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J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 34(10): 2648-2654, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389455


OBJECTIVES: Thyroid dysfunction has been shown to be associated with increased all-cause mortality and severity of chronic heart failure in critical illness and severe cardiac diseases. The present study was conducted to ascertain the relationship between perioperative free triiodothyronine and free tetraiodothyronine (fT4) levels and postoperative adverse outcomes after heart transplantation (HTX). DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. SETTING: Single-center study in a quaternary care university clinical center. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised adult patients who underwent HTX between 2015 and 2019 and had at least 1 perioperative thyroid hormone laboratory test on the day of surgery or in the 24 hours before/after the procedure (free triiodothyronine, fT4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone). INTERVENTIONS: No interventions were applied. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was primary graft dysfunction (PGD), defined by the consensus conference of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. A total of 151 patients were included in the final analyses. Twenty-nine (19.2%) patients had PGD. Fourteen (9.3%) patients had low fT4 levels. An independent association was found between fT4 and PGD (odds ratio 6.49; 95% confidence interval 2.26-18.61; p = 0.001), with adjusted multivariate Cox regression models. CONCLUSION: The perioperative fT4 level could be a prognostic marker of adverse outcomes in HTX. The authors suggest appropriate perioperative monitoring of fT4 levels. Additional research is warranted to examine the optimal timing, dosage, and method of replacement.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 34(6): 1622-1635, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276758


SEPARATION from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) after cardiac surgery is a progressive transition from full mechanical circulatory and respiratory support to spontaneous mechanical activity of the lungs and heart. During the separation phase, measurements of cardiac performance with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) provide the rationale behind the diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making process. In many cases, it is possible to predict a complex separation from CPB, such as when there is known preoperative left or right ventricular dysfunction, bleeding, hypovolemia, vasoplegia, pulmonary hypertension, or owing to technical complications related to the surgery. Prompt diagnosis and therapeutic decisions regarding mechanical or pharmacologic support have to be made within a few minutes. In fact, a complex separation from CPB if not adequately treated leads to a poor outcome in the vast majority of cases. Unfortunately, no specific criteria defining complex separation from CPB and no management guidelines for these patients currently exist. Taking into account the above considerations, the aim of the present review is to describe the most common scenarios associated with a complex CPB separation and to suggest strategies, pharmacologic agents, and para-corporeal mechanical devices that can be adopted to manage patients with complex separation from CPB. The routine management strategies of complex CPB separation of 17 large cardiac centers from 14 countries in 5 continents will also be described.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 34(2): 512-520, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668743


This article reviews fellowship training in adult cardiac, thoracic, and vascular anesthesia and critical care from the perspective of European program initiators and educational leaders in these subspecialties together with current training fellows. Currently, the European Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesiology (EACTA) network has 20 certified fellowship positions each year in 10 hosting centers within 7 European countries, with 2 positions outside Europe (São Paulo, Brazil). Since 2009, 42 fellows have completed the fellowship training. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the rationale, requirements, and contributions of the fellows, in the context of the developmental progression of the EACTA fellowship in adult cardiac, thoracic, and vascular anesthesia and critical care from inception to present. A summary of the program structure, accreditation of host centers, requirements to join the program, teaching and assessment tools, certification, and training requirements in transesophageal electrocardiography is outlined. In addition, a description of the current state of EACTA fellowships across Europe, and a perspective for future steps and challenges to the educational program, is provided.