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1.
Lung Cancer ; 137: 1-6, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tumor mutational burden is an emerging biomarker of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), whose clinical adoption is challenging. We hypothesized that targeting limited but relevant genetic alterations in plasma cell-free DNA along with early monitoring may non-invasively predict response to ICI in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Plasma samples from patients with progressive NSCLC collected before ICI initiation and at 1 month were profiled from responders (R: PFS > 6 months) and non-responders (NR: progressive disease at first evaluation) using amplicon sequencing of hotspots and coding regions from 36 genes. The molecular profile of ctDNA, and its early kinetics were analyzed. RESULTS: 97 patients were analyzed, of which 86 (39 R, 47 NR) were evaluable. Alterations in ctDNA were detectable in 67/86 baseline samples (78%). The detection of a targetable oncogenic driver was associated with a 2 months PFS. The presence of a PTEN or STK11 mutation was correlated with early progression (HR 8.9, p = 0.09 for PTEN, HR 4.7, p = 0.003 for STK11), while transversion mutations (Tv) in KRAS and TP53 predicted better outcomes (HR 0.36, p = 0.011 for TP53 Tv; HR 0.46, p = 0.11 for KRAS Tv). Patients with a low "immune score" (driver and/or PTEN or STK11 mutation and/or without KRAS or TP53 Tv) derived poor outcomes (median PFS 2 months), compared with patients with a high immune score (no driver, no PTEN or STK11 and with KRAS or TP53 Tv (median PFS 14 months, p = 0.0001, HR 2.96). Early changes in the ctDNA allele fraction (AF) of 65 specimens were correlated with clinical outcomes (14 months PFS if AF decreases vs. 2 months if AF increases, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Targeted sequencing of plasma ctDNA and monitoring its early variations can predict response to ICI.

2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(5): 1364-1376, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CCAAT enhancer-binding protein epsilon (C/EBPε) is a transcription factor involved in late myeloid lineage differentiation and cellular function. The only previously known disorder linked to C/EBPε is autosomal recessive neutrophil-specific granule deficiency leading to severely impaired neutrophil function and early mortality. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to molecularly characterize the effects of C/EBPε transcription factor Arg219His mutation identified in a Finnish family with previously genetically uncharacterized autoinflammatory and immunodeficiency syndrome. METHODS: Genetic analysis, proteomics, genome-wide transcriptional profiling by means of RNA-sequencing, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing, and assessment of the inflammasome function of primary macrophages were performed. RESULTS: Studies revealed a novel mechanism of genome-wide gain-of-function that dysregulated transcription of 464 genes. Mechanisms involved dysregulated noncanonical inflammasome activation caused by decreased association with transcriptional repressors, leading to increased chromatin occupancy and considerable changes in transcriptional activity, including increased expression of NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3 protein (NLRP3) and constitutively expressed caspase-5 in macrophages. CONCLUSION: We describe a novel autoinflammatory disease with defective neutrophil function caused by a homozygous Arg219His mutation in the transcription factor C/EBPε. Mutated C/EBPε acts as a regulator of both the inflammasome and interferome, and the Arg219His mutation causes the first human monogenic neomorphic and noncanonical inflammasomopathy/immunodeficiency. The mechanism, including widely dysregulated transcription, is likely not unique for C/EBPε. Similar multiomics approaches should also be used in studying other transcription factor-associated diseases.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7322, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086297

RESUMO

Pathological mechanisms underlying Down syndrome (DS)/Trisomy 21, including dysregulation of essential signalling processes remain poorly understood. Combining bioinformatics with RNA and protein analysis, we identified downregulation of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway in the hippocampus of adult DS individuals with Alzheimer's disease and the 'Tc1' DS mouse model. Providing a potential underlying molecular pathway, we demonstrate that the chromosome 21 kinase DYRK1A regulates Wnt signalling via a novel bimodal mechanism. Under basal conditions, DYRK1A is a negative regulator of Wnt/ß-catenin. Following pathway activation, however, DYRK1A exerts the opposite effect, increasing signalling activity. In summary, we identified downregulation of hippocampal Wnt/ß-catenin signalling in DS, possibly mediated by a dose dependent effect of the chromosome 21-encoded kinase DYRK1A. Overall, we propose that dosage imbalance of the Hsa21 gene DYRK1A affects downstream Wnt target genes. Therefore, modulation of Wnt signalling may open unexplored avenues for DS and Alzheimer's disease treatment.

6.
J Mol Diagn ; 20(6): 883-892, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165204

RESUMO

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) offers new opportunities for noninvasive cancer management. Detecting ctDNA in plasma is challenging because it constitutes only a minor fraction of the total cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Pre-analytical factors affect cfDNA levels contributed from leukocyte lysis, hence the ability to detect low-frequency mutant alleles. This study investigates the effects of the delay in processing, storage temperatures, different blood collection tubes, centrifugation protocols, and sample shipment on cfDNA levels. Peripheral blood (n = 231) from cancer patients (n = 62) were collected into K3EDTA or Cell-free DNA BCT tubes and analyzed by digital PCR, targeted amplicon, or shallow whole-genome sequencing. To assess pre-analytic effects, plasma was processed under different conditions after 0, 6, 24, 48, 96 hours, and 1 week at room temperature or 4°C, or using different centrifugation protocols. Digital PCR showed that cfDNA levels increased gradually with time in K3EDTA tubes, but were stable in BCT tubes. K3EDTA samples stored at 4°C showed less variation than room temperature storage, but levels were elevated compared with BCT. A second centrifugation at 3000 × g gave similar cfDNA yields compared with higher-speed centrifugation. Next-generation sequencing showed negligible differences in background error or copy number changes between K3EDTA and BCT, or following shipment in BCT. This study provides insights into the effects of sample processing on ctDNA analysis.

7.
Science ; 361(6404): 810-813, 2018 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026316

RESUMO

RIPK1 (receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase 1) is a master regulator of signaling pathways leading to inflammation and cell death and is of medical interest as a drug target. We report four patients from three unrelated families with complete RIPK1 deficiency caused by rare homozygous mutations. The patients suffered from recurrent infections, early-onset inflammatory bowel disease, and progressive polyarthritis. They had immunodeficiency with lymphopenia and altered production of various cytokines revealed by whole-blood assays. In vitro, RIPK1-deficient cells showed impaired mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and cytokine secretion and were prone to necroptosis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation reversed cytokine production defects and resolved clinical symptoms in one patient. Thus, RIPK1 plays a critical role in the human immune system.


Assuntos
Artrite/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Alelos , Artrite/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Linfopenia/genética , Masculino , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Linhagem , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia
8.
EMBO J ; 37(11)2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764981

RESUMO

TDP-43 (encoded by the gene TARDBP) is an RNA binding protein central to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, how TARDBP mutations trigger pathogenesis remains unknown. Here, we use novel mouse mutants carrying point mutations in endogenous Tardbp to dissect TDP-43 function at physiological levels both in vitro and in vivo Interestingly, we find that mutations within the C-terminal domain of TDP-43 lead to a gain of splicing function. Using two different strains, we are able to separate TDP-43 loss- and gain-of-function effects. TDP-43 gain-of-function effects in these mice reveal a novel category of splicing events controlled by TDP-43, referred to as "skiptic" exons, in which skipping of constitutive exons causes changes in gene expression. In vivo, this gain-of-function mutation in endogenous Tardbp causes an adult-onset neuromuscular phenotype accompanied by motor neuron loss and neurodegenerative changes. Furthermore, we have validated the splicing gain-of-function and skiptic exons in ALS patient-derived cells. Our findings provide a novel pathogenic mechanism and highlight how TDP-43 gain of function and loss of function affect RNA processing differently, suggesting they may act at different disease stages.

9.
PLoS Genet ; 14(5): e1007329, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795570

RESUMO

As part of a broader collaborative network of exome sequencing studies, we developed a jointly called data set of 5,685 Ashkenazi Jewish exomes. We make publicly available a resource of site and allele frequencies, which should serve as a reference for medical genetics in the Ashkenazim (hosted in part at https://ibd.broadinstitute.org, also available in gnomAD at http://gnomad.broadinstitute.org). We estimate that 34% of protein-coding alleles present in the Ashkenazi Jewish population at frequencies greater than 0.2% are significantly more frequent (mean 15-fold) than their maximum frequency observed in other reference populations. Arising via a well-described founder effect approximately 30 generations ago, this catalog of enriched alleles can contribute to differences in genetic risk and overall prevalence of diseases between populations. As validation we document 148 AJ enriched protein-altering alleles that overlap with "pathogenic" ClinVar alleles (table available at https://github.com/macarthur-lab/clinvar/blob/master/output/clinvar.tsv), including those that account for 10-100 fold differences in prevalence between AJ and non-AJ populations of some rare diseases, especially recessive conditions, including Gaucher disease (GBA, p.Asn409Ser, 8-fold enrichment); Canavan disease (ASPA, p.Glu285Ala, 12-fold enrichment); and Tay-Sachs disease (HEXA, c.1421+1G>C, 27-fold enrichment; p.Tyr427IlefsTer5, 12-fold enrichment). We next sought to use this catalog, of well-established relevance to Mendelian disease, to explore Crohn's disease, a common disease with an estimated two to four-fold excess prevalence in AJ. We specifically attempt to evaluate whether strong acting rare alleles, particularly protein-truncating or otherwise large effect-size alleles, enriched by the same founder-effect, contribute excess genetic risk to Crohn's disease in AJ, and find that ten rare genetic risk factors in NOD2 and LRRK2 are enriched in AJ (p < 0.005), including several novel contributing alleles, show evidence of association to CD. Independently, we find that genomewide common variant risk defined by GWAS shows a strong difference between AJ and non-AJ European control population samples (0.97 s.d. higher, p<10-16). Taken together, the results suggest coordinated selection in AJ population for higher CD risk alleles in general. The results and approach illustrate the value of exome sequencing data in case-control studies along with reference data sets like ExAC (sites VCF available via FTP at ftp.broadinstitute.org/pub/ExAC_release/release0.3/) to pinpoint genetic variation that contributes to variable disease predisposition across populations.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Judeus/genética , Doenças Raras/genética , Algoritmos , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0193802, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29543828

RESUMO

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis is being incorporated into cancer care; notably in profiling patients to guide treatment decisions. Responses to targeted therapies have been observed in patients with actionable mutations detected in plasma DNA at variant allele fractions (VAFs) below 0.5%. Highly sensitive methods are therefore required for optimal clinical use. To enable objective assessment of assay performance, detailed analytical validation is required. We developed the InVisionFirst™ assay, an assay based on enhanced tagged amplicon sequencing (eTAm-Seq™) technology to profile 36 genes commonly mutated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other cancer types for actionable genomic alterations in cell-free DNA. The assay has been developed to detect point mutations, indels, amplifications and gene fusions that commonly occur in NSCLC. For analytical validation, two 10mL blood tubes were collected from NSCLC patients and healthy volunteer donors. In addition, contrived samples were used to represent a wide spectrum of genetic aberrations and VAFs. Samples were analyzed by multiple operators, at different times and using different reagent Lots. Results were compared with digital PCR (dPCR). The InVisionFirst assay demonstrated an excellent limit of detection, with 99.48% sensitivity for SNVs present at VAF range 0.25%-0.33%, 92.46% sensitivity for indels at 0.25% VAF and a high rate of detection at lower frequencies while retaining high specificity (99.9997% per base). The assay also detected ALK and ROS1 gene fusions, and DNA amplifications in ERBB2, FGFR1, MET and EGFR with high sensitivity and specificity. Comparison between the InVisionFirst assay and dPCR in a series of cancer patients showed high concordance. This analytical validation demonstrated that the InVisionFirst assay is highly sensitive, specific and robust, and meets analytical requirements for clinical applications.


Assuntos
Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Mutação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Cell Rep ; 22(13): 3401-3408, 2018 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590610

RESUMO

Transcriptional analysis of brain tissue from people with molecularly defined causes of obesity may highlight disease mechanisms and therapeutic targets. We performed RNA sequencing of hypothalamus from individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a genetic obesity syndrome characterized by severe hyperphagia. We found that upregulated genes overlap with the transcriptome of mouse Agrp neurons that signal hunger, while downregulated genes overlap with the expression profile of Pomc neurons activated by feeding. Downregulated genes are expressed mainly in neuronal cells and contribute to neurogenesis, neurotransmitter release, and synaptic plasticity, while upregulated, predominantly microglial genes are involved in inflammatory responses. This transcriptional signature may be mediated by reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression. Additionally, we implicate disruption of alternative splicing as a potential molecular mechanism underlying neuronal dysfunction in PWS. Transcriptomic analysis of the human hypothalamus may identify neural mechanisms involved in energy homeostasis and potential therapeutic targets for weight loss.

12.
JCI Insight ; 3(5)2018 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29515032

RESUMO

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation induced by the influx of donor-derived effector T cells (TE) into peripheral tissues. Current treatment strategies rely on targeting systemic T cells; however, the precise location and nature of instructions that program TE to become pathogenic and trigger injury are unknown. We therefore used weighted gene coexpression network analysis to construct an unbiased spatial map of TE differentiation during the evolution of GVHD and identified wide variation in effector programs in mice and humans according to location. Idiosyncrasy of effector programming in affected organs did not result from variation in T cell receptor repertoire or the selection of optimally activated TE. Instead, TE were reprogrammed by tissue-autonomous mechanisms in target organs for site-specific proinflammatory functions that were highly divergent from those primed in lymph nodes. In the skin, we combined the correlation-based network with a module-based differential expression analysis and showed that Langerhans cells provided in situ instructions for a Notch-dependent T cell gene cluster critical for triggering local injury. Thus, the principal determinant of TE pathogenicity in GVHD is the final destination, highlighting the need for target organ-specific approaches to block immunopathology while avoiding global immune suppression.

13.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0194630, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547634

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Detection and monitoring of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is rapidly becoming a diagnostic, prognostic and predictive tool in cancer patient care. A growing number of gene targets have been identified as diagnostic or actionable, requiring the development of reliable technology that provides analysis of multiple genes in parallel. We have developed the InVision™ liquid biopsy platform which utilizes enhanced TAm-Seq™ (eTAm-Seq™) technology, an amplicon-based next generation sequencing method for the identification of clinically-relevant somatic alterations at low frequency in ctDNA across a panel of 35 cancer-related genes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present analytical validation of the eTAm-Seq technology across two laboratories to determine the reproducibility of mutation identification. We assess the quantitative performance of eTAm-Seq technology for analysis of single nucleotide variants in clinically-relevant genes as compared to digital PCR (dPCR), using both established DNA standards and novel full-process control material. RESULTS: The assay detected mutant alleles down to 0.02% AF, with high per-base specificity of 99.9997%. Across two laboratories, analysis of samples with optimal amount of DNA detected 94% mutations at 0.25%-0.33% allele fraction (AF), with 90% of mutations detected for samples with lower amounts of input DNA. CONCLUSIONS: These studies demonstrate that eTAm-Seq technology is a robust and reproducible technology for the identification and quantification of somatic mutations in circulating tumor DNA, and support its use in clinical applications for precision medicine.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/análise , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Mutação , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Adulto , Alelos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/análise , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Masculino , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/química , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Hum Mutat ; 39(1): 80-91, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28967191

RESUMO

Retinal dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of disorders of visual function leading to partial or complete blindness. We report the genetic basis of an unusual retinal dystrophy in five families with affected females and no affected males. Heterozygous missense variants were identified in the X-linked phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase 1 (PRPS1) gene: c.47C > T, p.(Ser16Phe); c.586C > T, p.(Arg196Trp); c.641G > C, p.(Arg214Pro); and c.640C > T, p.(Arg214Trp). Missense variants in PRPS1 are usually associated with disease in male patients, including Arts syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth, and nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness. In our study families, affected females manifested a retinal dystrophy with interocular asymmetry. Three unrelated females from these families had hearing loss leading to a diagnosis of Usher syndrome. Other neurological manifestations were also observed in three individuals. Our data highlight the unexpected X-linked inheritance of retinal degeneration in females caused by variants in PRPS1 and suggest that tissue-specific skewed X-inactivation or variable levels of pyrophosphate synthetase-1 deficiency are the underlying mechanism(s). We speculate that the absence of affected males in the study families suggests that some variants may be male embryonic lethal when inherited in the hemizygous state. The unbiased nature of next-generation sequencing enables all possible modes of inheritance to be considered for association of gene variants with novel phenotypic presentation.


Assuntos
Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Degeneração Retiniana/diagnóstico , Degeneração Retiniana/genética , Ribose-Fosfato Pirofosfoquinase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Conformação Proteica , Ribose-Fosfato Pirofosfoquinase/química , Adulto Jovem
16.
Ophthalmic Genet ; 39(2): 236-241, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29039721

RESUMO

Intoduction: Inherited cataract, opacification of the lens, is the most common worldwide cause of blindness in children. We aimed to identify the genetic cause of autosomal dominant (AD) posterior nuclear cataract in a four generation British family. METHODS: Whole genome sequence (WGS) was performed on two affected and one unaffected individual of the family and further validated by direct sequencing. Haplotype analysis was performed via genotying. RESULTS: A splice-site mutation c.2826-9G>A in the gene EPHA2, encoding EPH receptor A2 was identified and found to co-segregate with disease. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a recurrent splice-site mutation c.2826-9G>A in EPHA2 causing isolated posterior nuclear cataract, providing evidence of further phenotypic heterogeneity associated with this variant.

17.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2863, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30619256

RESUMO

Background: The auto-inflammation and phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2)-associated antibody deficiency and immune dysregulation (APLAID) syndrome is a rare primary immunodeficiency caused by a gain-of-function mutation S707Y in the PLCG2 gene previously described in two patients from one family. The APLAID patients presented with early-onset blistering skin lesions, posterior uveitis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and recurrent sinopulmonary infections caused by a humoral defect, but lacked circulating autoantibodies and had no cold-induced urticaria, contrary to the patients with the related PLAID syndrome. Case: We describe a new APLAID patient who presented with vesiculopustular rash in the 1st weeks of life, followed by IBD, posterior uveitis, recurrent chest infections, interstitial pneumonitis, and also had sensorineural deafness and cutis laxa. Her disease has been refractory to most treatments, including IL1 blockers and a trial with ruxolitinib has been attempted. Results: In this patient, we found a unique de novo heterozygous missense L848P mutation in the PLCG2 gene, predicted to affect the PLCγ2 structure. Similarly to S707Y, the L848P mutation led to the increased basal and EGF-stimulated PLCγ2 activity in vitro. Whole blood assays showed reduced production of IFN-γ and IL-17 in response to polyclonal T-cell stimulation and reduced production of IL-10 and IL-1ß after LPS stimulation. Reduced IL-1ß levels and the lack of clinical response to treatment with IL-1 blockers argue against NLRP3 inflammasome hyperactivation being the main mechanism mediating the APLAID pathogenesis. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that L848P is novel a gain-of-function mutation that leads to PLCγ2 activation and suggest cutis laxa as a possible clinical manifestations of the APLAID syndrome.


Assuntos
Cútis Laxa/genética , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fosfolipase C gama/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Cútis Laxa/complicações , Cútis Laxa/enzimologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/complicações , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/enzimologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/enzimologia , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Masculino , Linhagem , Fosfolipase C gama/química , Fosfolipase C gama/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
18.
Brain ; 140(11): 2797-2805, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29053787

RESUMO

Mutations in FUS are causative for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with a dominant mode of inheritance. In trying to model FUS-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in mouse it is clear that FUS is dosage-sensitive and effects arise from overexpression per se in transgenic strains. Novel models are required that maintain physiological levels of FUS expression and that recapitulate the human disease-with progressive loss of motor neurons in heterozygous animals. Here, we describe a new humanized FUS-ALS mouse with a frameshift mutation, which fulfils both criteria: the FUS Delta14 mouse. Heterozygous animals express mutant humanized FUS protein at physiological levels and have adult onset progressive motor neuron loss and denervation of neuromuscular junctions. Additionally, we generated a novel antibody to the unique human frameshift peptide epitope, allowing specific identification of mutant FUS only. Using our new FUSDelta14 ALS mouse-antibody system we show that neurodegeneration occurs in the absence of FUS protein aggregation. FUS mislocalization increases as disease progresses, and mutant FUS accumulates at the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Further, transcriptomic analyses show progressive changes in ribosomal protein levels and mitochondrial function as early disease stages are initiated. Thus, our new physiological mouse model has provided novel insight into the early pathogenesis of FUS-ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Camundongos , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/genética , Proteína FUS de Ligação a RNA/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Animais , Retículo Endoplasmático Rugoso/metabolismo , Dosagem de Genes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Junção Neuromuscular/metabolismo , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteína FUS de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética
19.
Cancer Med ; 6(10): 2194-2202, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28834325

RESUMO

Conventional chondrosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor in adults. Prognosis corresponds with tumor grade but remains variable, especially for individuals with grade (G) II disease. There are currently no biomarkers available for monitoring or prognostication of chondrosarcoma. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has recently emerged as a promising biomarker for a broad range of tumor types. To date, little has been done to study the presence of ctDNA and its potential utility in the management of sarcomas, including chondrosarcoma. In this study, we have assessed ctDNA levels in a cohort of 71 patients, 32 with sarcoma, including 29 individuals with central chondrosarcoma (CS) and 39 with locally aggressive and benign bone and soft tissue tumors, using digital PCR. In patients with CS, ctDNA was detected in pretreatment samples in 14/29 patients, which showed clear correlation with tumor grade as demonstrated by the detection of ctDNA in all patients with GIII and dedifferentiated disease (n = 6) and in 8/17 patients with GII disease, but never associated with GI CS. Notably detection of ctDNA preoperatively in GII disease was associated with a poor outcome. A total of 14 patients with CS had ctDNA levels assessed at multiple time points and in most patients there was a clear reduction following surgical removal. This research lays the foundation for larger studies to assess the utility of ctDNA for chondrosarcoma diagnosis, prognostication, early detection of residual disease and monitoring disease progression.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Condrossarcoma/diagnóstico , Condrossarcoma/genética , Condrossarcoma/mortalidade , DNA Tumoral Circulante , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Mutação , Neoplasia Residual/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Prognóstico
20.
BMC Med Genomics ; 10(1): 38, 2017 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28549443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reliable exon recognition is key to the splicing of pre-mRNAs into mature mRNAs. TDP-43 is an RNA-binding protein whose nuclear loss and cytoplasmic aggregation are a hallmark pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (ALS/FTD). TDP-43 depletion causes the aberrant inclusion of cryptic exons into a range of transcripts, but their extent, relevance to disease pathogenesis and whether they are caused by other RNA-binding proteins implicated in ALS/FTD are unknown. METHODS: We developed an analysis pipeline to discover and quantify cryptic exon inclusion and applied it to publicly available human and murine RNA-sequencing data. RESULTS: We detected widespread cryptic splicing in TDP-43 depletion datasets but almost none in another ALS/FTD-linked protein FUS. Sequence motif and iCLIP analysis of cryptic exons demonstrated that they are bound by TDP-43. Unlike the cryptic exons seen in hnRNP C depletion, those repressed by TDP-43 cannot be linked to transposable elements. Cryptic exons are poorly conserved and inclusion overwhelmingly leads to nonsense-mediated decay of the host transcript, with reduced transcript levels observed in differential expression analysis. RNA-protein interaction data on 73 different RNA-binding proteins showed that, in addition to TDP-43, 7 specifically bind TDP-43 linked cryptic exons. This suggests that TDP-43 competes with other splicing factors for binding to cryptic exons and can repress cryptic exon inclusion. CONCLUSIONS: Our quantitative analysis pipeline confirms the presence of cryptic exons during the depletion of TDP-43 but not FUS providing new insight into to RNA-processing dysfunction as a cause or consequence in ALS/FTD.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Processamento de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Demência Frontotemporal/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo
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