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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(6)2022 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329985

RESUMO

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare neoplasm whose early diagnosis is challenging and systemic treatments are generally administered as first line in the advanced disease stage. The initial clinical response may represent a useful parameter in terms of identifying patients with a better long-term outcome. In this report, the initial therapeutical response in 46 patients affected with advanced/unresectable pleural mesothelioma was investigated. The initial therapeutic response was assessed by CT scan and clinical examination after 2-3 treatment cycles. Our preliminary evaluation shows that the group of patients treated with regimens including antiangiogenetics and/or immunotherapy had a significantly better initial response as compared to patients only treated with standard chemotherapy, exhibiting a disease control rate (DCR) of 100% (95% IC, 79.40-100%) and 80.0% (95% IC, 61.40-92.30%), respectively. Furthermore, the therapeutic response was correlated with the disease stage, blood leukocytes and neutrophils, high albumin serum levels, and basal body mass index (BMI). Specifically, the patients with disease stage III showed a DCR of 95.7% (95% IC, 78.1-99.9%), whereas for disease stage IV the DCR decreased to 66.7% (95% IC, 34.9-9.1%). Moreover, a better initial response was observed in patients with a higher BMI, who reached a DCR of 96.10% (95% IC, 80.36-99.90%). Furthermore, in order to evaluate in the predictive power of the collected features a multivariate way, we report the preliminary results of a machine learning model for predicting the initial therapeutic response. We trained a state-of-the-art algorithm combined to a sequential forward feature selection procedure. The model reached a median AUC value, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 77.0%, 75%, 74.8%, and 83.3%, respectively. The features with greater informational power were gender, histotype, BMI, smoking habits, packs/year, and disease stage. Our preliminary data support the possible favorable correlation between innovative treatments and therapeutic response in patients with unresectable/advanced pleural mesothelioma. The small sample size does not allow concrete conclusions to be drawn; nevertheless, this work is the basis of an ongoing study that will also involve radiomics in a larger dataset.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769372

RESUMO

In developed countries, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in both sexes. Although cigarette smoking represents the principal risk factor for lung cancer in females, the higher proportion of this neoplasm among non-smoking women as compared with non-smoking men implies distinctive biological aspects between the two sexes. Gender differences depend not only on genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors but also on the immune system, and all these aspects are closely interconnected. In the last few years, it has been confirmed that the immune system plays a fundamental role in cancer evolution and response to oncological treatments, specifically immunotherapy, with documented distinctions between men and women. Consequently, in order to correctly assess cancer responses and disease control, considering only age and reproductive status, the results of studies conducted in female patients would probably not categorically apply to male patients and vice versa. The aim of this article is to review recent data about gender disparities in both healthy subjects' immune system and lung cancer patients; furthermore, studies concerning gender differences in response to lung cancer immunotherapy are examined.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Prognóstico , Fatores Sexuais
3.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(12): 1856-1861, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734989

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Geriatric (aged ≥80 years) patients are historically underrepresented in cancer clinical trials. Little is known about the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in geriatric patients. These agents are associated with immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which may be particularly associated with morbidity in this population. OBJECTIVE: To provide insight into the clinical outcomes and safety of ICIs among geriatric patients (aged ≥80 years) with cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A Multicenter, international retrospective study of 928 geriatric patients with different tumors treated with single-agent ICIs between 2010 to 2019 from 18 academic centers in the US and Europe. Analyses were conducted from January 2021 to April 2021. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Clinical outcomes and irAE patterns in geriatric patients treated with single-agent ICIs. RESULTS: Median (range) age of the 928 patients at ICI initiation was 83.0 (75.8-97.0) years. Most patients (806 [86.9%]) were treated with anti-programmed cell death 1 therapy. Among the full cohort, the 3 most common tumors were non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, 345 [37.2%]), melanoma (329 [35.5%]), and genitourinary (GU) tumors (153 [16.5%]). Objective response rates for patients with NSCLC, melanoma, and GU tumors were 32.2%, 39.3%, and 26.2%, respectively. Median PFS and OS, respectively, were 6.7 and 10.9 months (NSCLC), 11.1 and 30.0 months (melanoma), and 6.0 and 15.0 months (GU). Within histologically specific subgroups (NSCLC, melanoma, and GU), clinical outcomes were similar across age subgroups (aged <85 vs ≥85 years). Among all 928 patients, 383 (41.3%) experienced ≥1 irAE(s), including 113 (12.2%) that were reported to be grade (G) 3 to 4 based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 5.0). The median time to irAE onset was 9.8 weeks; 219 (57%) occurred within the first 3 months after ICI initiation. Discontinuation of treatment with ICIs owing to irAEs occurred in 137 (16.1%) patients. There was no significant difference in the rate of irAEs among patients aged younger than 85, 85 to 89, and 90 years or older. Despite the similar rate of G3 or higher irAEs, ICIs were discontinued due to irAEs more than twice as often among patients aged 90 years or older compared with patients younger than 90 years (30.9% vs 15.1%, P = .008). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The findings of this international cohort study suggest that treatment with ICIs may be effective and generally well tolerated among older patients with cancer, though ICI discontinuation owing to irAEs was more frequent with increasing age.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681779

RESUMO

Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive malignancy that exhibits a rapid doubling time, a high growth fraction, and the early development of widespread metastases. The addition of immune checkpoint inhibitors to first-line chemotherapy represents the first significant improvement of systemic therapy in several decades. However, in contrast to its effects on non-SCLC, the advantageous effects of immunotherapy addition are modest in SCLC. In particular, only a small number of SCLC patients benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors. Additionally, biomarkers selection is lacking for SCLC, with clinical trials largely focusing on unselected populations. Here, we review the data concerning the major biomarkers for immunotherapy, namely, programmed death ligand 1 expression and tumour mutational burden. Furthermore, we explore other potential biomarkers, including the role of the immune microenvironment in SCLC, the role of genetic alterations, and the potential links between neurological paraneoplastic syndromes, serum anti-neuronal nuclear antibodies, and outcomes in SCLC patients treated with immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/terapia , Animais , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Acúmulo de Mutações , Prognóstico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/genética , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574022

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate whether [18F]FDG PET/CT-derived semi-quantitative parameters can predict immunotherapy treatment response in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Secondly, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and lymphoid cell-rich organs activation were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients who underwent [18F]FDG PET/CT scans before and at first restaging therapy with immuno-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) were retrospectively analyzed. PET-based semi-quantitative parameters extracted from both scans were respectively: SUVmax and SUVpeak of the target lesion, whole-body metabolic tumor volume (MTVWB), and whole-body total lesion glycolysis (TLGWB), as well as their interval changes (ΔSUVmaxTL, ΔSUVpeakTL, ΔMTVWB, ΔTLGWB). These PET-derived parameters were correlated to controlled disease (CD) assessed by RECIST 1.1. IrAEs, if present, were also described and correlated with clinical benefit (CB). SUVmax of the spleen and bone marrow at restaging scans were also correlated to CB. RESULTS: The CD was achieved in 54% of patients. Out of 28 eligible patients, 13 (46%) experienced progressive disease (PD), 7 showed SD, 7 had PR, and only in one patient CR was achieved. ΔSUVmaxTL (p = 0.002) and ΔSUVpeakTL (p < 0.001) as well as ΔMTVWB (p < 0.001) and ΔTLGWB (p < 0.005) were significantly associated with PD vs. non-PD. IrAEs and lymphoid cell-rich organs activation did not correlate with CB. CONCLUSIONS: [18F]FDG PET/CT by using interval changes of PET-derived semi-quantitative parameters could represent a reliable tool in immunotherapy treatment response evaluation in NSCLC patients.

6.
J BUON ; 26(3): 1127-1134, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268981

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The psychological status of cancer outpatients receiving anti-neoplastic treatment during the lockdown in a Italian non-COVID Cancer Center, was been investigated with the following aims: to measure the levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms, depression and anxiety; to compare patients with different cancer sites; to compare the anxiety and depression levels measured in this emergency period between cancer and non-cancer patients and between cancer patients before and after the emergency. METHODS: The following questionnaires were used: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADs) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R).Worries regarding the COVID-19 on patients' lives, socio-demographic and clinical details were collected using a brief structured questionnaire. RESULTS: One-hundred seventy-eight outpatients were enrolled. We found that 55% of patients were above the cut-off for HADS general scale and 23.7% had severe level of PTSD. The 68% of patients declared that their worries have increased during the pandemic especially for women. Patients with lung cancer have higher general distress compared with patients with breast cancer and lymphoma. The non cancer sample had values significantly higher both for the IES-R scales and for HADS Depression subscale. Finally, cancer patients who experienced the health emergency showed higher levels of anxiety than those measured 2 years ago. CONCLUSION: Cancer out-patients of the present sample have severe post-traumatic stress symptoms and psychological distress, those with lung cancer are at higher risk and may need special attention. Non-oncological subjects have higher depression levels than cancer patients.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , COVID-19/complicações , Depressão/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/psicologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/terapia , Neoplasias/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pembrolizumab is approved in monotherapy for the first-line (1L) of advanced or metastatic NSCLC patients with high PD-L1 (≥50%). Despite a proportion of patients achieve long-term survival, about one-third of patients experience detrimental survival outcomes, including early death, hyperprogression, and fast progression. The impact of clinical factors on early progression (EP) development has not been widely explored. METHODS: We designed a retrospective, multicenter study involving five Italian centers, in patients with metastatic NSCLC with PD-L1 ≥ 50%, treated with Pembrolizumab in a 1L setting. EP was defined as a progressive disease within three months from pembrolizumab initiation. Baseline clinical factors of patients with and without EP were collected and analyzed. Logistic regression was performed to identify clinical factors associated with EP and an EP prognostic score was developed based on the logistic model. RESULTS: Overall, 321 out of 336 NSCLC patients treated with 1L pembrolizumab provided all the data for the analysis. EP occurred in 137 (42.7%) patients; the median PFS was 3.8 months (95% CI: 2.9-4.7), and median OS was not reached in the entire study population. Sex, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS), steroids, metastatic sites ≥2, and the presence of liver/pleural metastasis were confirmed as independent factors for EP by multivariate analysis. By combining these factors, we developed an EP prognostic score ranging from 0-13, with three-risk group stratification: 0-2 (good prognosis), 3-6 (intermediate prognosis), and 7-13 (poor prognosis). The area under the curve (AUC) of the model was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.70-0.81). CONCLUSIONS: We identified six clinical factors independently associated with EP. We developed a prognostic score model for EP-risk to potentially improve clinical practice and patient selection for 1L pembrolizumab in NSCLC with high PD-L1, in the real-world clinical setting.

8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(6): ofab187, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34141817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment and significantly increased overall survival of patients. However, the incidence of concurrent infections and their management is still debated. METHODS: From August 2015 to October 2019, all consecutive patients with NSCLC who received nivolumab or pembrolizumab as first- or second-line therapy were retrospectively evaluated. At the time of analysis all patients had died. Clinical characteristics of patients, type of infections, and predictors of mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 118 patients were identified: 74 in the nivolumab group and 44 in the pembrolizumab group. At least 1 infection was recorded in 22% of the nivolumab-group versus 27% of the pembrolizumab-group (P = .178). In both groups, the main infection was pneumonia, followed by skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, and gastroenteritis. Crude mortality for first infection was 10.7%, followed by 25% and 40% for the second and third recurrence, respectively (p for trend = .146). No opportunistic infections were recorded. It is notable that, by Cox-regression model, the independent predictor of mortality was a higher Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status at baseline (P < .001), whereas the multidisciplinary diagnosis and treatment of concurrent infections was associated with a reduced probability of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.50; 95% confidence interval = 0.30-0.83; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NSCLC treated with ICIs, multidisciplinary management of concurrent infections may reduce the risk of mortality. Further studies to investigate risk factors for infections, as well as appropriate management strategies and preventive measures in this setting, are warranted.

9.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(13): 2031-2034, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008923

RESUMO

Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and uncommon epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation are characterized by high heterogeneity, and globally considered to have a worse prognosis than patients with the two common mutations; exon 19 deletion, and exon 21 L858R. Nevertheless, some uncommon mutations do confer sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) which is comparable with common mutations. In particular, some compound EGFR mutations seem to be characterized by a favorable prognosis. Unfortunately, the rarity of complex EGFR mutations results in difficult clinical decision-making. Herein, to the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of an NSCLC patient with an EGFR triple mutation containing T785A/L861Q/H297_E298 who was successfully treated with afatinib.


Assuntos
Afatinib/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
10.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(1): 10e-13e, 2021 01.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512367

RESUMO

Modern gene profiling techniques have allowed in recent years considerable progresses in the knowledge of molecular alterations in the context of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In some cases, these alterations have been recognized as having a pathogenic role and targeted therapies capable of inhibiting tumor proliferation by selective and specific blocking of the enzymatic activity of the related abnormal proteins have been developed. This has made it possible to improve the effectiveness of the treatments by minimizing toxicity. Today it is essential to apply Comprehensive Genomic Profiling methods also in clinical practice, in order to allow the best treatment available for each patient, possibly also in the context of clinical trials. Below we report the clinical history of a patient with advanced stage adenocarcinoma of the lung with molecular diagnosis of RET fusion, treated with pralsetinib with excellent clinical and radiological response and good tolerability. This clinical case emphasizes the importance of the broader molecular profiling in patients with advanced NSCLC (especially for non-squamous histology) from the diagnosis before starting first-line treatment.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis , Piridinas , Pirimidinas
11.
J Community Health ; 46(3): 597-602, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789714

RESUMO

Smoking is recognized as the major cause of lung cancer. Healthcare professionals play an important role in lung cancer prevention policies, as they act as a source of guidance for patients and advocates. The following survey evaluated prevalence, knowledge, and attitudes toward tobacco smoking among a sample of workers in "IRCCS Istituto Tumori "Giovanni Paolo II" of Bari, an Italian cancer hospital. An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 104 healthcare professionals to collect personal and occupational data about smoking status, knowledge about the harms of smoking, current legislation in place, Second-Hand Smoke (SHS) awareness, and, for ex-smokers, the reasons for quitting. Among participants, 17.8% were current smokers, 26.2% former smokers, and 56% never smoked. Only 40% acknowledged that the smoking ban is generally respected, and 63.2% reported that they smoke during working hours. Most of the participants perceived tobacco control policy as an efficient way to protect public health. Currently, the implementation of Italian anti-smoking legislation has so far improved neither smoking cessation rates nor the will to quit smoking completely. Our experience highlights that to date the anti-smoking strategies have limited efficacy even in a cancer center; in fact, there is still a large prevalence of smokers among hospital personnel. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that interventions be shared with all healthcare workers, specifically aimed at developing a culture of health promotion.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Tabaco , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Percepção , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 22(2): e180-e192, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-world data have suggested a detrimental effect of steroid use in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving immunotherapy. However, previous studies included heterogeneous cohorts of patients receiving different lines of treatment with several immuno-oncology agents and various combinations of chemotherapy and immuno-oncology agents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A comprehensive clinicopathologic database of patients with NSCLC and programmed cell death ligand 1 >50% treated with frontline pembrolizumab monotherapy was constructed in 14 centers in Italy, Spain, Greece, and Switzerland. A multivariate analysis adjusting for the established prognostic factors was performed using a Cox regression model. RESULTS: For the 265 eligible patients, the median age at diagnosis was 67 years, 66% were male, 90% were current or former smokers, 18% had had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or 3. Of the NSCLC subtypes, 64% were adenocarcinoma and 25% were squamous cell. Of the patients, 18% had had brain metastases at diagnosis and 24% had received steroids before or during pembrolizumab treatment. The median time to progression was 4.4 months with and 13.7 months without steroid use (hazard ratio [HR], 2.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-3.85; log-rank P < .001). The median survival was 22.5 months for the whole cohort, 7.7 months for the steroid group, and not reached for the non-steroid group (HR, 3.64; 95% CI, 2.34-5.68; log-rank P < .001). On multivariate analysis accounting for all established prognostic variables, steroid use was still independently associated with a high risk of progression (HR, 1.864; 95% CI, 1.179-2.949; P = .008) and death (HR, 2.292; 95% CI, 1.441-3.644; P < .001) CONCLUSIONS: In patients with advanced NSCLC and programmed cell death ligand 1 expression > 50% receiving frontline pembrolizumab monotherapy, any use of steroids before or during treatment was associated with an 86% increase in the risk of progression and a 2.3-fold increase in the risk of death, even accounting for palliative indication-related bias, including the presence of central nervous system metastasis. The use of steroids for palliative indications should be restricted to absolutely necessary for patients receiving immuno-oncology monotherapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Molecules ; 25(24)2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321824

RESUMO

Despite promising results obtained in the early diagnosis of several pathologies, breath analysis still remains an unused technique in clinical practice due to the lack of breath sampling standardized procedures able to guarantee a good repeatability and comparability of results. The most diffuse on an international scale breath sampling method uses polymeric bags, but, recently, devices named Mistral and ReCIVA, able to directly concentrate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto sorbent tubes, have been developed and launched on the market. In order to explore performances of these new automatic devices with respect to sampling in the polymeric bag and to study the differences in VOCs profile when whole or alveolar breath is collected and when pulmonary wash out with clean air is done, a tailored experimental design was developed. Three different breath sampling approaches were compared: (a) whole breath sampling by means of Tedlar bags, (b) the end-tidal breath collection using the Mistral sampler, and (c) the simultaneous collection of the whole and alveolar breath by using the ReCIVA. The obtained results showed that alveolar fraction of breath was relatively less affected by ambient air (AA) contaminants (p-values equal to 0.04 for Mistral and 0.002 for ReCIVA Low) with respect to whole breath (p-values equal to 0.97 for ReCIVA Whole). Compared to Tedlar bags, coherent results were obtained by using Mistral while lower VOCs levels were detected for samples (both breath and AA) collected by ReCIVA, likely due to uncorrected and fluctuating flow rates applied by this device. Finally, the analysis of all data also including data obtained by explorative analysis of the unique lung cancer (LC) breath sample showed that a clean air supply might determine a further confounding factor in breath analysis considering that lung wash-out is species-dependent.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Adulto , Testes Respiratórios/instrumentação , Análise de Dados , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Manejo de Espécimes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between obesity and outcomes in patients receiving programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors has already been confirmed in pre-treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, regardless of PD-L1 tumor expression. METHODS: We present the outcomes analysis according to baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI variation in a large cohort of metastatic NSCLC patients with a PD-L1 expression ≥50%, receiving first line pembrolizumab. We also evaluated a control cohort of metastatic NSCLC patients treated with first line platinum-based chemotherapy. Normal weight was set as control group. RESULTS: 962 patients and 426 patients were included in the pembrolizumab and chemotherapy cohorts, respectively. Obese patients had a significantly higher objective response rate (ORR) (OR=1.61 (95% CI: 1.04-2.50)) in the pembrolizumab cohort, while overweight patients had a significantly lower ORR (OR=0.59 (95% CI: 0.37-0.92)) within the chemotherapy cohort. Obese patients had a significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) (HR=0.61 (95% CI: 0.45-0.82)) in the pembrolizumab cohort. Conversely, they had a significantly shorter PFS in the chemotherapy cohort (HR=1.27 (95% CI: 1.01-1.60)). Obese patients had a significantly longer overall survival (OS) within the pembrolizumab cohort (HR=0.70 (95% CI: 0.49-0.99)), while no significant differences according to baseline BMI were found in the chemotherapy cohort. BMI variation significantly affected ORR, PFS and OS in both the pembrolizumab and the chemotherapy cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline obesity is associated to significantly improved ORR, PFS and OS in metastatic NSCLC patients with a PD-L1 expression of ≥50%, receiving first line pembrolizumab, but not among patients treated with chemotherapy. BMI variation is also significantly related to clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
J Immunother ; 43(9): 299-306, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991393

RESUMO

The authors conducted a multicenter retrospective study on the outcome of programmed death-ligand 1 tumor proportion score≥50% advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with first-line pembrolizumab according to the presence/absence of brain metastases. A total of 282 patients were included, of whom 56 had brain metastases that were treated with upfront local radiation therapy in 80.3% of cases. The overall response rate was 39.2% and 44.4% in patients with and without brain metastases (P=0.48), respectively, while intracranial response rate and intracranial disease control rate were 67.5% and 85.0%, respectively. The median time-to-treatment failure (TTF) and overall survival (OS) were 4.2 and 9.9 months versus 10.8 and 26.5 months for patients with and without brain metastases (P=0.06 and 0.05, respectively). Drug discontinuation rate due to treatment-related adverse events was 10.7% and 10.2% in patients with and without brain metastases, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that baseline steroids was an independent predictor for a worse OS (P<0.001), while performance status (PS)≥2 was an independent predictor for a poorer TTF (P<0.001) and OS (P<0.001). In patients with brain metastases, only PS ≥2 was predicted for a worse TTF (P=0.02) and OS (P=0.03). Pembrolizumab has activity against brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancers with programmed death-ligand 1≥50%. Presence of brain metastases per se does not appear to be prognostic, and PS ≥2 seems to be the only factor associated with a worse outcome in patients with brain metastases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/etiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(7): 3844-3856, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802466

RESUMO

This article investigates the effects of tobacco control policies on smoking initiation, cessation and prevalence by examining the papers published in the last 5 years. Twenty-one articles have been selected by two authors and sorted by four types of tobacco control: tobacco prices, anti-smoking campaigns for young people, mass media intervention and public smoking bans. Price/tax increase has deterrent effect on smoking initiation but does not promote smoking cessation; intervention on young people could reduce the smoking initiation if carried out at an early age and if acted on social skills and with peer-led approach, as opposed to restraining measures which hare generally easily circumvented by young people. The mass media campaigns showed positive effect on attempts to quit among smokers if carried forward over time and by involving multiple communication channels (TV, internet, radio). The bans in public have little effect on smoking cessation but could improve the overall well-being of non-smokers. Heterogeneous results have been described by different studies probably because of different research methodologies, cultural aspects and the really effective implementation of the rules for each country. In conclusion, comprehensive tobacco control interventions to reduce smoking prevalence and modify the smoking behavior are recommended. Moreover, the use of e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn (HnB) products, as possible helping tool for smoke cessation, currently remains controversial.

17.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 21(6): 498-508.e2, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of immune-related adverse events (irAEs), as a surrogate predictor of the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors, has not yet been described in the setting of first-line, single-agent pembrolizumab for patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung-cancer (NSCLC) with a programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression of ≥ 50%. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We previously conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis in patients with treatment-naive metastatic NSCLC and a PD-L1 expression of ≥ 50% receiving first-line pembrolizumab. Here, we report the results of the irAE analysis and the potential correlation between irAEs and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 1010 patients were included in this analysis; after a 6-week landmark selection, 877 (86.8%) patients were included in the efficacy analysis. Any grade irAEs (P < .0001), grade 3/4 irAEs (P = .0025), leading to discontinuation irAEs (P = .0144), multiple-site and single-site irAEs (P < .0001), cutaneous irAEs (P = .0001), endocrine irAEs (P = .0227), pulmonary irAEs (P = .0479), and rheumatologic irAEs (P = .0018) were significantly related to a higher objective response rate. Any grade irAEs (P < .0001), single-site irAEs (P < .0001), multiple-site irAEs (P = .0005), cutaneous irAEs (P = .0042), endocrine irAEs (P < .0001), gastrointestinal irAEs (P = .0391), and rheumatologic irAEs (P = .0086) were significantly related to progression-free survival. Any grade irAEs (P < .0001), single-site irAEs (P < .0001), multiple-site irAEs (P = .0003), cutaneous irAEs (P = .0002), endocrine irAEs (P = .0001), and rheumatologic irAEs (P = .0214) were significantly related to overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the feasibility and the safety of first-line, single-agent pembrolizumab, in a large, real-world cohort of patients with NSCLC with PD-L1 expression ≥ 50%. The occurrence of irAEs may be a surrogate of clinical activity and improved outcomes in this setting.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(11): 2209-2221, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-agent pembrolizumab represents the standard first-line option for metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with a PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1) expression of ≥ 50%. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study aimed at evaluating the clinicopathologic correlates of pembrolizumab effectiveness in patients with treatment-naïve NSCLC and a PD-L1 expression of ≥ 50%. RESULTS: One thousand and twenty-six consecutive patients were included. The objective response rate (ORR) was 44.5% (95% CI 40.2-49.1), while the median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 7.9 months (95% CI 6.9-9.5; 599 events) and 17.2 months (95% CI 15.3-22.3; 598 censored patients), respectively. ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (p < 0.0001) and bone metastases (p = 0.0003) were confirmed to be independent predictors of a worse ORR. Former smokers (p = 0.0002), but not current smokers (p = 0.0532) were confirmed to have a significantly prolonged PFS compared to never smokers at multivariate analysis. ECOG-PS (p < 0.0001), bone metastases (p < 0.0001) and liver metastases (p < 0.0001) were also confirmed to be independent predictors of a worse PFS. Previous palliative RT was significantly related to a shortened OS (p = 0.0104), while previous non-palliative RT was significantly related to a prolonged OS (p = 0.0033). Former smokers (p = 0.0131), but not current smokers (p = 0.3433) were confirmed to have a significantly prolonged OS compared to never smokers. ECOG-PS (p < 0.0001), bone metastases (p < 0.0001) and liver metastases (p < 0.0001) were also confirmed to be independent predictors of a shortened OS. A PD-L1 expression of ≥ 90%, as assessed by recursive partitioning, was associated with significantly higher ORR (p = 0.0204), and longer and OS (p = 0.0346) at multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: Pembrolizumab was effective in a large cohort of NSCLC patients treated outside of clinical trials. Questions regarding the effectiveness in clinical subgroups, such as patients with poorer PS and with liver/bone metastases, still remain to be addressed. We confirmed that the absence of tobacco exposure, and the presence of bone and liver metastasis are associated with worse clinical outcomes to pembrolizumab. Increasing levels of PD-L1 expression may help identifying a subset of patients who derive a greater benefit from pembrolizumab monotherapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Eur J Cancer ; 134: 19-28, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on spectrum and grade of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in long-term responders to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are lacking. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicenter study to characterized irAEs occurring after a 12-months minimum treatment period with PD-(L)1 ICIs in patients with advanced cancer. IrAEs were categorized into 'early' (≤12 months) and 'late' (>12 months). RESULTS: From September 2013 to October 2019, 436 consecutive patients were evaluated. Two hundred twenty-three experienced any grade early-irAEs (51.1%), whereas 132 experienced any grade late-irAEs (30.3%) (p < 0.0001). Among the latter, 29 (22%) experienced a recurrence of an early-irAEs, whereas 103 (78%) experienced de novo late-irAEs involving different system/organ. Among patients with late-irAEs, 21 experienced GIII/GIV irAEs (4.8%). Median time to onset of early-irAEs was 3.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8-4.2), whereas the median time to onset of late-irAEs was 16.6 months (95% CI: 15.8-17.6). Cumulative time-adjusted risk of disease progression according to both the early-irAEs (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.30-1.29], p = 0.204) and late-irAEs occurrence revealed no statistically significant differences (HR = 0.75 [95% CI: 0.37-1.56], p = 0.452). In addition, the time-adjusted cumulative risk of death in accordance with both early-irAEs (HR = 0.79 [95% CI: 0.34-1.86], p = 0.598) and late-irAEs (HR = 0.92 [95% CI: 0.49-1.74], p = 0.811) did not show statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION: Although less frequent than early-irAEs, late-irAEs are quite common in long responders to PD-(L)1 ICIs and are different in terms of spectrum and grade. Time-adjusted analysis revealed that the cumulative risk of disease progression and death were not significantly reduced in patients who experienced late-irAEs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 21(4): 365-377.e5, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Second-line immunotherapy (IO) has shown an overall survival benefit. However, only 18% to 20% of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) will respond, with a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 2 to 4 months. Thus, biomarkers to select those patients most likely to benefit from IO are greatly needed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 154 patients with aNSCLC who had received anti-programmed cell death 1 therapy as second line or further treatment. We assessed the absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil counts at baseline (T0) and the second (T1) and third (T2) cycles. The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived-NLR (dNLR), lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR), and their percentage of change at T1 and T2 compared with T0 were evaluated. The clinical characteristics and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level were also considered. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Significant biomarkers for PFS on multivariate analysis were combined in a prognostic score. RESULTS: For overall survival, the negative prognostic biomarkers were Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) 2, NLR at T0, and dNLR at T1; the LMR at T0, T1, and T2 was identified as a positive prognostic biomarker. For PFS, the negative prognostic biomarkers were ECOG PS 2, liver metastases, NLR at T0, dNLR at T1 and T2, and ≥ 30% increase of NLR from T0 to T1; the positive prognostic biomarkers were heavy smoking, LDH, and LMR at T2. The ≥ 30% increase of LMR from T0 to T1 and T0 to T2 correlated with the overall response rate. A prognostic score (EPSILoN score; smoking, ECOG PS, liver metastases, LDH, NLR) identified 3 prognostic groups (median PFS, 10.2, 4.9, and 1.7 months, respectively; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The EPSILoN score combines 5 baseline clinical and blood biomarkers and can help to identify patients with aNSCLC who will most likely benefit from second-line IO. Further studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Leucócitos/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
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