severity of subjective VI was associated with greater odds for ≥8 hours per day of SB (vs <4 h/d) dose dependently. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified an association of both objectively and subjectively measured VI with time spent in SB in adults residing in LMICs, with subjectively measured VI being a stronger predictor of time spent in SB. Targeted interventions to decrease SB especially in those who perceive themselves to have VI are needed in LMICs.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is essential for almost all facets of health; however, research suggests that PA levels among populations with sight loss are critically low. The aim of this review was to identify the correlates of PA among people with sight loss in high income countries, to inform future interventions and policies. METHODS: MEDLINE, Web of Science, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, The British Journal of Visual Impairment, The Journal of Visual Impairment and grey literature were searched for studies which reported correlates of PA among adults with sight loss. The protocol is available from PROSPERO (CRD42020215596). RESULTS: A total of 29 articles were eligible for review. Evidence from multiple studies reported that the vision impairment category, worse visual acuity, bilateral visual field loss, worse contrast sensitivity, those of the female gender, low self-efficacy, and environmental barriers were associated with lower levels of PA among populations with sight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, correlates of PA among people with sight loss in high income countries are complex and vary across different population groups. Health professionals, eye care, and sight loss services should work together to identify people at risk of low PA, and provide a range of services and interventions to influence the modifiable factors that are associated with low PA.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836329

RESUMO

There is a large and growing body of literature focusing on the use of oral magnesium (Mg) supplementation for improving glucose metabolism in people with or at risk of diabetes. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of oral Mg supplementation on glucose and insulin-sensitivity parameters in participants with diabetes or at high risk of diabetes, compared with a placebo. Several databases were searched investigating the effect of oral Mg supplementation vs placebo in patients with diabetes or conditions at high risk of diabetes. Data were reported as standardized mean differences (SMDs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using follow-up data of glucose and insulin-sensitivity parameters. Compared with placebo, Mg supplementation reduced fasting plasma glucose in people with diabetes. In people at high risk of diabetes, Mg supplementation significantly improved plasma glucose per se, and after a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test. Furthermore, Mg supplementation demonstrated an improvement in insulin sensitivity markers. In conclusion, Mg supplementation appears to have a beneficial role and improves glucose parameters in people with diabetes. Moreover, our work indicates that Mg supplementation may improve insulin-sensitivity parameters in those at high risk of diabetes.

4.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1935-1944, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726085

RESUMO

Currently, there is limited research reporting the symptoms of long COVID among athletes, and the recommendations for athletes returning to competition/training who have experienced long COVID symptoms. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to synthesise the recommendations for returning athletes who have experienced long COVID symptoms. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO under CRD42021265939. Two authors searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus from August 2019-July 2021. Search terms included words related to "long COVID", "athlete" and "return". Data extraction was completed for each study by two independent investigators for: (1) first author name; (2) year of publication; (3) journal; (4) Definition of athlete (i.e. elite or non-elite) (5) Recommendations reported. A total of 220 records were found. Following title and abstract screening, 61 studies were eligible for full text screening. Overall, no studies, commentaries, editorials or reviews provided specific recommendations for "long COVID" defined as COVID-19 signs and symptoms lasting for over 4 weeks as a result of COVID-19 infection. In addition, we found no studies which reported symptoms of athletes suffering from long COVID. Despite the lack of evidence, we did find eight separate professional recommendations for managing "long-term effects" and "ongoing" or "prolonged" symptoms and COVID-19 complications among athletes. Practitioners should be aware of both mental and physical symptoms of long COVID, and additional considerations may be required for athletes who have undergone intensive care. The present review provides a list of recommendations based on existing literature that may be followed and implemented for returning athletes.Key MessagesFurther research, including longitudinal research of athletes who have tested positive for COVID-19, is required to develop evidenced-based guidelines for athletes with ongoing COVID-19 symptoms.Prior to returning to play after COVID-19 infection, a thorough medical history, physical and psychological examination should be conducted by a medical professional.Athletes should continue to monitor and record their own physical and psychological markers of health.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/reabilitação , Humanos
6.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body weight may be a risk factor for anxiety; however, there is a scarcity of studies on this association in older adults especially from low and middle income countries (LMICs). Therefore, we investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and anxiety symptoms among adults aged ≥ 50 years from 6 LMICs. METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based, nationally representative data from the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. The BMI was based on measured weight and height and was categorized as: < 18.5 kg/m2 (underweight), 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 (normal weight), 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 (overweight), 30.0-34.9 kg/m2 (obesity class I), 35.0-39.9 kg/m2 (obesity class II), and ≥ 40 kg/m2 (obesity class III). Anxiety symptoms referred to severe/extreme problems with worry or anxiety in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Data on 34,129 individuals aged ≥ 50 years (mean age 62.4 years, SD 16.0 years; 52.1% female) were analyzed. Overall, compared to normal weight, only underweight was significantly associated with anxiety symptoms (odds ratio, OR = 1.56; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.26-1.95). Obesity class III (vs. normal weight) was associated with significantly increased odds for anxiety symptoms (OR = 4.15; 95%CI = 1.49-11.59) only among males. CONCLUSION: In this large representative sample of older adults from LMICs, underweight was associated with anxiety symptoms in males and females. Class III obesity was associated with anxiety symptoms only in males. Future studies to shed light on the reason why severe obesity was associated with anxiety symptoms only among males in LMICs are needed.

7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583347

RESUMO

Malnutrition is still a major public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa and Mozambique. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence to the nutritional rehabilitation program (NRP) and its impact on the growth of malnourished children in Beira, Mozambique. The secondary aim was to verify the prevalence of HIV infection in malnourished children at the time of admission to the NRP. A retrospective observational study in Beira Central Hospital and 10 health centers in Beira, Mozambique, was conducted. All children 0 to 5 years of age with acute malnutrition admitted to the outpatient services of the NRP from March 2016 until February 2017 were included in the study. A total of 1,231 children with the following characteristics have been enrolled: 58% female; 33% severely malnourished; and 16.5% HIV-positive. Of the 198 (21.7%) children who completed the program, 177 (89.4%) recovered from malnutrition and 21 (10.6%) did not. Ten (1.1%) were hospitalized and 706 (77.2%) dropped out of the program. Among children who completed the program, the median weight-for-length and weight-for-height z-scores at admission were ≥ -3 and < -2; at discharge, these median z-scores were ≥ -1 (P < 0.001). Children with HIV infection and who were male had a higher prevalence of severe acute malnutrition (P < 0.001). Weight gain was found to be significant after 23 days (P = 0.004) of consuming supplements (ready-to-use therapeutic food). A diagnosis of the degree of malnutrition was accurate at admission for 70.5%; at discharge, this diagnosis was accurate for 67.2%. The NRP seems to be successful if correctly followed, even if it is limited by adherence problems. However, its effectiveness requires further investigation.

8.
Autoimmun Rev ; 20(11): 102941, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508917

RESUMO

Although vaccination represents the most promising way to stop or contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and safety and effectiveness of available vaccines were proven, a small number of individuals who received anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines developed a prothrombotic syndrome. Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) can be triggered by the adenoviral vector-based vaccine, whereas lipid nanoparticle-mRNA-based vaccines can induce rare cases of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Although the main pathogenic mechanisms behind this rare phenomenon have not yet been identified, both host and vaccine factors might be involved, with pathology at least in part being related to the vaccine-triggered autoimmune reaction. In this review, we are considering some aspects related to pathogenesis, major risk factors, as well as peculiarities of diagnosis and treatment of this rare condition.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vírus da SARS , Vacinas Virais , Autoimunidade , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
9.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356644

RESUMO

Two adenovirus-based vaccines, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and Ad26.COV2.S, and two mRNA-based vaccines, BNT162b2 and mRNA.1273, have been approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and are invaluable in preventing and reducing the incidence of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Recent reports have pointed to thrombosis with associated thrombocytopenia as an adverse effect occurring at a low frequency in some individuals after vaccination. The causes of such events may be related to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein interactions with different C-type lectin receptors, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and the CD147 receptor, or to different soluble splice variants of the spike protein, adenovirus vector interactions with the CD46 receptor or platelet factor 4 antibodies. Similar findings have been reported for several viral diseases after vaccine administration. In addition, immunological mechanisms elicited by viral vectors related to cellular delivery could play a relevant role in individuals with certain genetic backgrounds. Although rare, the potential COVID-19 vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) requires immediate validation, especially in risk groups, such as the elderly, chronic smokers, and individuals with pre-existing incidences of thrombocytopenia; and if necessary, a reformulation of existing vaccines.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Trombose/etiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Fumantes , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Trombocitopenia/imunologia , Trombose/imunologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
10.
Exp Gerontol ; 154: 111513, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The limited available literature suggests that sleep problems are linked to an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, this association has been little studied to date in low-income settings. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between sleep problems and MCI in a large sample of adults from six low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE). SUBJECTS: 32,715 individuals aged ≥50 years with preservation in functional abilities [age range 50-114 years; 51.7% females]. METHODS: MCI was defined using the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association criteria. Sleep problems were assessed by the question "Overall in the last 30 days, how much of a problem did you have with sleeping, such as falling asleep, waking up frequently during the night or waking up too early in the morning?" and categorized as "None", "Mild", "Moderate", "Severe/Extreme". Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were conducted. RESULTS: Compared to no sleep problems, mild, moderate, and severe/extreme sleep problems were associated with significant 1.40, 1.83, and 2.69 times higher odds for MCI with similar associations being observed between age groups and sex. Severe/extreme sleep problems were positively associated with MCI (i.e., OR > 1) in the six countries studied with the overall estimate being OR = 1.80 (95% CI = 1.50-2.16), and a low level of between-country heterogeneity was observed (I2 = 28.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Sleep problems were associated with higher odds for MCI. Interventions to improve sleep quality among middle-aged and older adults in LMICs may be an effective strategy in reducing risk of MCI and dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
11.
Eye (Lond) ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272511

RESUMO

Globally, 2.2 billion people live with some form of vision impairment and/or eye disease. To date, most systematic reviews examining associations have focused on a single eye disease and there is no systematic evaluation of the relationships between eye diseases and diverse physical and mental health outcomes. Moreover, the strength and reliability of the literature is unclear. We performed an umbrella review of observational studies with meta analyses for any physical and/or mental comorbidities associated with eye disease. For each association, random-effects summary effect size, heterogeneity, small-study effect, excess significance bias and 95% prediction intervals were calculated, and used to grade significant evidence from convincing to weak. 34 studies were included covering 58 outcomes. No outcomes yielded convincing evidence, six outcomes yielded highly suggestive results (cataract positively associated with type 2 diabetes, open-angled glaucoma positively associated with myopia and diabetes, diabetic retinopathy positively associated with cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality, and retinopathy of prematurity positively associated with chorioamnionitis), eight outcomes yielded suggestive results (diabetic retinopathy positively associated with all-cause mortality and depression, diabetic macular oedema positively associated with dyslipidaemia, cataract positively associated with gout, nuclear sclerosis positively associated with all-cause mortality, open angled glaucoma positively associated with migraine and hypertension, and age-related macular degeneration positively associated with diabetes), and 18 outcomes yielded weak evidence. Results show highly suggestive or suggestive evidence for associations between several types of eye diseases with several comorbid outcomes. Practitioners and public health policies should note these findings when developing healthcare policies.

12.
Age Ageing ; 50(6): 2038-2046, 2021 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no prospective studies on the association between multimorbidity and urinary incontinence (UI), while mediators in this association are unknown. Thus, we aimed to (i) investigate the longitudinal association between multimorbidity and UI in a large sample of Irish adults aged ≥50 years and (ii) investigate to what extent physical activity, polypharmacy, cognitive function, sleep problems, handgrip strength and disability mediate the association. METHODS: Data on 5,946 adults aged ≥50 years old from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Aging were analysed. The baseline survey was conducted between 2009 and 2011 and follow-up after 2 years was conducted. Information on self-reported occurrence of UI in the past 12 months and lifetime diagnosis of 14 chronic conditions were obtained. Multivariable logistic regression and mediation analysis were conducted. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to having no chronic conditions at baseline, having three (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-2.48) and four or more (OR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.32-2.60), chronic conditions were significantly associated with incident UI. Mediation analysis showed that polypharmacy, sleep problems and disability explained 22.7, 17.8 and 14.7% of the association between multimorbidity (i.e. two or more chronic conditions) and incident UI, respectively. CONCLUSION: A greater number of chronic conditions at baseline were associated with a higher risk for incident UI at 2-year follow-up among adults aged ≥50 years in Ireland. Considering the effects of different medications on UI and improving sleep quality and disability among people aged ≥50 years with multimorbidity may reduce the incidence of UI.


Assuntos
Multimorbidade , Incontinência Urinária , Envelhecimento , Força da Mão , Humanos , Vida Independente , Estudos Longitudinais , Incontinência Urinária/diagnóstico , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia
13.
J Urol ; 206(6): 1361-1372, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288714

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and erectile dysfunction after cancer treatment are clinically important complications, but their exact prevalence by various kinds of cancer site and type of treatment is unknown. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the available evidence and provide pooled estimates for prevalence of EjD and erectile dysfunction in relation to all cancer sites and identify characteristics associated with EjD in cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and case-control studies. We searched 4 electronic databases (Medline®, CINAHL, PsychInfo and Embase®) until July 22, 2020. All retrospective or prospective studies reporting the prevalence of EjD in male patients with cancer were included in this review. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted calculating prevalence proportions with 95% confidence intervals. Prevalence proportions were calculated for the incidences of EjD by cancer site and type of treatment. RESULTS: A total of 64 studies (a total of 10,057 participants) were included for analysis. The most common cancer sites were bladder, colon, testis and rectum. The prevalence rates of EjD after surgical intervention ranged from 14.5% (95% CI 2.2-56.3) in colon cancer to 53.0% (95% CI 23.3-80.7) in bladder cancer. The prevalence rates of erectile dysfunction ranged from 6.8% (95% CI 0.8-39.1) in bladder cancer to 68.7% (95% CI 55.2-79.6) in cancer of the rectum. CONCLUSIONS: In a large study-level meta-analysis, we looked at a high prevalence of EjD and erectile dysfunction at various cancer sites and across different treatment types. Prospective studies of EjD and erectile dysfunction after various kinds of cancer treatments are warranted.

15.
Acta Paediatr ; 110(10): 2704-2710, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077582

RESUMO

AIM: Malnutrition is a major public health issue that has been associated with high susceptibility for impaired brain development and mental functioning. However, to date studies on this topic have not been collated and appraised. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the association between malnutrition and cognitive development. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL, Embase PsycINFO and Cochrane Library databases in English up to 8 December 2020. All studies reporting an association between nutritional status and cognitive development were included. p values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant and the results are reported as standardised mean differences (SMD), 95% confidence intervals (95%) and I2 statistics. RESULTS: We included 12 studies comprising 7,607 participants aged 1 to 12 years. Children with malnutrition had worse scores than controls for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (SMD -0.40; 95% CI -0.60 to -0.20; p < 0.0001; I2 77.1%), the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (SMD -3.75; 95% CI -5.68 to -1.83; p < 0.0001; I2 99.2%), visual processing (SMD -0.85; 95% CI -1.23 to -0.46; p 0.009; I2 11.0%) and short memory (SMD 0.85; 95% CI -1.21 to -0.49; p < 0.0001; I2 0%) tests. CONCLUSION: Normal cognitive development requires access to good and safe nutrition.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Criança , Cognição , Humanos , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009478, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, schistosomiasis affects at least 240 million people each year with a high proportion of cases in sub-Saharan Africa. The infection presents a wide range of symptoms mainly at the gastrointestinal and urogenital level. Cases of schistosomiasis-related appendicitis are seldom reported. The aim of the present study is to identify the prevalence of schistosomiasis-related appendicitis in Beira, Mozambique and compare to global prevalence. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all cases of appendicitis recorded from January 2017 to March 2020 at a single pathology department located in Beira in order to assess the prevalence of schistosomiasis. Moreover, we performed a systematic review on the prevalence of schistosomiasis-related appendicitis in all countries. FINDINGS: A total of 145 appendicitis cases in Beira showed a 13.1% prevalence of schistosomal-related appendicitis. The mean age of patients was 29.1 years, and 14 (73.7%) were male. The systematic review identified 20 studies with 34,790 inpatients with schistosomiasis-related appendicitis with a global prevalence of 1.31% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72 to 2.06); a high heterogeneity (I2 = 96.0%) was observed. Studies carried out in Africa reported a significantly higher prevalence of schistosomiasis-related appendicitis (2.75%; 95% CI: 1.28 to 4.68) than those in Middle East (0.49%; 95% CI: 0.18 to 0.95) (p for interaction < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Schistosomiasis infection should be considered as possible cause of appendicitis not only in endemic areas but also in developed countries. Considering that prevention is the best way to control the infection, more efforts should be put in place in order to increase the prevention coverage and avoid the cascading implications for health. This is even more so important in this Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) era where the majority of attention and funds are used to fight the pandemic.


Assuntos
Apendicite/etiologia , Esquistossomose/complicações , Adulto , Apendicite/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071312

RESUMO

Laparoscopy is a procedure that ultimately reduces hospital stay time and speeds up post-operative recovery. It is mainly performed in high-income countries but its implementation in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is increasing. However, no aggregate data exist regarding the outcomes of this procedure in resource-limited settings. We retrospectively reviewed all cases of laparoscopy recorded from January 2007 to March 2017 at the Department of Surgery of Beira to assess the related outcomes. Moreover, we performed a systematic review of the laparoscopic practices and outcomes in low-income countries. Data from the Department of Surgery of Beira identified 363 laparoscopic procedures, mainly relating to gynecological diseases, cholelithiasis, and appendicectomy with only a 1.6% complication rate (6 cases) and a 1.9% conversion rate (7 cases) to open surgery. The systematic review showed a pooled risk of overall complications significantly lower in laparoscopic vs. open appendicectomy (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.19-0.97; I2 = 85.7%) and a significantly lower risk of infection (OR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.43-0.65; I2 = 0.00%). The pooled SMD in operation duration in laparoscopic vs. open appendectomy was 0.58 (95% CI -0.00; 1.15; I2 = 96.52), while the pooled SMD in hospitalization days was -1.35 (95% CI -1.87; -0.82; I2 = 96.41). Laparoscopy is an expensive procedure to adopt as it requires new equipment and specialized trained health workers. However, it could reduce post-operative costs and complications, especially in terms of infections. It is crucial to increase its accessibility, acceptability, and quality particularly in LMICs, especially during this COVID-19 era when the reduction of patient hospitalization is essential.


Assuntos
Apendicite , COVID-19 , Laparoscopia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Children (Basel) ; 8(5)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition places a heavy burden on the health, well-being, and sustainable development of populations in Sudan, especially a country affected by conflict, which continues to experience high levels of food insecurity, undernutrition, and micronutrient deficiencies; 3.3 million are acutely malnourished, with 522,000 children suffering from severe acute malnutrition and approximately 2.2 million children requiring treatment for moderate acute malnutrition. This study aims to describe the nutritional status of children under five years old and identify the progress toward the achievement of the Global Nutrition Targets. METHODS: This is a secondary data analysis of a quantitative survey, using the second-round of the Simple Spatial Survey Method (S3M II) in Sudan in the period 2018-2019. The analysis used an area-based sampling methodology in all 18 Sudanese states. Data from the WHO Tracking Tools of the Global Nutrition Targets was used to reflect the progress in achieving the targets in Sudan. RESULTS: Global stunting prevalence was at 36.35 percent including moderate stunting prevalence and severe stunting prevalence (21.25 percent and 15.06 percent respectively). Global wasting prevalence was 13.6 percent including moderate wasting prevalence and severe wasting prevalence (10.8 percent and 2.7 percent respectively). Sudan has made great progress in achieving the target of increasing exclusive breastfeeding. However, despite the welcome commitments by the Government and all stakeholders, Sudan is still struggling to implement strategies, policies, and regulatory measures to address malnutrition and achieve the Global Nutrition Targets in 2025 and the Sustainable Developmental Goals in 2030. Therefore, more than ever, there is a need for comprehensive, multi-sectoral action to address malnutrition in all its forms.

19.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is currently limited literature on the association between visual impairment and suicidal thoughts and behaviours, especially among older adults from low/middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we aimed to investigate the associations of objectively measured distance visual impairment with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among adults aged ≥50 years from six LMICs and to identify potential mediators. METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based, nationally representative data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health were analysed. Objective distance visual acuity was measured using the tumbling E logMAR chart, and vision impairment was categorised as none, mild, moderate and severe. Self-reported information on past 12-month suicidal ideation and suicide attempts was also collected. Multivariable logistic regression and mediation analysis were conducted. RESULTS: Data on 34 129 individuals aged ≥50 years (mean (SD) age, 62.4 (16.0) years; 47.9% men) were analysed. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared with no visual impairment, severe visual impairment was significantly associated with suicidal ideation (OR=9.50; 95% CI=2.47 to 36.52). Moderate and severe visual impairment were significantly associated with a 2.22 (95% CI=1.14 to 4.35) and 11.50 (95% CI=1.44 to 91.88) times higher odds of suicide attempts, respectively. Disability, poor self-rated health, mobility and loneliness explained 14.0%, 9.3%, 7.2% and 6.3% of the association between moderate/severe visual impairment and suicide attempts, respectively. CONCLUSION: Interventions to reduce suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among older adults with visual impairment in LMICs are required, targeting identified mediators, while using tested strategies for suicide prevention per se in LMICs may yield beneficial outcomes.

20.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-5, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902403

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Congenital malformations (CMs) are among the major causes of infant mortality in middle- and low-resource countries. This is the first study describing CMs in neonates admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of a referral hospital in Mozambique. METHODS: We included all neonates with CMs admitted to the NICU of Beira Central Hospital from January 2015 to December 2016. CMs were classified according to the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10). All data were retrieved from medical charts. RESULTS: CMs were found in 143/4767 (3%) neonates admitted to the NICU. The most frequent CMs were musculoskeletal (31%), neurological (18%), multiple congenital anomalies (12%), chromosomopathies (11%), cardiovascular (10%), and gastrointestinal (8%). Forty-three patients (30%) underwent corrective surgery. Overall mortality rate was 50%. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of CMs was 3%, with a mortality rate of 50%. Alongside implementation of antenatal screening programs, improvement on expertise and postnatal care of CMs are warranted.

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